Insulin secretion as a determinant of pancreatic cancer risk.
Med Hypotheses. 2001 Aug;57(2):146-50. PMID: 11461162
M F McCarty
New epidemiology confirms that glucose intolerance is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and that this association cannot be accounted for by an adverse impact of early pancreatic cancer on beta cell function. Previous reports indicate that risk for pancreatic cancer is increased in adult-onset diabetics. Since streptozotocin diabetes inhibits carcinogen-mediated induction of pancreatic cancer in hamsters, the most reasonable interpretation of these findings is that insulin (or some other beta cell product) acts as a promoter for pancreatic carcinogenesis. This view is consistent with a report that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas express insulin receptors that can stimulate mitosis; an additional possibility is that high insulin levels indirectly promote pancreatic carcinogenesis by boosting effective IGF-I activity via hepatic actions. In international ecologic epidemiology, pancreatic cancer rates correlate tightly with dietary intake of animal products; this may reflect the fact that vegan diets are associated with low diurnal insulin secretion. There is also suggestive evidence that macrobiotic vegan diets, which are low in glycemic index, may increase mean survival time in pancreatic cancer. However, other types of diets associated with decreased postprandial insulin response, such as high-protein diets or 'Mediterranean' diets high in oleic acid, may also have the potential for pancreatic cancer prevention. The huge increases of age-adjusted pancreatic cancer mortality in Japan and among African-Americans during the last century imply that pancreatic cancer is substantially preventable; a low-insulin-response diet coupled with exercise training, weight control, and smoking avoidance, commendable for a great many other reasons, may slash pancreatic cancer mortality dramatically. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2001
A 6-month follow-up study of the randomized controlled Ma-Pi macrobiotic dietary intervention (MADIAB trial) in type 2 diabetes.
Nutr Diabetes. 2016 Aug 15;6(8):e222
Authors: Soare A, Del Toro R, Khazrai YM, Di Mauro A, Fallucca S, Angeletti S, Skrami E, Gesuita R, Tuccinardi D, Manfrini S, Fallucca F, Pianesi M, Pozzilli P
BACKGROUND: In the MADIAB trial (a 21-day randomized, controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)), intervention with the Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet resulted in significantly greater improvements in metabolic control compared with a standard recommended diet for patients with T2D. We report on a 6-month follow-up study, which investigated, whether these benefits extended beyond the 21-day intensive dietary intervention, in real-world conditions.
SUBJECTS: At the end of the MADIAB trial (baseline of this follow-up study), all participants continued their assigned diet (Ma-Pi or control) for 6 months. The Ma-Pi 2 group followed the Ma-Pi 4 diet during this follow-up study. Forty of the original 51 subjects (78.4%) participated in the follow-up (body mass index, 27-45 kg m(-2); age, 40-75 years). Primary outcome was percentage change from baseline in HbA1c; secondary outcomes were anthropometric data and lipid panel.
RESULTS: A significantly greater median percentage reduction was observed for HbA1c in the Ma-Pi group (-11.27% (95% confidence interval (CI): -10.17; -12.36)) compared with the control group (-5.88% (95% CI: -3.79; -7.98)) (P < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increased in both groups with no differences between groups (P=0.331 and P=0.082, respectively). After correcting for age and gender, the Ma-Pi diet was associated with a higher percentage reduction in HbA1c (95% CI: 2.56; 7.61) and body weight (95% CI: 0.40; 3.99), and a higher percentage increase in LDL cholesterol (95% CI: -1.52; -33.16). However, all participants' total and LDL cholesterol levels remained within recommended ranges (<200 mg dl(-1) and <100 mg dl(-1), respectively). The Ma-Pi diet group achieved the target median HbA1c value (<5.7% (39 mmol mol(-1))) at 6 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Both the Ma-Pi and control diets maintained their benefits beyond the 21-day intensive monitored intervention over a 6-month follow-up in real-world conditions. The Ma-Pi diet resulted in greater improvement in glycemic control.
PMID: 27525817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]