Nigella sativa oil with a calorie-restricted diet can improve biomarkers of systemic inflammation in obese women: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
J Clin Lipidol. 2016 Sep-Oct;10(5):1203-11. Epub 2015 Dec 7. PMID: 27678438
Reza Mahdavi, Nazli Namazi, Mohammad Alizadeh, Safar Farajnia
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is one of the primary mechanisms in the development of metabolic complications. Although anti-inflammatory characteristics of Nigella sativa (NS) have been indicated in animal models, clinical trials related to the effects of NS on inflammatory parameters are relatively scarce.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of NS oil combined with a calorie-restricted diet on systemic inflammatory biomarkers in obese women.
METHODS: In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 90 volunteer obese (body mass index = 30-34.9 kg/m(2)) women aged 25-50 years were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into two groups, an intervention group (n = 45) and a placebo group (n = 45). Each group received either: (1) a low-calorie diet with 3 g/day of NS oil or (2) a low-calorie diet with 3 g/day placebo for 8 weeks.
RESULTS: A total of 84 females (intervention group = 43; placebo group = 41) completed the trial. Subjects in the intervention group did not report any side effects with the NS oil supplementation. NS oil decreased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (-40.8% vs -16.1%, P = .04) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-54.5% vs -21.4%, P = .01) compared to the placebo group. However, there were no significant changes in interleukin-6 levels (-8.6 vs -2.4%, P = .6) in the NS group compared to the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS: NS oil supplementation combined with a calorie-restricted diet may modulate systemic inflammatory biomarkers in obese women. However, more studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of NS oil as an adjunct therapy to improve inflammatory parameters in obese subjects.
Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2016
Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes on Conventional Versus Intensive Insulin Therapy: Efficacy of Low-Calorie Dietary Intervention.
Adv Ther. 2016 Feb 17. Epub 2016 Feb 17. PMID: 26886777
Dimitrios Baltzis, Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Nikolaos Papanas, Christina-Maria Trakatelli, Evangelia Kintiraki, Maria N Hassapidou, Christos Manes
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this prospective study was to assess the results of a standard low-calorie dietary intervention (7.5 MJ/day) on body weight (BW) and the metabolic profile of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on intensive insulin therapy (IIT: 4 insulin injections/day) versus conventional insulin therapy (CIT: 2/3 insulin injections/day).
METHODS: A total of 60 patients (n = 60, 23 males and 37 postmenopausal females) were recruited and categorized into two groups according to the scheme of insulin treatment. Thirty were on IIT (13 males and 17 females) and an equal number on CIT (10 males and 20 females). BW, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, and metabolic parameters were compared at 6 and 12 months after baseline.
RESULTS: Significant reductions were observed in the BW, BMI, HbA1c (p ≤ 0.001 for all) and cholesterol (p ≤ 0.05) at 6 months post-intervention. At 1 year, median BW reduction was 4.5 kg (3.3, 5.8) for patients on IIT and 4.8 kg (3.6, 7.0) for those on CIT. The 12-month dietary intervention increased prevalence of normoglycemia in the IIT group and reduced the prevalence of obesity prevalence among the CIT participants (all p < 0.001). CIT patients with BW reduction ≥5.0% demonstrated 11-fold greater chances of being normoglycemic (odds ratio 11.3, 95% CI 1.1-110.5). BW reduction ≥7.0% was associated with CIT, being overweight, and having normal HDLc, LDLc, and cholesterol levels. A reduction in BW between 5.0% and 6.9% was associated with IIT, normoglycemia, and obesity.
CONCLUSION: A 12-month 1800-kcal dietary intervention achieved significant BW and HbA1c reductions irrespectively of insulin regimen. CIT was associated with BW reduction greater than 8.0%, whereas IIT was associated with higher rates of normoglycemia.
Article Published Date : Feb 16, 2016
Lifestyle intervention with weight reduction: first-line treatment in mild obstructive sleep apnea.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Feb 15;179(4):320-7. Epub 2008 Nov 14. PMID: 19011153
Henri P I Tuomilehto, Juha M Seppä, Markku M Partinen, Markku Peltonen, Helena Gylling, Jaakko O I Tuomilehto, Esko J Vanninen, Jouko Kokkarinen, Johanna K Sahlman, Tarja Martikainen, Erkki J O Soini, Jukka Randell, Hannu Tukiainen, Matti Uusitupa,
RATIONALE: Obesity is the most important risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, although included in clinical guidelines, no randomized controlled studies have been performed on the effects of weight reduction on mild OSA. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective, randomized controlled parallel-group 1-year follow-up study was to determine whether a very low calorie diet (VLCD) with supervised lifestyle counseling could be an effective treatment for adults with mild OSA. METHODS: Seventy-two consecutive overweight patients (body mass index, 28-40) with mild OSA were recruited. The intervention group (n = 35) completed the VLCD program with supervised lifestyle modification, and the control group (n = 37) received routine lifestyle counseling. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was the main objectively measured outcome variable. Change in symptoms and the 15D-Quality of Life tool were used as subjective measurements. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The lifestyle intervention was found to effectively reduce body weight (-10.7 +/- 6.5 kg; body mass index, -3.5 +/- 2.1 [mean +/- SD]). There was a statistically significant difference in the mean change in AHI between the study groups (P = 0.017). The adjusted odds ratio for having mild OSA was markedly lowered (odds ratio, 0.24 [95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.72]; P = 0.011) in the intervention group. All common symptoms related to OSA, and some features of 15D-Quality of Life improved after the lifestyle intervention. Changes in AHI were strongly associated with changes in weight and waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: VLCD combined with active lifestyle counseling resulting in marked weight reduction is a feasible and effective treatment for the majority of patients with mild OSA, and the achieved beneficial outcomes are maintained at 1-year follow-up.
Article Published Date : Feb 15, 2009
Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Nov;27(11):1365-72. PMID: 14574348
M A Wien, J M Sabaté, D N Iklé, S E Cole, F R Kandeel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an almond-enriched (high monounsaturated fat, MUFA) or complex carbohydrate-enriched (high carbohydrate) formula-based low-calorie diet (LCD) on anthropometric, body composition and metabolic parameters in a weight reduction program.
DESIGN: A randomized, prospective 24-week trial in a free-living population evaluating two distinct macronutrient interventions on obesity and metabolic syndrome-related parameters during weight reduction.
SUBJECTS: In total, 65 overweight and obese adults (age: 27-79 y, body mass index (BMI): 27-55 kg/m(2)).
INTERVENTION: A formula-based LCD enriched with 84 g/day of almonds (almond-LCD; 39% total fat, 25% MUFA and 32% carbohydrate as percent of dietary energy) or self-selected complex carbohydrates (CHO-LCD; 18% total fat, 5% MUFA and 53% carbohydrate as percent of dietary energy) featuring equivalent calories and protein.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Various anthropometric, body composition and metabolic parameters at baseline, during and after 24 weeks of dietary intervention. RESULTS: LCD supplementation with almonds, in contrast to complex carbohydrates, was associated with greater reductions in weight/BMI (-18 vs -11%), waist circumference (WC) (-14 vs -9%), fat mass (FM) (-30 vs -20%), total body water (-8 vs -1%) and systolic blood pressure (-11 vs 0%), P=0.0001-0.05. A 62% greater reduction in weight/BMI, 50% greater reduction in WC and 56% greater reduction in FM were observed in the almond-LCD as compared to the CHO-LCD intervention. Ketone levels increased only in the almond-LCD group (+260 vs 0%, P<0.02). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in the CHO-LCD group and decreased in the almond-LCD group (+15 vs -6%, P=0.05). Glucose, insulin, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL-C to HDL-C ratio decreased significantly to a similar extent in both dietary interventions. Homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) decreased in both study groups over time (almond-LCD: -66% and CHO-LCD: -35%, P<0.0001). Among subjects with type 2 diabetes, diabetes medication reductions were sustained or further reduced in a greater proportion of almond-LCD as compared to CHO-LCD subjects (96 vs 50%, respectively) [correction].
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that an almond-enriched LCD improves a preponderance of the abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome. Both dietary interventions were effective in decreasing body weight beyond the weight loss observed during long-term pharmacological interventions; however, the almond-LCD group experienced a sustained and greater weight reduction for the duration of the 24-week intervention. Almond supplementation of a formula-based LCD is a novel alternative to self-selected complex carbohydrates and has a potential role in reducing the public health implications of obesity.
Article Published Date : Nov 01, 2003
Preventive action of carotenoids on the development of lymphadenopathy and proteinuria in MRL-lpr/lpr mice.
Autoimmunity. 1993;16(2):95-102. PMID: 8180322
Y Tomita, H Jyonouchi, R W Engelman, N K Day, R A Good
Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Kurume University, Japan.
The chemopreventive action of carotenoids on proteinuria and lymphadenopathy were examined in autoimmune-prone MRL-lpr/lpr (MRL/l) mice. They were fed a synthetic full-fed diet (16-18 kcal/mouse/day) with supplementation of beta-carotene or astaxanthin (0.19 mumoles/mouse, 3 times a week), and the development of lymphadenopathy and proteinuria were examined. MRL/l mice fed a full-fed diet without the supplementation of carotenoids or those fed a calorie-restricted (CR) diet (10-11 kcal/mouse/day, 60% calorie intake of full-fed mice) were employed as controls. CR dramatically delayed the development of proteinuria and lymphadenopathy, as reported previously. Carotenoids also significantly delayed the onset of these symptoms in MRL/l mice fed a full-fed diet. Carotenoids were half as effective as CR and astaxanthin, a carotenoid without provitamin A activity, which appeared to exert more significant preventive actions than beta-carotene in delaying the development of these symptoms. Similar chemopreventive actions of carotenoids were also demonstrated in MRL/l mice fed a regular diet (Lab Chow). CR has been shown to augment IL-2 production and to decrease serum prolactin levels in this strain, which may be related to its dramatic preventive action of autoimmunity. However, carotenoids did not affect IL-2 production nor prolactin levels in full-fed MRL/l mice. The chemopreventive actions of carotenoids observed in autoimmune-prone MRL/l mice may be attributed to yet unknown mechanisms, apart from their provitamin A activity or oxygen-quenching activity.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 1993
Dietary Supplementation of Selenoneine-Containing Tuna Dark Muscle Extract Effectively Reduces Pathology of Experimental Colorectal Cancers in Mice.
Nutrients. 2018 09 27;10(10):
Authors: Masuda J, Umemura C, Yokozawa M, Yamauchi K, Seko T, Yamashita M, Yamashita Y
Selenoneine is an ergothioneine analog with greater antioxidant activity and is the major form of organic selenium in the blood, muscles, and other tissues of tuna. The aim of this study was to determine whether a selenoneine-rich diet exerts antioxidant activities that can prevent carcinogenesis in two types of colorectal cancer model in mice. We administrated selenoneine-containing tuna dark muscle extract (STDME) to mice for one week and used azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for inducing colorectal carcinogenesis. Next, we examined the incidence of macroscopic polyps and performed functional analysis of immune cells from the spleen. In the AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model, the oral administration of STDME significantly decreased tumor incidence and inhibited the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) while also inhibiting the downregulation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production during carcinogenesis. These results suggest that dietary STDME may be an effective agent for reducing colorectal tumor progression.
PMID: 30262787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
An international multi-centre cohort study of weight loss in overweight cats: Differences in outcome in different geographical locations.
PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200414
Authors: Flanagan J, Bissot T, Hours MA, Moreno B, German AJ
INTRODUCTION: Feline obesity is a worldwide concern which has recently been formally classified as a disease by the veterinary community. Management involves invoking controlled weight loss by feeding a purpose-formulated food in restricted quantities and altering physical activity. Most weight loss studies conducted in cats have been undertaken in research cat colonies from single geographic locations. The aim of this multi-centre cohort study was to determine the efficacy of a short-term dietary weight loss intervention in overweight pet cats across a range of geographical locations globally.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3-month (median 13 weeks, inter-quartile range [IQR] 12-15 weeks) weight loss programme was conducted at 188 veterinary practices in 22 countries, and involving 730 cats, 413 of which completed the programme and had complete data available. All were fed commercially available dry or wet weight loss diets, and median energy intake was 53 kcal/kg BW0.711/day. The Royal Canin Ethics Committee approved the study, and owners gave informed consent. Owners completed behavioural questionnaires assessing begging, physical activity and quality of life (QOL). Linear mixed models were used to assess the respective influence of time, age, and initial body condition score (BCS) on weight loss and behavioural observations.
RESULTS: At baseline, median age was 72 months (range 12-200 months) and median BCS was 8 (range 7-9). In all, 402/413 cats (97%) lost weight (mean 10.6±6.3%) during the programme at a rate of 0.8 ±0.50%/week. Based upon owner questionnaires, activity and QOL improved (both P<0.001), while begging behaviour decreased (P<0.001) during weight loss. The main factor influencing percentage weight loss was geographical location (P<0.001), with cats in North America losing less weight (median 7.2%, IQR: 4.4-10.4%) than those in both Europe (10.7%, 6-8-15.4%) and South America (10.0%, 6.2-15.4%). Differences in weight loss were also observed amongst countries (P<0.001), with cats in Argentina, Germany, and Italy losing more weight than cats in the USA, and cats in Germany also losing more weight than cats in Portugal.
DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Most of the overweight cats enrolled in this international multi-centre study successfully lost weight. The reason for the differences in percentage weight loss amongst geographical locations requires further study.
PMID: 30044843 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Correlates of overall and central obesity in adults from seven European countries: findings from the Food4Me Study.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 02;72(2):207-219
Authors: Celis-Morales C, Livingstone KM, Affleck A, Navas-Carretero S, San-Cristobal R, Martinez JA, Marsaux CFM, Saris WHM, O'Donovan CB, Forster H, Woolhead C, Gibney ER, Walsh MC, Brennan L, Gibney M, Moschonis G, Lambrinou CP, Mavrogianni C, Manios Y, Macready AL, Fallaize R, Lovegrove JA, Kolossa S, Daniel H, Traczyk I, Drevon CA, Mathers JC, Food4Me Study
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet.
RESULTS: The main factors associated (p < 0.05) with higher BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were age (β:1.11 kg/m2), intakes of processed meat (β:1.04 kg/m2), red meat (β:1.02 kg/m2), saturated fat (β:0.84 kg/m2), monounsaturated fat (β:0.80 kg/m2), protein (β:0.74 kg/m2), total energy intake (β:0.50 kg/m2), olive oil (β:0.36 kg/m2), sugar sweetened carbonated drinks (β:0.33 kg/m2) and sedentary time (β:0.73 kg/m2). In contrast, the main factors associated with lower BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were PA (β:-1.36 kg/m2), intakes of wholegrains (β:-1.05 kg/m2), fibre (β:-1.02 kg/m2), fruits and vegetables (β:-0.52 kg/m2), nuts (β:-0.52 kg/m2), polyunsaturated fat (β:-0.50 kg/m2), Healthy Eating Index (β:-0.42 kg/m2), Mediterranean diet score (β:-0.40 kg/m2), oily fish (β:-0.31 kg/m2), dairy (β:-0.31 kg/m2) and fruit juice (β:-0.25 kg/m2).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings are important for public health and suggest that promotion of increased PA, reducing sedentary behaviours and improving the overall quality of dietary patterns are important strategies for addressing the existing obesity epidemic and associated disease burden.
PMID: 29242527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]