Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Paleolithic/Stone Age Diet


Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

Abstract Title: Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. Abstract Source: Nutr Res. 2015 Jun ;35(6):474-9. Epub 2015 May 14. PMID: 26003334 Abstract Author(s): Robert L Pastore, Judith T Brooks, John W Carbone Article Affiliation: Robert L Pastore Abstract: Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P<.001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P<.001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. Article Published Date : May 31, 2015

Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study.

Abstract Title: Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study. Abstract Source: Br J Nutr. 2015 Feb 28 ;113(4):574-84. Epub 2015 Feb 9. PMID: 25661189 Abstract Author(s): H Frances J Bligh, Ian F Godsland, Gary Frost, Karl J Hunter, Peter Murray, Katrina MacAulay, Della Hyliands, Duncan C S Talbot, John Casey, Theo P J Mulder, Mark J Berry Article Affiliation: H Frances J Bligh Abstract: There is evidence for health benefits from 'Palaeolithic' diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity. Article Published Date : Feb 27, 2015

Diet in acne: further evidence for the role of nutrient signalling in acne pathogenesis.

Abstract Title: Diet in acne: further evidence for the role of nutrient signalling in acne pathogenesis. Abstract Source: Acta Derm Venereol. 2012 May ;92(3):228-31. PMID: 22419445 Abstract Author(s): Bodo C Melnik Article Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Recent evidence underlines the role of Western diet in the pathogenesis of acne. Acne is absent in populations consuming Palaeolithic diets with low glycaemic load and no consumption of milk or dairy products. Two randomized controlled studies, one of which is presented in this issue of Acta Dermato-Venereologica, have provided evidence for the beneficial therapeutic effects of low glycaemic load diets in acne. Epidemiological evidence confirms that milk consumption has an acne-promoting or acne-aggravating effect. Recent progress in understanding the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) allows a new view of nutrient signalling in acne by both high glycaemic load and increased insulin-, IGF-1-, and leucine signalling due to milk protein consumption. Acne should be regarded as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization, like obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer induced by Western diet. Early dietary counselling of teenage acne patients is thus a great opportunity for dermatology, which will not only help to improve acne but may reduce the long-term adverse effects of Western diet on more serious mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2012

Dietary exposure to fumonisins and evaluation of nutrient intake in a group of adult celiac patients on a gluten-free diet.

Abstract Title: Dietary exposure to fumonisins and evaluation of nutrient intake in a group of adult celiac patients on a gluten-free diet. Abstract Source: Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Apr ;56(4):632-40. PMID: 22495987 Abstract Author(s): Chiara Dall'asta, Alessia Pia Scarlato, Gianni Galaverna, Furio Brighenti, Nicoletta Pellegrini Article Affiliation: Department of Organic and Industrial Chemistry, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. Abstract: SCOPE: The main objectives of this study were to estimate dietary fumonisin exposure and nutrient intake in a group of patients diagnosed with celiac disease compared to non-celiac subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: The fumonisin level in 118 frequently consumed corn-based products was determined and dietary habits were recorded using a 7-day weighed food record. Data were then compared to those obtained for a control group. The fumonisin intake in the celiac patients was significantly higher than in controls, with mean values (± SE) of 0.395 ± 0.049 and 0.029 ± 0.006 μg/kg body weight per day, respectively. With regard to nutritional habits, celiac patients showed a preference for a high fat diet, coupled with a high intake of sweets and soft drinks and a low intake of vegetables, iron, calcium and folate. CONCLUSION: These findings may have serious health implications for the celiac population due to the widespread occurrence of fumonisins in most of the widely consumed gluten-free products, leading to continuous exposure to this particular mycotoxin. Moreover, the recorded nutritional quality of the celiac patient's diet raises concerns regarding its long-term adequacy and its potential impact on chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2012

Evaluation of biological and clinical potential of paleolithic diet

Abstract Title: [Evaluation of biological and clinical potential of paleolithic diet]. Abstract Source: Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012 ;63(1):9-15. PMID: 22642064 Abstract Author(s): Lukasz M Kowalski, Jacek Bujko Article Affiliation: Wydział Nauk o Zywieniu Człowieka i Konsumpcji Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warszawa. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Accumulating evidences suggest that foods that were regularly consumed during the human primates and evolution, in particular during the Paleolithic era (2.6-0.01 x 10(6) years ago), may be optimal for the prevention and treatment of some chronic diseases. It has been postulated that fundamental changes in the diet and other lifestyle conditions that occurred after the Neolithic Revolution, and more recently with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution are too recent taking into account the evolutionary time scale for the human genome to have completely adjust. In contemporary Western populations at least 70% of daily energy intake is provided by foods that were rarely or never consumed by Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, including grains, dairy products as well as refined sugars and highly processed fats. Additionally, compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets, based on recently published estimates of macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet, contained more proteins and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and less linoleic acid. Observational studies of hunter-gatherers and other non-western populations lend support to the notion that a Paleolithic type diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cancer, acne vulgaris and myopia. Moreover, preliminary intervention studies using contemporary diet based on Paleolithic food groups (meat, fish, shellfish, fresh fruits and vegetables, roots, tubers, eggs, and nuts), revealed promising results including favorable changes in risk factors, such as weight, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, glycated haemoglobin (HbAlc), blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles. Low calcium intake, which is often considered as a potential disadvantage of the Paleolithic diet model, should be weighed against the low content of phytates and the low content of sodium chloride, as well as the high amount of net base yielding vegetables and fruits. Increasing number of evidences supports the view that intake of high glycemic foods and insulinotropic dairy products is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of acne vulgaris in Western countries. In this context, diets that mimic the nutritional characteristics of diets found in hunter-gatherers and other non-western populations may have therapeutic value in treating acne vulgaris. Additionally, more studies is needed to determine the impact of gliadin, specific lectins and saponins on intestinal permeability and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Paleolithic-Stone Age Diet

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Lifestyle and Behavioral Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Related Articles Lifestyle and Behavioral Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017 Aug;26(8):836-848 Authors: Brennan L, Teede H, Skouteris H, Linardon J, Hill B, Moran L Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition with serious physiological and psychological health consequences. It affects women across their reproductive lifespan and is associated with pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and large gestational-age babies. PCOS is associated with excess weight gain, which, in turn, exacerbates the health burden of PCOS. Therefore, weight management, including a modest weight loss, maintenance of weight loss, prevention of weight gain, and prevention of excess gestational weight gain, is a first-line treatment for women with PCOS during and independent of pregnancy. Despite evidence-based guidelines, international position statements, and Cochrane reviews promoting lifestyle interventions for PCOS, the optimal complexity, intensity, and behavioral components of lifestyle interventions for women with PCOS are not well understood. The focus of this narrative review is the evidence supporting the use of behavioral strategies in weight management interventions for reproductive-aged women to apply to PCOS. Behavioral theories, behavior change strategies, and psychological correlates of weight management have been thoroughly explored in weight loss interventions in the general population, reproductive-aged women, and peri-natal women. This article uses this parallel body of research to inform suggestions regarding lifestyle interventions in women with PCOS. Outcomes of weight management programs in women with PCOS are likely to be improved with the inclusion of behavioral and psychological strategies, including goal setting, self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, and relapse prevention. Strategies targeting improved motivation, social support, and psychological well-being are also important. These can be applied to the clinical management of women with PCOS at different reproductive life stages. PMID: 28570835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Endometrial Cancer: Is This a New Disease?

Related Articles Endometrial Cancer: Is This a New Disease? Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2017;37:435-442 Authors: Moore K, Brewer MA Abstract The incidence of endometrial cancer is increasing, and the age of onset is younger than in prior years. Although endometrial cancer still occurs more commonly in older women, for whom the mortality rate is increasing, it also is being diagnosed in younger and younger women. The underlying cause of the increase in incidence is the epidemic of obesity and the resulting hyperinsulinemia. Conservative treatment may be indicated for younger women who wish to retain their fertility. Lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can modulate the risk of developing endometrial cancer as well as prevent recurrence and other comorbidities associated with obesity. PMID: 28561715 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Association between renal function and chemotherapy-related toxicity in older adults with cancer.

Related Articles Association between renal function and chemotherapy-related toxicity in older adults with cancer. J Geriatr Oncol. 2017 Mar;8(2):96-101 Authors: Peterson LL, Hurria A, Feng T, Mohile SG, Owusu C, Klepin HD, Gross CP, Lichtman SM, Gajra A, Glezerman I, Katheria V, Zavala L, Smith DD, Sun CL, Tew WP Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between renal function (RF) and chemotherapy-related toxicity (CRT) in older adults with cancer and to compare the effect of different RF formulas and body weight measurements on this association. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicenter study of patients ≥ age 65 who were starting a new chemotherapy regimen. RF was estimated with 4 formulas (modified Jelliffe [Jelliffe], Cockcroft-Gault [CG], Wright, and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD]), using actual, ideal and adjusted body weights for 492 patients. The association between baseline RF and grade 3-5 CRT was evaluated by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: As a continuous variable, decreased creatinine clearance (CrCl) calculated by CG with actual body weight was associated with increased odds of CRT (OR 1.12, P<0.01; 95% CI 1.04-1.20) indicating that on average for every 10mL/min decrease in CrCl the odds of CRT increased by 12%. Very low RF (in the lowest 10%) with all formulas (CG, Jelliffe, Wright and MDRD) was associated with increased odds for CRT. This association is independent of the type of chemotherapy received (those requiring dose adjustment for renal function vs not). Neither primary dose reduction nor chemotherapy duration was associated with CRT. Serum creatinine alone was not associated with increased odds of CRT (OR 0.67, P=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased RF is associated with increased odds of CRT and should be considered when assessing risk of CRT in older adults with cancer. Serum creatinine alone is not adequate for risk assessment. PMID: 27856262 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Relative differences in resting-state brain connectivity associated with long term intensive lifestyle intervention.

Related Articles Relative differences in resting-state brain connectivity associated with long term intensive lifestyle intervention. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Dec;74:231-239 Authors: Casanova R, Hayasaka S, Saldana S, Bryan NR, Demos KE, Desiderio L, Erickson KI, Espeland MA, Nasrallah IM, Wadden T, Laurienti PJ, Action for Health In Diabetes Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Look AHEAD Brain Ancillary Study Research Group.(b) Abstract A number of studies have reported that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with alterations in resting-state activity and connectivity in the brain. There is also evidence that interventions involving physical activity and weight loss may affect brain functional connectivity. In this study, we examined the effects of nearly 10 years of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), designed to induce and sustain weight loss through lower caloric intake and increased physical activity, on resting-state networks in adults with T2DM. We performed a cross-sectional comparison of global and local characteristics from functional brain networks between individuals who had been randomly assigned to ILI or a control condition of health education and support. Upon examining brain networks from 312 participants (average age: 68.8 for ILI and 67.9 for controls), we found that ILI participants (N=160) had attenuated local efficiency at the network-level compared with controls (N=152). Although there was no group difference in the network-level global efficiency, we found that, among ILI participants, nodal global efficiency was elevated in left fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and pars opercularis of right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects were age-dependent, with more pronounced effects for older participants. Overall these results indicate that the individuals assigned to the ILI had brain networks with less regional and more global connectivity, particularly involving frontal lobes. Such patterns would support greater distributed information processing. Future studies are needed to determine if these differences are associated with age-related compensatory function in the ILI group or worse pathology in the control group. PMID: 27685338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

DNA-aptamers raised against AGEs as a blocker of various aging-related disorders.

Related Articles DNA-aptamers raised against AGEs as a blocker of various aging-related disorders. Glycoconj J. 2016 Aug;33(4):683-90 Authors: Yamagishi S, Taguchi K, Fukami K Abstract A non-enzymatic reaction between sugars or aldehydes and the amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributes to the aging of macromolecules, which could impair their structural integrity and function. This process begins with the conversion of reversible Schiff base adducts, and then to more stable, covalently-bound Amadori rearrangement products. Over a course of days to weeks, these early glycation products undergo further reactions, such as rearrangements and dehydration to become irreversibly crossed-linked, fluorescent protein derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The formation and accumulation of AGEs have been known to progress in a physiological aging process and at an accelerated rate under hyperglycemic, inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions. There is a growing body of evidence that AGEs and their receptor RAGE interaction play a role in the pathogenesis of various devastating disorders, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance, osteoporosis and cancer growth and metastasis. Furthermore, diet has been recently recognized as a major environmental source of AGEs that could also elicit pro-inflammatory reactions, thereby being involved in organ damage in vivo. Therefore, inhibition of AGE formation and/or blockade of the interaction of AGEs with RAGE may be a novel therapeutic target for aging-related disorders. This article discusses a potential utility of DNA-aptamers raised against AGEs for preventing aging and/or diabetes-associated organ damage, especially focusing on diabetic microvascular complications, vascular remodeling, metabolic derangements, and melanoma growth and expansion in animal models. PMID: 27338620 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]