Biofilm Composition and Threshold Concentration for Growth of Legionella pneumophila on Surfaces Exposed to Flowing Warm Tap Water without Disinfectant.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Mar 01;83(5):
Authors: van der Kooij D, Bakker GL, Italiaander R, Veenendaal HR, Wullings BA
Legionella pneumophila in potable water installations poses a potential health risk, but quantitative information about its replication in biofilms in relation to water quality is scarce. Therefore, biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in contact with tap water at 34 to 39°C was investigated under controlled hydraulic conditions in a model system inoculated with biofilm-grown L. pneumophila The biofilm on glass (average steady-state concentration, 23 ± 9 pg ATP cm-2) exposed to treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg C liter-1; 1 μg assimilable organic carbon [AOC] liter-1) did not support growth of the organism, which also disappeared from the biofilm on CPVC (49 ± 9 pg ATP cm-2) after initial growth. L. pneumophila attained a level of 4.3 log CFU cm-2 in the biofilms on glass (1,055 ± 225 pg ATP cm-2) and CPVC (2,755 ± 460 pg ATP cm-2) exposed to treated anaerobic groundwater (7.9 mg C liter-1; 10 μg AOC liter-1). An elevated biofilm concentration and growth of L. pneumophila were also observed with tap water from the laboratory. The Betaproteobacteria Piscinibacter and Methyloversatilis and amoeba-resisting Alphaproteobacteria predominated in the clones and isolates retrieved from the biofilms. In the biofilms, the Legionella colony count correlated significantly with the total cell count (TCC), heterotrophic plate count, ATP concentration, and presence of Vermamoeba vermiformis This amoeba was rarely detected at biofilm concentrations of <100 pg ATP cm-2 A threshold concentration of approximately 50 pg ATP cm-2 (TCC = 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 cells cm-2) was derived for growth of L. pneumophila in biofilms.IMPORTANCELegionella pneumophila is the etiologic agent in more than 10,000 cases of Legionnaires' disease that are reported annually worldwide and in most of the drinking water-associated disease outbreaks reported in the United States. The organism proliferates in biofilms on surfaces exposed to warm water in engineered freshwater installations. An investigation with a test system supplied with different types of warm drinking water without disinfectant under controlled hydraulic conditions showed that treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg liter-1 of organic carbon) induced a low biofilm concentration that supported no or very limited growth of L. pneumophila Elevated biofilm concentrations and L. pneumophila colony counts were observed on surfaces exposed to two types of extensively treated groundwater, containing 1.8 and 7.9 mg C liter-1 and complying with the microbial water quality criteria during distribution. Control measures in warm tap water installations are therefore essential for preventing growth of L. pneumophila.
PMID: 28062459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Identification of sixteen peptides reflecting heat and/or storage induced processes by profiling of commercial milk samples.
J Proteomics. 2016 Sep 16;147:66-75
Authors: Ebner J, Baum F, Pischetsrieder M
UNLABELLED: Peptide profiles of different drinking milk samples were examined to study how the peptide fingerprint of milk reflects processing conditions. The combination of a simple and fast method for peptide extraction using stage tips and MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the fast and easy generation and relative quantification of peptide fingerprints for high-temperature short-time (HTST), extended shelf life (ESL) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk of the same dairies. The relative quantity of 16 peptides changed as a function of increasing heat load. Additional heating experiments showed that among those, the intensity of peptide β-casein 196-209 (m/z 1460.9Da) was most heavily influenced by heat treatment indicating a putative marker peptide for milk processing conditions. Storage experiments with HTST- and UHT milk revealed that the differences between different types of milk samples were not only caused by the heating process. Relevant was also the proteolytic activity of enzymes during storage, which were differently influenced by the heat treatment. These results indicate that the peptide profile may be suitable to monitor processing as well as storage conditions of milk.
SIGNIFICANCE: In the present study, peptide profiling of different types of milk was carried out by MALDI-TOF-MS after stage-tip extraction and relative quantification using an internal reference peptide. Although MALDI-TOF-MS covers only part of the peptidome, the method is easy and quick and is, therefore, suited for routine analysis to address several aspects of food authenticity. Using this method, 16 native peptides were detected in milk that could be modulated by different industrial processes. Subsequent heating and storage experiments with pasteurized and UHT milk confirmed that these peptides are indeed related to the production or storage conditions of the respective products. Furthermore, the heating experiments revealed one peptide, namely the β-casein-derived sequence β-casein 196-209, which underwent particularly sensitive modulation by heat treatment. The present results indicate that the modulated peptides, and especially β-casein 196-209, may be suitable markers to monitor processing parameters for industrial milk production. Furthermore, the model experiments suggest mechanisms leading to the formation or degradation of peptides, which help to evaluate putative marker peptides.
PMID: 27016039 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]