Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Behavioral Treatment

The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Emotional Freedom Techniques in Reducing Depression and Anxiety Among Adults: A Pilot Study.

Abstract Title: The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Emotional Freedom Techniques in Reducing Depression and Anxiety Among Adults: A Pilot Study. Abstract Source: Integr Med (Encinitas). 2016 Apr ;15(2):27-34. PMID: 27330487 Abstract Author(s): Hannah Chatwin, Peta Stapleton, Brett Porter, Sharon Devine, Terri Sheldon Article Affiliation: Hannah Chatwin Abstract: CONTEXT: The World Health Organization (WHO) places major depressive disorder (MDD), or depression, as the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide. Some studies have found that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the most superior approach in treating mild to severe symptoms. Recent literature has indicated a number of limitations to this therapeutic approach. An approach that has received increasing attention within the literature is the emotional freedom technique (EFT). OBJECTIVE: The current pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT and EFT in the treatment of depression and comorbid anxiety. DESIGN: The research team designed a pilot study structured as a randomized, controlled trial with 2 intervention arms. SETTING: The study took place at Bond University in Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n = 10) were local community members who had screened positive for a primary diagnosis of MDD. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to an 8-wk CBT or EFT treatment program, the intervention groups. A sample of individuals from the community was assessed for comparative purposes (control group) (n = 57). OUTCOME MEASURES: Pre- and postintervention, all participants were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) 6.0, and they completed the following validated questionnaires: (1) the Beck Depression Inventory, second edition (BDI-2) and (2) the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21). RESULTS: Findings revealed that both treatment approaches produced significant reductions in depressive symptoms, with the CBT group reporting a significant reduction postintervention, which was not maintained with time. The EFT group reported a delayed effect involving a significant reduction in symptoms at the 3- and 6-mo follow-ups only. Examination of the individual cases revealed clinically significant improvements in anxiety across both interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings provide evidence to suggest that EFT might be an effective treatment strategy worthy of further investigation. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2016

Reduction in behavior problems with omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8-16 years: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trial.

Abstract Title: Reduction in behavior problems with omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8-16 years: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trial. Abstract Source: J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 May ;56(5):509-20. Epub 2014 Aug 22. PMID: 25146492 Abstract Author(s): Adrian Raine, Jill Portnoy, Jianghong Liu, Tashneem Mahoomed, Joseph R Hibbeln Article Affiliation: Adrian Raine Abstract: BACKGROUND: While limited evidence suggests that omega-3 supplementation may reduce antisocial behavior in children, studies have not reported on posttreatment follow-up and most treatment periods have been of short duration. This study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation over 6 months will reduce behavior problems in children both at the end of treatment and at 6 months post treatment. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trial, a community sample of 8-16 year old children were randomized into a treatment group (N = 100) and a placebo-control group (N = 100). The supplementation consisted of a fruit drink containing 1 g/day of omega-3 or a placebo consisting of the same fruit drink without omega-3. Participants, caregivers, and research assistants were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome measures of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were reported by both caregivers and their children in a laboratory setting at 0 months (baseline), 6 months (end of treatment) and 12 months (6 months post treatment), together with the secondary outcome measures of parental antisocial behavior. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis including all participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02016079?term=mauritius&rank=2 RESULTS: Significant group × time interactions were observed with the treatment group showing long-term improvements in child behavior problems. The average posttreatment effect size was d = -.59. Effects were documented for parent reports, but with the exception of proactive and reactive aggression, child-report data were nonsignificant. Parents whose children took omega-3 showed significant posttreatment reductions in their own antisocial and aggressive behavior. This improvement in caregiver behavior partly mediated the improvements observed in child behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide initial evidence that omega-3 supplementation can produce sustained reductions in externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Results are the first to report improvements in caregiver behavior, and to establish this improvement as a part-mechanism for the efficacy of omega-3. Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2015
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Dysfunctional personality disorder beliefs and lifetime suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized military personnel.

Dysfunctional personality disorder beliefs and lifetime suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized military personnel. Compr Psychiatry. 2018 Jan 31;82:108-114 Authors: Ghahramanlou-Holloway M, Lee-Tauler SY, LaCroix JM, Kauten R, Perera K, Chen R, Weaver J, Soumoff A Abstract BACKGROUND: Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with an increased risk for suicide. However, the association between PDs and suicide risk has not been examined among military personnel. This study evaluated whether endorsement of different PD dysfunctional beliefs was associated with lifetime suicide attempt status. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Cross-sectional data were collected during the baseline phase of a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the efficacy of an inpatient cognitive behavior therapy protocol for the prevention of suicide. Participants (N = 185) were military service members admitted for inpatient psychiatric care following a suicide-related event. MANOVA and Poisson regression evaluated the association between each type of PD dysfunctional belief and the number of suicide attempts. RESULTS: Service members' PBQ subscale scores for borderline (p = 0.049) and histrionic PD dysfunctional beliefs (p = 0.034) significantly differed across those with suicide ideation only, single attempt, and multiple attempts. Upon further analysis, histrionic PD dysfunctional beliefs scores were significantly higher among those with multiple suicide attempts than those with single attempts. One point increase of dependent (Incidence Risk Ratio = 1.04, p = 0.009), narcissistic (IRR = 1.07, p < 0.001), and paranoid PD dysfunctional beliefs (IRR = 1.04, p = 0.002) was associated with a greater number of lifetime suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment and targeting dependent, narcissistic, paranoid, borderline, and histrionic beliefs as part of a psychosocial intervention will be useful. PMID: 29475056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: restore CDC funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research.

Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: restore CDC funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Transl Behav Med. 2018 Feb 21;: Authors: Behrman P, Redding CA, Raja S, Newton T, Beharie N, Printz D Abstract The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership. PMID: 29474678 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

CDKL5 PROTEIN SUBSTITUTION THERAPY RESCUES NEUROLOGICAL PHENOTYPES OF A MOUSE MODEL OF CDKL5 DISORDER.

CDKL5 PROTEIN SUBSTITUTION THERAPY RESCUES NEUROLOGICAL PHENOTYPES OF A MOUSE MODEL OF CDKL5 DISORDER. Hum Mol Genet. 2018 Feb 20;: Authors: Trazzi S, De Franceschi M, Fuchs C, Bastianini S, Viggiano R, Lupori L, Mazziotti R, Medici G, Lo Martire V, Ren E, Rimondini R, Zoccoli G, Bartesaghi R, Pizzorusso T, Ciani E Abstract Cyclin-dependent kinase like-5 (CDKL5) disorder is a rare neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutations in the CDKL5 gene. The consequent misexpression of the CDKL5 protein in the nervous system leads to a severe phenotype characterized by intellectual disability, motor impairment, visual deficits, and early-onset epilepsy. No therapy is available for CDKL5 disorder. It has been reported that a protein transduction domain (TAT) is able to deliver macromolecules into cells and even into the brain when fused to a given protein. We demonstrate that TAT-CDKL5 fusion protein is efficiently internalized by target cells and retains CDKL5 activity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of TAT-CDKL5 restored hippocampal development, hippocampus-dependent memory and breathing pattern in Cdkl5-null mice. Notably, systemically-administered TAT-CDKL5 protein passed the blood-brain-barrier, reached the CNS, and rescued various neuroanatomical and behavioral defects, including breathing pattern and visual responses. Our results suggest that CDKL5 protein therapy may be an effective clinical tool for the treatment of CDKL5 disorder. PMID: 29474534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Expressive writing intervention and self-reported physical health out-comes - Results from a nationwide randomized controlled trial with breast cancer patients.

Expressive writing intervention and self-reported physical health out-comes - Results from a nationwide randomized controlled trial with breast cancer patients. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0192729 Authors: Jensen-Johansen MB, O'Toole MS, Christensen S, Valdimarsdottir H, Zakowski S, Bovbjerg DH, Jensen AB, Zachariae R Abstract The objective was to examine the effect of Expressive Writing Intervention (EWI) on self-reported physical symptoms and healthcare utilization in a nationwide randomized controlled trial with Danish women treated for primary breast cancer, and to explore participant characteristics related to emotion regulation as possible moderators of the effect. Women who had recently completed treatment for primary breast cancer (n = 507) were randomly assigned to three 20 min. home-based writing exercises, one week apart, focusing on emotional disclosure (EWI) of a distressing experience (their cancer or a non-cancer topic) or a non-disclosing topic (control). Outcomes were self-reported physical symptoms and healthcare utilization (visits and telephone contacts with GP) 3 and 9 months post-intervention. Potential moderators were repressive coping, alexithymia, rumination, social constraints, and writing topic. Results revealed no group by time interaction effects for any outcomes. Moderation analyses showed that 1) low alexithymic women in the EWI group showed larger decreases in GP telephone calls over time than both high alexithymic women and controls and 2) women in the EWI group writing about their own cancer, but not women writing about other topics, showed a larger decrease than controls. The results from this large randomized trial are concordant with previous findings showing that EWI is unlikely to be a generally applicable intervention to improve health-related outcomes in cancer patients and cancer survivors. However, written disclosure might have a beneficial impact for individuals who write about their own cancer, as well as for those low in alexithymia. PMID: 29474441 [PubMed - in process]

Efficacy of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation compared to other stretching modalities in range of motion gain in young healthy adults: A systematic review.

Efficacy of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation compared to other stretching modalities in range of motion gain in young healthy adults: A systematic review. Physiother Theory Pract. 2018 Feb 23;:1-21 Authors: Wanderley D, Lemos A, Moretti E, Barros MMMB, Valença MM, de Oliveira DA Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on range of motion (ROM) gain in young healthy adults. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials, including young healthy adults. The interventions were: PNF compared with different PNF techniques, control, other muscle stretching exercises and musculoskeletal manipulations. The outcome measures were: articular ROM and adverse effects. The final number of included studies was 46, involving 1,864 adults. There was difference on ROM comparing assisted hold-relax (HR) on diagonal plane to control, based on very low-quality evidence. There was also difference on ROM comparing assisted HR to self-HR; self-contract-relax (CR) to control; assisted CR contract to control; and assisted HR contract to control, based on low-quality evidence. Moderate-quality evidence shows that results differ between self HR and control (SMD: 0.95; 95%CI 0.03, 1.86; I249%; P = 0.16) in terms of ROM gain. When performing the other comparisons, the results were based on low or very low-quality evidence and do not allow to state if PNF is more or less effective than other stretches for improving ROM in healthy young adults. No adverse effects were mentioned. PMID: 29474101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Sleep Problems: Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Practices in a Group of Community Child Psychiatrists.

Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Sleep Problems: Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Practices in a Group of Community Child Psychiatrists. Med Sci (Basel). 2018 Feb 23;6(1): Authors: Anwar A, Yingling MD, Zhang A, Ramtekkar U, Nicol GE Abstract As part of a university-based quality improvement project, we aimed to evaluate child psychiatrists' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessment and treatment of pediatric sleep problems. We developed a nine-question survey of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessing for and treating sleep complaints in pediatric patients, and administered this survey to child psychiatrists in training and in practice in the state of Missouri. Respondents reported sleep hygiene as the first-line treatment strategy, followed by the use of supplements or over-the-counter remedies. The most common barriers to evidence-based assessment and treatment of sleep problems were the lack of ability to obtain reliable history, and parental preference for medications over behavioral approaches for sleep concerns. These results suggest potential opportunities for enhancing knowledge regarding validated assessment tools and non-pharmacological treatment options for sleep problems. Additional research is needed to further assess the quality and type of sleep education provided in child psychiatry training programs. PMID: 29473880 [PubMed]

Facial emotion recognition in Parkinson's disease: A review and new hypotheses.

Facial emotion recognition in Parkinson's disease: A review and new hypotheses. Mov Disord. 2018 Feb 23;: Authors: Argaud S, Vérin M, Sauleau P, Grandjean D Abstract Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder classically characterized by motor symptoms. Among them, hypomimia affects facial expressiveness and social communication and has a highly negative impact on patients' and relatives' quality of life. Patients also frequently experience nonmotor symptoms, including emotional-processing impairments, leading to difficulty in recognizing emotions from faces. Aside from its theoretical importance, understanding the disruption of facial emotion recognition in PD is crucial for improving quality of life for both patients and caregivers, as this impairment is associated with heightened interpersonal difficulties. However, studies assessing abilities in recognizing facial emotions in PD still report contradictory outcomes. The origins of this inconsistency are unclear, and several questions (regarding the role of dopamine replacement therapy or the possible consequences of hypomimia) remain unanswered. We therefore undertook a fresh review of relevant articles focusing on facial emotion recognition in PD to deepen current understanding of this nonmotor feature, exploring multiple significant potential confounding factors, both clinical and methodological, and discussing probable pathophysiological mechanisms. This led us to examine recent proposals about the role of basal ganglia-based circuits in emotion and to consider the involvement of facial mimicry in this deficit from the perspective of embodied simulation theory. We believe our findings will inform clinical practice and increase fundamental knowledge, particularly in relation to potential embodied emotion impairment in PD. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID: 29473661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Atrial Fibrillation Health Literacy Information Technology System: Pilot Assessment.

The Atrial Fibrillation Health Literacy Information Technology System: Pilot Assessment. JMIR Cardio. 2017 Jul-Dec;1(2):e7 Authors: Magnani JW, Schlusser CL, Kimani E, Rollman BL, Paasche-Orlow MK, Bickmore TW Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent heart rhythm condition that has significant associated morbidity and requires chronic treatment. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to enhance multiple aspects of AF care, including education, monitoring of symptoms, and encouraging and tracking medication adherence. We have previously implemented and tested relational agents to improve outcomes in chronic disease and sought to develop a smartphone-based relational agent for improving patient-centered outcomes in AF. Objective: The objective of this study was to pilot a smartphone-based relational agent as preparation for a randomized clinical trial, the Atrial Fibrillation Health Literacy Information Technology Trial (AF-LITT). Methods: We developed the relational agent for use by a smartphone consistent with our prior approaches. We programmed the relational agent as a computer-animated agent to simulate a face-to-face conversation and to serve as a health counselor or coach specific to AF. Relational agent's dialogue content, informed by a review of literature, focused on patient-centered domains and qualitative interviews with patients with AF, encompassed AF education, common symptoms, adherence challenges, and patient activation. We established that the content was accessible to individuals with limited health or computer literacy. Relational agent content coordinated with use of the smartphone AliveCor Kardia heart rate and rhythm monitor. Participants (N=31) were recruited as a convenience cohort from ambulatory clinical sites and instructed to use the relational agent and Kardia for 30 days. We collected demographic, social, and clinical characteristics and conducted baseline and 30-day assessments of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with the Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality of life (AFEQT) measure; self-reported medication adherence with the Morisky 8-item Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8); and patient activation with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Results: Participants (mean age 68 [SD 11]; 39% [12/31] women) used the relational agent for an average 17.8 (SD 10.0) days. The mean number of independent log-ins was 19.6 (SD 10.7), with a median of 20 times over 30 days. The mean number of Kardia uses was 26.5 (SD 5.9), and participants using Kardia were in AF for 14.3 (SD 11.0) days. AFEQT scores improved significantly from 64.5 (SD 22.9) at baseline to 76.3 (SD 19.4) units at 30 days (P<.01). We observed marginal but statistically significant improvement in self-reported medication adherence (baseline: 7.3 [SD 0.9], 30 days: 7.7 [SD 0.5]; P=.01). Assessments of acceptability identified that most of the participants found the relational agent useful, informative, and trustworthy. Conclusions: We piloted a 30-day smartphone-based intervention that combined a relational agent with dedicated content for AF alongside Kardia heart rate and rhythm monitoring. Pilot participants had favorable improvements in HRQoL and self-reported medication adherence, as well as positive responses to the intervention. These data will guide a larger, enhanced randomized trial implementing the smartphone relational agent and the Kardia monitor system. PMID: 29473644 [PubMed]

Goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation for children with motor disabilities: a scoping review.

Goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation for children with motor disabilities: a scoping review. Clin Rehabil. 2018 Feb 01;:269215518758484 Authors: Pritchard-Wiart L, Phelan SK Abstract OBJECTIVES: The three objectives of this scoping review were to (1) identify key conceptual/theoretical frameworks and the extent to which they are used to inform goal setting related to rehabilitation goal setting with children with motor disabilities, (2) describe research that has evaluated goal setting processes and outcomes, and (3) summarize the purposes of goal setting described in paediatric rehabilitation literature. METHODS: The scoping review process described by Arksey and O'Malley was used to guide article selection and data extraction. RESULTS: A total of 62 articles were included in the final review. While the concept of family-centered care was well represented, theoretical frameworks specific to goal setting (i.e. goal setting theory described by Locke and Latham, mastery motivation, social cognitive, personal construct, and self-determination theories) were rarely addressed. No articles reviewed addressed prominent behavior change theory. With the exception of the description of tools specifically designed for use with children, the role of the child in the goal setting process was generally absent or not well described. Few studies ( n = 6) discussed the linkage between goals and intervention strategies explicitly. Only two studies in the review evaluated outcomes associated with goal setting. The primary purpose for goal setting identified in the literature was to develop goals that are meaningful to families ( n = 49). CONCLUSION: The results highlight significant gaps in the literature explicating a sound theoretical basis for goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation and research evaluating the effects of goal qualities and goal setting processes on the achievement of meaningful outcomes. PMID: 29473440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Polyphenolic Compounds Alter Stress-Induced Patterns of Global DNA Methylation in Brain and Blood.

Polyphenolic Compounds Alter Stress-Induced Patterns of Global DNA Methylation in Brain and Blood. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Feb 22;: Authors: Blaze J, Wang J, Ho L, Mendelev N, Haghighi F, Pasinetti GM Abstract SCOPE: Stress is a known contributor to various forms of disease in humans and animals, although mechanisms are still unknown. In animals, psychosocial stress-induced depression/anxiety phenotypes are coincidental with increased inflammation in both brain and blood. We recently showed that a novel treatment with a select bioactive polyphenol preparation promotes resilience to stress-mediated depression/anxiety phenotypes mice. Moreover, we identified selective bioactive phenolic compounds within the polyphenol preparation that were effective in mitigating the behavioral effects of bone marrow transplantation from stressed mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we used an animal model of adult stress and bone marrow transplantation to identify an epigenetic signature of repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) that was passed through bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells to naïve mice, revealing the maintenance of epigenetic memory following stress both centrally and peripherally. Further, we administered polyphenols to naïve and stress-susceptible mice, demonstrating that polyphenol treatment in mice from both susceptible and naïve donors alters global DNA methylation in the central nervous system and periphery and likewise has an effect on human blood cells after immune challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the enduring molecular memory of stress and the possible mechanism by which select bioactive polyphenols may promote resiliency to stress. Polyphenols may be an efficacious alternative to traditional pharmacological treatments in psychiatry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29473292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Treating women with opioid use disorder during pregnancy in Appalachia: Initial neonatal outcomes following buprenorphine + naloxone exposure.

Treating women with opioid use disorder during pregnancy in Appalachia: Initial neonatal outcomes following buprenorphine + naloxone exposure. Am J Addict. 2018 Feb 23;: Authors: Nguyen L, Lander LR, O'Grady KE, Marshalek PJ, Schmidt A, Kelly AK, Jones HE Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rising concerns regarding diversion and misuse of mono-buprenorphine for treatment of pregnant women with opioid use disorders have sparked interest in the use of buprenorphine + naloxone to reduce misuse and diversion rates. Examined the relationship of prenatal buprenorphine + naloxone exposure to neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 26 mother infant dyads in comprehensive medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine + naloxone during pregnancy. RESULTS: All neonatal birth outcome parameters were within normal ranges, albeit on the lower side of normal for gestational age and birth weight. Only 19% of neonates required morphine pharmacology for NAS. CONCLUSIONS: Use of buprenorphine + naloxone shows relative safety in pregnancy. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: These findings can help better guide prescribing practices for pregnant patients at risk for misuse or diversion of buprenorphine. (Am J Addict 2018;XX:1-5). PMID: 29473258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Variance of the global signal as a pretreatment predictor of antidepressant treatment response in drug-naïve major depressive disorder.

Variance of the global signal as a pretreatment predictor of antidepressant treatment response in drug-naïve major depressive disorder. Brain Imaging Behav. 2018 Feb 23;: Authors: Zhu J, Cai H, Yuan Y, Yue Y, Jiang D, Chen C, Zhang W, Zhuo C, Yu Y Abstract Several behavioral and neuroimaging markers could be used to predict eventual antidepressant medication (ADM) outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, these predictors are either subjective or complex, which has limited their clinical use. Thus, we aimed to identify an objective and easy-to-get marker to predict early therapeutic efficacy. Forty-seven drug-naïve patients with MDD and 47 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. We calculated the variable coefficient (VC) of the global signal for each subject. Baseline Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) score and that after 2 weeks of ADM were assessed for patients. Although there was no difference in VC between patients with MDD and healthy controls, we found a significant positive correlation between the VC and the decline rate of HRSD scores in the patients. Compared with the non-responding depression (NRD) group, the treatment-responsive depression (TRD) group had a higher VC. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis revealed that the VC exhibited a good ability to differentiate TRD from NRD. In addition, the linear and logistic regression analyses showed that the VC was a significant predictor of the decline rate of HRSD scores and the antidepressant treatment response. These findings suggest that variance of the global signal may serve as a useful marker to help clinicians find an appropriate drug for individuals with MDD at the earliest opportunity and then further to facilitate personalized therapy. PMID: 29473140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Effects of Cariprazine and Aripiprazole on PCP-Induced Deficits on Attention Assessed in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task.

The Effects of Cariprazine and Aripiprazole on PCP-Induced Deficits on Attention Assessed in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018 Feb 22;: Authors: Barnes SA, Young JW, Markou A, Adham N, Gyertyán I, Kiss B Abstract RATIONALE: Attentional processing deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, likely contributing to the persistent functional and occupational disability observed in patients with schizophrenia. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is hypothesized to involve dysregulation of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission, contributing to disruptions in normal dopamine transmission. Preclinical investigations often use NMDA receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP), to induce cognitive disruptions relevant to schizophrenia. We sought to test the ability of partial dopamine D2/D3 agonists, cariprazine and aripiprazole, to attenuate PCP-induced deficits in attentional performance. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine whether systemic administration of cariprazine or aripiprazole attenuated 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) deficits induced by repeated exposure to PCP. METHODS: We utilized a repeated PCP-treatment regimen (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.], once daily for 5 days) in rats to induce deficits in the 5-CSRTT. Rats were pre-treated with cariprazine (0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg, oral [p.o.]) or aripiprazole (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) to determine whether they prevented PCP-induced deficits in the 5-CSRTT performance. RESULTS: PCP treatment increased inappropriate responding in the 5-CSRTT, elevating incorrect, premature, and timeout responses. Cariprazine treatment reduced PCP-induced increases in inappropriate responding. However, at higher doses, cariprazine produced non-specific response suppression, confounding interpretation of the attenuated PCP-induced deficits. Aripiprazole treatment also attenuated PCP-induced deficits; however, unlike cariprazine treatment, aripiprazole reduced correct responding and increased omissions. CONCLUSIONS: Cariprazine and aripiprazole both demonstrated potential in attenuating PCP-induced deficits in the 5-CSRTT performance. While both compounds produced non-specific response suppression, these effects were absent when 0.03 mg/kg cariprazine was administered. PMID: 29473089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Fluoxetine Administration in Juvenile Monkeys: Implications for Pharmacotherapy in Children.

Fluoxetine Administration in Juvenile Monkeys: Implications for Pharmacotherapy in Children. Front Pediatr. 2018;6:21 Authors: Golub MS, Hogrefe CE, Sherwood RJ, Turck CW Abstract Fluoxetine therapy has been approved for children with major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder for over 14 years and has expanded to other childhood behavior disorders. As use increases, more detail on fluoxetine effects during juvenile brain development can help maintain safe and effective use of this therapy. Here, a narrative review is provided of previously published findings from a large nonhuman primate project. Fluoxetine was administered to juvenile male rhesus monkeys for an extended period (2 years) prior to puberty. Compared to controls, treated monkeys showed sleep disruption, facilitated social interaction, greater impulsivity, and impaired sustained attention during treatment. No effects on growth were seen. Metabolomics assays characterized a distinctive response to fluoxetine and demonstrated individual differences that were related to the impulsivity measure. Fluoxetine interactions with monoamine oxidase A polymorphisms that influenced behavior and metabolomics markers were an important, previously unrecognized finding of our studies. After treatment was discontinued, some behavioral effects persisted, but short-term memory and cognitive flexibility testing did not show drug effects. This detailed experimental work can contribute to clinical research and continued safe and effective fluoxetine pharmacotherapy in children. PMID: 29473029 [PubMed]

Improving Depression, and Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Using Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

Improving Depression, and Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Using Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Iran J Psychiatry. 2017 Oct;12(4):281-286 Authors: Noroozi Z, Hamidian S, Khajeddin N, Mehrabi Zadeh Honarmand M, Zargar Y, Rashidi H, Dolatshahi B Abstract Objective: Depression is a chronic condition comorbid with diabetes type 2 that often remains untreated. Dealing with diabetes is a challenging task for patients and can lead to depression in long term. These two conditions have a negative influence on each other and on the individual's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of group cognitive behavior therapy on depression, quality of life in women with diabetes type 2. Method: We conducted a clinical trial among 30 women with diabetes type 2 comorbid with depression. The women were divided randomly into the two groups of intervention and control. Each group consisted of 15 individuals. The intervention group received 10 sessions of group cognitive behavior therapy while the control group didn't. Results: The results suggested that group cognitive-behavior therapy decreased depression symptoms (F=72.17, p<0.001), and improved quality of life of the patients (F=8.82, p<0.05) of the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results shows that group cognitive behavior therapy can affect depression symptoms, and consequently patients' quality of life with diabetes type 2. PMID: 29472955 [PubMed]

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Friends for Life Program on Children's Anxiety and Depression.

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Friends for Life Program on Children's Anxiety and Depression. Iran J Psychiatry. 2017 Oct;12(4):272-280 Authors: Moharreri F, Heydari Yazdi AS Abstract Objective: Anxiety disorders and depression during childhood and adolescence are among highly prevalent serious mental health problems, which lead to reduced performance in children and can also negatively affect children's emotional and social long-term development. This study, which was conducted in Mashhad in 2015, aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the Friends for Life cognitive-behavioral program in reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression in children. Method: In this controlled clinical trial, 248 male students aged 10 were screened for mild to moderate symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety (RCMA) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Of the participants, 40 students met the inclusion criteria. The demographic questionnaire, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS) were filled out by parents. The children in the experimental group received the Friends for Life cognitive-behavioral training program for eight 1-hour weekly sessions. RCMA, CDI, SDQ, and DASS were filled out again by both groups at the end of the sessions and 3 months later. To evaluate comparability between the 2 groups, Mann-Whitney test was used for qualitative variables and paired t test and repeated measure for quantitative variables with normal distribution. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-16. All statistical references were made at □=0.05. Results: Children's depression and manifest anxiety scores were not significantly different in the 2 groups before the intervention; however, their changes immediately after intervention and at the 3- month follow-up were significant (p<0.001). Moreover, hyperactivity (p = 0.039), peer problems (p = 0.011), and parental depression (p = 0.015) scores significantly changed in both groups over time. Conclusion: Implementation of Friends for Life program is effective in prevention and treatment of the symptoms of anxiety and depression in children. PMID: 29472954 [PubMed]

Bacterial Therapy of Cancer: Promises, Limitations, and Insights for Future Directions.

Bacterial Therapy of Cancer: Promises, Limitations, and Insights for Future Directions. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:16 Authors: Kramer MG, Masner M, Ferreira FA, Hoffman RM Abstract Spontaneous tumors regression has been associated with microbial infection for 100s of years and inspired the use of bacteria for anticancer therapy. Dr. William B. Coley (1862-1936), a bone- sarcoma surgeon, was a pioneer in treating his patients with both live bacterial-based and mixture of heat-killed bacteria known as "Coley's toxins." Unfortunately, Coley was forced to stop his work which interrupted this field for about half a century. Currently, several species of bacteria are being developed against cancer. The bacterial species, their genetic background and their infectious behavior within the tumor microenvironment are thought to be relevant factors in determining their anti-tumor effectiveness in vivo. In this perspective article we will update the most promising results achieved using bacterial therapy (alone or combined with other strategies) in clinically-relevant animal models of cancer and critically discuss the impact of the bacterial variants, route of administration and mechanisms of bacteria-cancer-cell interaction. We will also discuss strategies to apply this information using modern mouse models, molecular biology, genetics and imaging for future bacterial therapy of cancer patients. PMID: 29472896 [PubMed]

Pharmacoresistant Severe Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Functional Abnormalities of Cytochrome P450 2D6.

Pharmacoresistant Severe Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Functional Abnormalities of Cytochrome P450 2D6. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:2 Authors: Thümmler S, Dor E, David R, Leali G, Battista M, David A, Askenazy F, Verstuyft C Abstract Background: Severe mental health disorders in children and adolescents represent a major public health problem. Despite adequate drug treatment, some patients develop pharmacoresistant disease. As a consequence, physicians are confronted with prescribing challenges, prolonged hospitalization and increased risk of adverse events, thus aggravating short-, medium-, and long-term prognosis. The majority of psychotropic treatments, particularly antipsychotics and antidepressants, are metabolized at hepatic level by cytochrome P450 (CYP), particularly by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Several CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms are described to be associated with ultrarapid (UM) or poor drug metabolism (PM), inducing clinical resistance and/or adverse events, and might therefore be related to pharmacoresistant severe mental health disease. Case presentation: A total of nine pharmacoresistant patients (four females, five males) aged 11-16 (mean 14.1) years have been genotyped for CYP2D6 between January, 2015 and April, 2016. Patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 5), autism spectrum disorders (n = 2), intellectual disability with challenging behavior (n = 2), oppositional defiant disorder (n = 1), and post-traumatic stress and borderline personality disorders (n = 1). They had a treatment history with on average 6.1 (3-9) psychotropic, 5 (3-7) antipsychotic, and 3.4 (2-5) CYP2D6-metabolized antipsychotic and antidepressant molecules. Five patients (56%) presented functional anomalies of the CYP2D6 gene: three patients were UM metabolizers with gene duplication and two patients were PM with *4/*41 and *3/*4 polymorphisms. Conclusion: Functional anomalies of CYP2D6 concerned more than half of our pediatric inpatient sample with pharmacoresistant disease. However, our case reports are limited by the low sample size. Nevertheless, knowledge of individual metabolism and in particular CYP2D6 genotyping should be considered for clinical workup and therapy adjustment in resistant patients in child and adolescent psychiatry and might permit better treatment outcome, increased treatment adherence and diminished adverse events. PMID: 29472872 [PubMed]

Decreased Hippocampal Neuroplasticity and Behavioral Impairment in an Animal Model of Inhalant Abuse.

Decreased Hippocampal Neuroplasticity and Behavioral Impairment in an Animal Model of Inhalant Abuse. Front Neurosci. 2018;12:35 Authors: Malloul H, Bennis M, Bonzano S, Gambarotta G, Perroteau I, De Marchis S, Ba-M'hamed S Abstract Thinners are highly toxic chemicals widely employed as organic solvents in industrial and domestic use. They have psychoactive properties when inhaled, and their chronic abuse as inhalants is associated with severe long-term health effects, including brain damage and cognitive-behavioral alterations. Yet, the sites and mechanisms of action of these compounds on the brain are far from being fully understood. Here, we investigated the consequences of paint thinner inhalation in adult male mice. Depression-like behaviors and an anxiolytic effect were found following repeated exposure in chronic treatments lasting 12 weeks. Both subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic treatments impaired learning and memory functions, while no changes were observed after acute treatment. To investigate possible molecular/structural alterations underlying such behavioral changes, we focused on the hippocampus. Notably, prolonged, but not acute thinner inhalation strongly affected adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), reducing progenitor cell proliferation after chronic treatments and impairing the survival of newborn neurons following both chronic and subchronic treatments. Furthermore, a down-regulation in the expression of BDNF and NMDA receptor subunits as well as a reduction in CREB expression/phosphorylation were found in the hippocampi of chronically treated mice. Our findings demonstrate for the first time significant structural and molecular changes in the adult hippocampus after prolonged paint thinner inhalation, indicating reduced hippocampal neuroplasticity and strongly supporting its implication in the behavioral dysfunctions associated to inhalant abuse. PMID: 29472835 [PubMed]

Role of trace amine-associated receptor 1 in nicotine's behavioral and neurochemical effects.

Role of trace amine-associated receptor 1 in nicotine's behavioral and neurochemical effects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 Feb 05;: Authors: Liu JF, Seaman R, Siemian JN, Bhimani R, Johnson B, Zhang Y, Zhu Q, Hoener MC, Park J, Dietz DM, Li JX Abstract Nicotine addiction and abuse remains a global health issue. To date, the fundamental neurobiological mechanism of nicotine addiction remains incompletely understood. Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is thought to directly modulate dopaminergic system and are thought to be a neural substrate underlying addictive-like behaviors. We aimed to investigate the role of TAAR1 in nicotine addictive-like behaviors. TAAR1 expression after nicotine treatment was evaluated by western blotting. c-Fos immunofluorescence and in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry were used to examine the activation of brain regions and dopamine release, respectively. We then thoroughly and systematically examined the role of TAAR1 in mediating nicotine-induced sensitization, nicotine discrimination, nicotine self-administration, nicotine demand curve, and the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. Local pharmacological manipulation was conducted to determine the role of TAAR1 in the nucleus accumbens (NAcs) in the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. We found that the expression of TAAR1 protein was selectively downregulated in the NAc, with no change in either dorsal striatum or prefrontal cortex. TAAR1 activation was sufficient to block nicotine-induced c-Fos expression in the NAc, while also reducing nicotine-induced dopamine release in the NAc. Systemic administration of TAAR1 agonists attenuated the expression and development of nicotine-induced sensitization, nicotine self-administration, the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking, and increased the elasticity of nicotine demand curve, while intra-NAc infusions of a TAAR1 agonist was sufficient to attenuate nicotine reinstatement. Moreover, TAAR1-knockout rats showed augmented cue-induced and drug-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. These results indicated that modulation of TAAR1 activity regulates nicotine addictive-like behaviors and TAAR1 represents a novel target towards the treatment of nicotine addiction. PMID: 29472642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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