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The effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rat

Abstract Title: [The effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rat]. Abstract Source: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011 Feb;45(2):132-5. PMID: 21426792 Abstract Author(s): Hai-yan Chen, Li-chuan Ma, Yin-yin Li, Jia-jun Zhao, Ming-long Li Article Affiliation: Department of Health-Care Endocrinology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of long-term high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rats. METHODS: Twenty-four diet-induced obesity rat models were established by feeding fat-enriched diet, then were randomly divided into two groups by stratified sampling method by weight: the high-protein diet group (HP, 36.7% of energy from protein), and the normal chow group (NC, 22.4% of energy from protein), 12 rats in each group. The total calorie intake of each rat per day was similar and was maintained for 24 weeks, then body weight, visceral fat mass, fasting plasma ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined, as well as protein expression of ghrelin in stomach, GLP-1 in ileum were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: After 24 weeks, body weight of HP, NC groups were (490.92± 39.47) g and (545.55 ± 31.08) g, respectively (t = -3.664, P<0.01); visceral fat mass were (22.42± 7.04) g and (32.33 ± 9.27) g, respectively (t = -2.503, P<0.05); plasma ghrelin level were (2.36± 0.82) and (1.95 ± 0.64) ng/ml, respectively (t = 1.337, P>0.05), and plasma ghrelin level was negatively correlated to body weight (r = -0.370, t = -1.899, P<0.05), visceral fat mass (r = -0.454, t = -2.52, P<0.01); plasma GLP-1 concentration were (0.52± 0.13) and (0.71 ± 0.19) ng/ml, respectively(t = -2.758, P<0.05); ghrelin protein expression in stomach were 25 473± 8701 and 10 526 ± 6194, respectively (t = 2.501, P<0.05); GLP-1 protein expression in ileum were 27 431± 5813 and 36 601 ± 5083, respectively (t = -1.833, P = 0.081). CONCLUSION: Long-term isocaloric high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and visceral fat, increase the expression of ghrelin, and decline GLP-1 expression in diet-induced obesity rats. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2011
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Low Carbohydrate-High Protein

NCBI pubmed

Effects of an energy-restricted low-carbohydrate, high unsaturated fat/low saturated fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in type 2 diabetes: A 2-year randomized clinical trial.

Related Articles Effects of an energy-restricted low-carbohydrate, high unsaturated fat/low saturated fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in type 2 diabetes: A 2-year randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 04;20(4):858-871 Authors: Tay J, Thompson CH, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Wycherley TP, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Wittert GA, Yancy WS, Brinkworth GD Abstract AIM: To examine whether a low-carbohydrate, high-unsaturated/low-saturated fat diet (LC) improves glycaemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A total of 115 adults with T2D (mean [SD]; BMI, 34.6 [4.3] kg/m2 ; age, 58 [7] years; HbA1c, 7.3 [1.1]%) were randomized to 1 of 2 planned energy-matched, hypocaloric diets combined with aerobic/resistance exercise (1 hour, 3 days/week) for 2 years: LC: 14% energy as carbohydrate, 28% as protein, 58% as fat (<10% saturated fat); or low-fat, high-carbohydrate, low-glycaemic index diet (HC): 53% as CHO, 17% as protein, 30% as fat (<10% saturated fat). HbA1c, glycaemic variability (GV), anti-glycaemic medication effect score (MES, calculated based on the potency and dosage of diabetes medication), weight, body composition, CVD and renal risk markers were assessed before and after intervention. RESULTS: A total of 61 (LC = 33, HC = 28) participants completed the study (trial registration: http://www.anzctr.org.au/, ANZCTR No. ACTRN12612000369820). Reductions in weight (estimated marginal mean [95% CI]; LC, -6.8 [-8.8,-4.7], HC, -6.6 [-8.8, -4.5] kg), body fat (LC, -4.3 [-6.2, -2.4], HC, -4.6 [-6.6, -2.7] kg), blood pressure (LC, -2.0 [-5.9, 1.8]/ -1.2 [-3.6, 1.2], HC, -3.2 [-7.3, 0.9]/ -2.0 [-4.5, 0.5] mmHg), HbA1c (LC, -0.6 [-0.9, -0.3], HC, -0.9 [-1.2, -0.5] %) and fasting glucose (LC, 0.3 [-0.4, 1.0], HC, -0.4 [-1.1, 0.4] mmol/L) were similar between groups (P ≥ 0.09). Compared to HC, the LC achieved greater reductions in diabetes medication use (MES; LC, -0.5 [-0.6, -0.3], HC, -0.2 [-0.4, -0.02] units; P = 0.03), GV (Continuous Overall Net Glycemic Action calculated every 1 hour (LC, -0.4 [-0.6, -0.3], HC, -0.1 [-0.1, 0.2] mmol/L; P = 0.001), and 4 hours (LC, -0.9 [-1.3, -0.6], HC, -0.2 [-0.6, 0.1] mmol/L; P = 0.02)); triglycerides (LC, -0.1 [-0.3, 0.2], HC, 0.1 [-0.2, 0.3] mmol/L; P = 0.001), and maintained HDL-C levels (LC, 0.02 [-0.05, 0.1], HC, -0.1 [-0.1, 0.01] mmol/L; P = 0.004), but had similar changes in LDL-C (LC, 0.2 [-0.1, 0.5], HC, 0.1 [-0.2, 0.4] mmol/L; P = 0.85), brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (LC, -0.5 [-1.5, 0.5], HC, -0.4 [-1.4, 0.7] %; P = 0.73), eGFR and albuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: Both diets achieved comparable weight loss and HbA1c reductions. The LC sustained greater reductions in diabetes medication requirements, and in improvements in diurnal blood glucose stability and blood lipid profile, with no adverse renal effects, suggesting greater optimization of T2D management. PMID: 29178536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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