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Influence of Upper-Body Exercise on the Fatigability of Human Respiratory Muscles.

Related Articles Influence of Upper-Body Exercise on the Fatigability of Human Respiratory Muscles. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Jul;49(7):1461-1472 Authors: Tiller NB, Campbell IG, Romer LM Abstract PURPOSE: Diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to contractile fatigue in response to high-intensity, whole-body exercise. This study assessed whether the ventilatory and mechanical loads imposed by high-intensity, upper-body exercise would be sufficient to elicit respiratory muscle fatigue. METHODS: Seven healthy men (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 4 yr, peak O2 uptake [V˙O2peak] = 31.9 ± 5.3 mL·kg·min) performed asynchronous arm-crank exercise to exhaustion at work rates equivalent to 30% (heavy) and 60% (severe) of the difference between gas exchange threshold and V˙O2peak. Contractile fatigue of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles was assessed by measuring pre- to postexercise changes in potentiated transdiaphragmatic and gastric twitch pressures (Pdi,tw and Pga,tw) evoked by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the cervical and thoracic nerves, respectively. RESULTS: Exercise time was 24.5 ± 5.8 min for heavy exercise and 9.8 ± 1.8 min for severe exercise. Ventilation over the final minute of heavy exercise was 73 ± 20 L·min (39% ± 11% maximum voluntary ventilation) and 99 ± 19 L·min (53% ± 11% maximum voluntary ventilation) for severe exercise. Mean Pdi,tw did not differ pre- to postexercise at either intensity (P > 0.05). Immediately (5-15 min) after severe exercise, mean Pga,tw was significantly lower than pre-exercise values (41 ± 13 vs 53 ± 15 cm H2O, P < 0.05), with the difference no longer significant after 25-35 min. Abdominal muscle fatigue (defined as ≥15% reduction in Pga,tw) occurred in 1/7 subjects after heavy exercise and 5/7 subjects after severe exercise. CONCLUSIONS: High-intensity, upper-body exercise elicits significant abdominal, but not diaphragm, muscle fatigue in healthy men. The increased magnitude and prevalence of fatigue during severe-intensity exercise is likely due to additional (nonrespiratory) loading of the thorax. PMID: 28288012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dexmedetomidine protects against learning and memory impairments caused by electroconvulsive shock in depressed rats: Involvement of the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B)-ERK signaling pathway.

Related Articles Dexmedetomidine protects against learning and memory impairments caused by electroconvulsive shock in depressed rats: Involvement of the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B)-ERK signaling pathway. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Sep 30;243:446-52 Authors: Gao X, Zhuang FZ, Qin SJ, Zhou L, Wang Y, Shen QF, Li M, Villarreal M, Benefield L, Gu SL, Ma TF Abstract Cognitive impairment is a common adverse effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) during treatment for severe depression. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a sedative-anesthetic drug, is used to treat post-ECT agitation. However, it is not known if DEX can protect against ECT-induced cognitive impairments. To address this, we used chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to establish a model of depression for ECT treatment. Our Morris water maze and sucrose preference test results suggest that DEX alleviates ECT-induced learning and memory impairments without altering the antidepressant efficacy of ECT. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of DEX, hippocampal expression of NR2B, p-ERK/ERK, p-CREB/CREB, and BDNF were quantified by western blotting. These results show that DEX suppresses over-activation of NR2B and enhances phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of ECT-treated depressed rats. Furthermore, DEX had no significant effect on ECT-induced increases in p-CREB and BDNF. Overall, our findings suggest that DEX ameliorates ECT-induced learning and memory impairments in depressed rats via the NR2B-ERK signaling cascade. Moreover, CREB/BDNF seems not appear to participate in the cognitive protective mechanisms of DEX during ECT treatment. PMID: 27455425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]