Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Mediterranean Diet

Mediterranean diet and reduction in the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction: an operational healthy dietary score.

Abstract Title: Mediterranean diet and reduction in the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction: an operational healthy dietary score. Abstract Source: Antiviral Res. 2005 Apr;66(1):9-12. PMID: 12242583 Abstract Author(s): Miguel A Martínez-González, Elena Fernández-Jarne, Manuel Serrano-Martínez, Amelia Marti, J Alfredo Martinez, José M Martín-Moreno Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although an important secondary prevention trial reported an impressive protection by a Mediterranean dietary pattern on reinfarction and cardiovascular death, scarce direct epidemiologic evidence is currently available regarding the role of the Mediterranean diet in the aetiology of coronary heart disease. AIMS: The aim of the study was to quantify the risk reduction of incident myocardial infarction provided by a Mediterranean dietary pattern. METHODS: We included 342 subjects (171 patients who suffered their first acute myocardial infarction and 171 matched controls) in a case-control study. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (136 items) was used. We defined an a priori Mediterranean dietary pattern. We assessed six food items that we considered protective: 1) olive oil, 2) fiber, 3) fruits, 4)vegetables, 5) fish and 6) alcohol. For each of these six dietary factors, we calculated the distribution according to quintiles within the study and assigned each participant a score of 1 to 5 corresponding to the quintile of intake, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest quintile. We also estimated the quintiles of two other elements assumed to be associated with a higher risk: 7) meat/meat products and 8) some items with high glycaemic load (white bread, pasta and rice). For these two elements we inversely ranked the score, with 1 representing the highest and 5 representing the lowest quintile. Finally, we summed up the eight quintile values for each participant.A second score ( post hoc pattern) was built using only a single cut-off point for these eight elements. The cut-off points for each element in this post hoc pattern were decided according to the dose-response relationships between the consumption of each food item and the risk of myocardial infarction observed in the analyses that used quintiles of each food item. RESULTS: For both patterns, we found that the higher the score, the lower the odds ratio of myocardial infarction. A significant linear trend was apparent after adjustment for the main cardiovascular risk factors. For each additional point in the a priori Mediterranean pattern (observed range: 9-38) the odds ratio (95 % confidence intervals) was 0.92 (0.86-0.98). This estimate was 0.55 (0.42-0.73) when we used the post hoc pattern (range: 0-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that a Mediterranean diet (that emphasizes olive oil, fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish and alcohol and reduces meat/meat products) can be an effective measure for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction. However, our results support the exclusion of refined cereals with a high glycaemic load as healthy elements of this pattern. Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2005

Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence: The Role of Dietary Polyphenolics. 📎

Abstract Title: Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence: The Role of Dietary Polyphenolics. Abstract Source: Nutrients. 2016 ;8(9). Epub 2016 Sep 6. PMID: 27608040 Abstract Author(s): Andrea J Braakhuis, Peta Campion, Karen S Bishop Article Affiliation: Andrea J Braakhuis Abstract: Evidence from numerous observational and clinical studies suggest that polyphenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids in olive oil, flavonols in tea, chocolate and grapes, and isoflavones in soy products reduce the risk of breast cancer. A dietary food pattern naturally rich in polyphenols is the Mediterranean diet and evidence suggests those of Mediterranean descent have a lower breast cancer incidence. Whilst dietary polyphenols have been the subject of breast cancer risk-reduction, this review will focus on the clinical effects of polyphenols on reducing recurrence. Overall, we recommend breast cancer patients consume a diet naturally high in flavonol polyphenols including tea, vegetables (onion, broccoli), and fruit (apples, citrus). At least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily appear protective. Moderate soy protein consumption (5-10 g daily) and the Mediterranean dietary pattern show the most promise for breast cancer patients. In this review, we present an overview of clinical trials on supplementary polyphenols of dietary patterns rich in polyphenols on breast cancer recurrence, mechanistic data, and novel delivery systems currently being researched. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

High adherence to a Mediterranean diet and lower risk of frailty among French older adults community-dwellers: Results from the Three-City-Bordeaux Study.

Abstract Title: High adherence to a Mediterranean diet and lower risk of frailty among French older adults community-dwellers: Results from the Three-City-Bordeaux Study. Abstract Source: Clin Nutr. 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31. PMID: 28629899 Abstract Author(s): Berna Rahi, Soufiane Ajana, Maturin Tabue-Teguo, Jean-François Dartigues, Karine Peres, Catherine Feart Article Affiliation: Berna Rahi Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is considered as a key component for healthy aging, including prevention of age-related disability, while its association with frailty, independent of disability has never been assessed. Our objective was to investigate the relation between MeDi adherence and frailty incidence among persons aged≥75 years participating at the prospective population-based French Three-City Study. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 560 initially non-frail participants of the Three-City-Bordeaux center, seen at the 2009-2010 follow-up, and re-examined two years later. Adherence to MeDi was computed from a food frequency questionnaire (scored as 0-9). Frailty was defined as having at least three out of the following five slightly modified Fried frailty criteria: involuntary weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness and low physical activity. Logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates, including cognitive performance and depressive symptomatology, were used to assess the association between MeDi score and subsequent frailty risk. RESULTS: Over the 2-year follow-up, 79 participants (14%) became frail. Older adults with the highest MeDi adherence (score 6-9) had a significantly 68% frailty risk reduction (95% CI: 28-86%, p = 0.006) compared to those in the lowest MeDi category (score 0-3). Regarding the frailty criterion separately, the highest MeDi adherence was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident slowness (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.20-0.99, p = 0.04), poor muscle strength (OR = 0.44; 95% CI:0.20-0.98, p = 0.04) and low physical activity (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.82, p = 0.01), compared to the lowest MeDi adherence. CONCLUSION: In addition to its well-documented beneficial effects on health, adherence to MeDi might contribute to prevent the onset of frailty, even at late stages of life. Article Published Date : May 30, 2017

Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric cancer: results of a case-control study in Italy.

Abstract Title: Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric cancer: results of a case-control study in Italy. Abstract Source: Eur J Cancer Prev. 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24. PMID: 28542079 Abstract Author(s): Jovana Stojanovic, Luca Giraldi, Dario Arzani, Roberta Pastorino, Alberto Biondi, Roberto Persiani, Stefania Boccia, Emanuele Leoncini Article Affiliation: Jovana Stojanovic Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) and gastric cancer (GC). A case-control study was carried out at the Fondazione Policlinico 'A. Gemelli' (Rome, Italy) from 2003 to 2015. A total of 223 incident cases and 223 controls were interviewed. Dietary intake was assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire that collected information on more than 25 food items. The association between adherence to MD and risk of GC was quantified by calculating Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The analysis reports that a higher adherence to MD is associated with a reduced risk of GC (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.61-0.81). A high consumption of vegetables (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14-0.85), legumes (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.06-0.29), and fish (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15-0.68), as well as low consumption of meat (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.10-0.85) and alcohol (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24-0.90) are consistently related to a lower risk of GC. Our study indicates a protective role of the MD eating pattern and MD individual components against GC. Our results showed a beneficial role of high vegetable, legume, and fish consumption, along with low intake of alcohol and meat in the development of GC. Article Published Date : May 23, 2017

Changes in fatty liver index after consuming a Mediterranean diet: 6-year follow-up of the PREDIMED-Malaga trial.

Abstract Title: Changes in fatty liver index after consuming a Mediterranean diet: 6-year follow-up of the PREDIMED-Malaga trial. Abstract Source: Med Clin (Barc). 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23. PMID: 28126231 Abstract Author(s): Raquel Cueto-Galán, Francisco Javier Barón, Pedro Valdivielso, Xavier Pintó, Emili Corbella, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Julia Wärnberg, Article Affiliation: Raquel Cueto-Galán Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of an intervention with a Mediterranean diet supplemented with either extra virgin olive oil or nuts, on the fatty liver index (FLI), compared to a low-fat control diet. METHODS: Participants of the PREDIMED-Malaga trial, free from cardiovascular disease at baseline, but with a high risk to develop it, were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements were assessed and blood samples were taken to calculate participants' FLI at study baseline and after one, 3, 5 and 6 years. Mixed linear models were used to explore the fixed effects of the 3 intervention groups on the FLI as well as their interaction with time. RESULTS: A total of 276 participants were included in the study. Average participant age was 67 years, with 66% of participants being women. The baseline prevalence of NAFL was 57%. The change in the FLI of the control group increased significantly over time (1.13±0.41; P=.006). In the MedDiet+EVOO group, the time trend of the change in the FLI was similar to that of the control group, although it was seen to be lower (-3.90±1.9; P=.038). In the MedDiet+Nuts group, the trend was significantly lower than that of the control group (-1.63±0.62; P=.009). In the MedDiet+Nuts group, the trend of changes in participants' BMI was 0.100 points lower per year compared to the control group (P=.004). In the control group, the change in waist circumference increased significantly over time (0.61±0.16cm/year; P<.001) in contrast to the MedDiet+EVOO group, in which this variable remained stable (-0.51±0.22; P=.019). CONCLUSIONS: A dietary intervention consisting of a Mediterranean diet could delay or slow down the natural progression of NAFL, thus, being beneficial for its prevention and treatment. However, further studies supporting these conclusions have yet to be carried out. Article Published Date : Jan 22, 2017
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Mediterranean Diet

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The Combined Effect of Promoting the Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Metabolic Risk Factors in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

Related Articles The Combined Effect of Promoting the Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Metabolic Risk Factors in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 25;10(11): Authors: Malakou E, Linardakis M, Armstrong MEG, Zannidi D, Foster C, Johnson L, Papadaki A Abstract Adhering to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and physical activity (PA) public health guidelines have independently been linked to health benefits in adults. These behaviours form essential components of the traditional Mediterranean lifestyle. However, their combined effect on metabolic risk has not been systematically assessed. This systematic review with meta-analysis (PROSPERO; CRD42017073958) aimed to examine, for the first time, the combined effect of promoting the MD and PA compared with no treatment, treatment with MD or PA alone, or a different dietary and/or PA treatment, and estimate its magnitude on metabolic risk factors. Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science were systematically searched until March 2018 for English language controlled interventions reporting the combined effects of the MD and PA on one or multiple metabolic risk factors in adults. Two researchers independently conducted data extraction and risk of bias assessment using a rigorous methodology. Reporting followed PRISMA guidelines. Quality of reporting and risk of bias were assessed using the CONSORT guidelines and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool, respectively. Data from 12 articles reporting 11 randomised controlled trials (n = 1684) were included in the qualitative synthesis; across them, risk of bias was considered low, unclear and high for 42%, 25% and 33% of domains, respectively. Between-study heterogeneity ranged from 44% (triglycerides) to 98% (insulin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)-cholesterol). Compared to a control condition, there was strong evidence (p < 0.001) of a beneficial effect of promoting the MD and PA on body weight (-3.68 kg, 95% CI (confidence intervals) -5.48, -1.89), body mass index (-0.64 kg/m², 95% CI -1.10, -0.18), waist circumference (-1.62 cm, 95% CI -2.58, -0.66), systolic (-0.83 mmHg, 95% CI -1.57, -0.09) and diastolic blood pressure (-1.96 mmHg, 95% CI -2.57, -1.35), HOMA-IR index (-0.90, 95% CI -1.22, -0.58), blood glucose (-7.32 mg/dL, 95% CI -9.82, -4.82), triglycerides (-18.47 mg/dL, 95% CI -20.13, -16.80), total cholesterol (-6.30 mg/dL, 95% CI -9.59, -3.02) and HDL-cholesterol (+3.99 mg/dL, 95% CI 1.22, 6.77). There was no evidence of an effect on insulin concentrations. The data presented here provide systematically identified evidence that concurrently promoting the MD and PA is likely to provide an opportunity for metabolic risk reduction. However, due to the high degree of heterogeneity, most likely due to the variation in control group treatment, and the small number of included studies, findings from the pooled analysis should be interpreted with caution. These findings also highlight the need for high quality randomised controlled trials examining the combined effect of the MD and PA on metabolic risk. PMID: 30366431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mediterranean diet and physical functioning trajectories in Eastern Europe: Findings from the HAPIEE study.

Related Articles Mediterranean diet and physical functioning trajectories in Eastern Europe: Findings from the HAPIEE study. PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200460 Authors: Stefler D, Hu Y, Malyutina S, Pajak A, Kubinova R, Peasey A, Pikhart H, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Bobak M Abstract BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diet may increase the risk of impaired physical functioning in older age. Although poor diet and limited physical functioning both seem to be particularly common in Eastern Europe, no previous study has assessed the relationship between these two factors in this region. The current analysis examined the association between overall diet quality and physical functioning in Eastern European populations. METHODS: We used data on 25,504 persons (aged 45-69 years at baseline) who participated in the Health Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study. Dietary assessment at baseline used food frequency questionnaire, and the overall diet quality was evaluated by the Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Physical functioning (PF) was measured by the physical functioning subscale (PF-10) of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey at baseline and three subsequent occasions over a 10-year period. The cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between the MDS and PF were examined simultaneously using growth curve models. RESULTS: Men and women with higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet had significantly better PF at baseline; after multivariable adjustment, the regression coefficient per 1-unit increase in the MDS was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.52) in men and 0.50 (0.36, 0.64) in women. However, we found no statistically significant link between baseline MDS and the subsequent slope of PF decline in neither gender; the coefficients were -0.02 (-0.04, 0.00) in men and -0.01 (-0.03, 0.02) in women. DISCUSSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that the Mediterranean diet has a substantial impact on the trajectories of physical functioning, although the differences existing at baseline may be related to dietary habits in earlier life. PMID: 30001406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Caloric restriction and memory during aging].

Related Articles [Caloric restriction and memory during aging]. Rev Neurol. 2018 06 16;66(12):415-422 Authors: Marti-Nicolovius M, Arevalo-Garcia R Abstract INTRODUCTION: To understand the underlying brain mechanisms involved in the aging process and mental deterioration could be key to the development of behavioral patterns that guarantee reaching advanced ages with the highest possible quality of life and reduce the cognitive loss associated with senescence. AIM: To describe and analyze different animal and human studies that demonstrate that a caloric restriction diet may rescue cerebral aging and the cognitive decline associated to aging. DEVELOPMENT: For more than 100 years it has been known that caloric restriction extends life span in many laboratory animal. This effect seems to derive from the reduction of age-related symptoms, such as obesity, the onset of cancerous tumors and some metabolic diseases. However, while the consequences of caloric restriction on health are well-established, their ability to reverse age-dependent memory deficits remains a controversial issue. The analyses of the effects of caloric restriction on different animals provides progress for the understanding of its beneficial effects on the neurobiology of cognitive processes during aging. CONCLUSIONS: Caloric restriction attenuates the normal or pathological aging of the brain and reduces age-related memory problems. Dietary intervention could become a very effective method to promote a better quality of life and prevent the age-related cognitive deficits. PMID: 29897609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mediterranean Diet, Glucose Homeostasis, and Inflammasome Genetic Variants: The CORDIOPREV Study.

Related Articles Mediterranean Diet, Glucose Homeostasis, and Inflammasome Genetic Variants: The CORDIOPREV Study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 05;62(9):e1700960 Authors: Roncero-Ramos I, Rangel-Zuñiga OA, Lopez-Moreno J, Alcala-Diaz JF, Perez-Martinez P, Jimenez-Lucena R, Castaño JP, Roche HM, Delgado-Lista J, Ordovas JM, Camargo A, Lopez-Miranda J Abstract SCOPE: Insulin resistance (IR) and chronic low-grade inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The "NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3" (NLRP3) inflammasome component of innate immunity is a metabolic stress sensor modulated by dietary and genetics factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the consumption of two diets for 3 years, Mediterranean (Med) and low fat, on glucose homeostasis in the 1002 coronary heart disease patients of the CORDIOPREV study, according to a genetic variant of NLRP3 inflammasome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted in the framework of the CORDIOPREV study, a randomized dietary intervention with Med and low-fat diets. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located at inflammasome NLRP3 gene were genotyped by OpenArray platform. Nondiabetic CT+TT carriers of the rs4612666 SNP and AG+AA carriers of the rs10733113 SNP increased insulin sensitivity index (ISI) after 3 years of dietary intervention, whereas no effect was observed in diabetic patients. Further analysis by diet showed that the improvement of the ISI in nondiabetic rs10733113 AG+AA carriers was specific to the consumption of the Med diet. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the benefits associated with a Med diet regarding glucose homeostasis in non-T2DM patients depend on genetic variation in the inflammasome. PMID: 29573224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nutrition: Review on the Possible Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease.

Related Articles Nutrition: Review on the Possible Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;61(3):867-883 Authors: Botchway BOA, Moore MK, Akinleye FO, Iyer IC, Fang M Abstract Since its discovery some hundred years ago, Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease and an eminent cause of most dementia, continues to pose problems for affected families and society, especially in developed countries. With the approved medications by the Food and Drugs Administration in the United States, effectual treatment of AD apropos to the complete eradication of the disease continues to be elusive due to complexities relating to the pathophysiology of the disease. Nutrition has and continues to play a salient role in the survival of living organisms with no exception for human beings. Herein, we report the connection between nutrition and AD with particular attention to vitamins, curcumin, and the Mediterranean diet. PMID: 29254101 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Correlates of overall and central obesity in adults from seven European countries: findings from the Food4Me Study.

Related Articles Correlates of overall and central obesity in adults from seven European countries: findings from the Food4Me Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 02;72(2):207-219 Authors: Celis-Morales C, Livingstone KM, Affleck A, Navas-Carretero S, San-Cristobal R, Martinez JA, Marsaux CFM, Saris WHM, O'Donovan CB, Forster H, Woolhead C, Gibney ER, Walsh MC, Brennan L, Gibney M, Moschonis G, Lambrinou CP, Mavrogianni C, Manios Y, Macready AL, Fallaize R, Lovegrove JA, Kolossa S, Daniel H, Traczyk I, Drevon CA, Mathers JC, Food4Me Study Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet. RESULTS: The main factors associated (p < 0.05) with higher BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were age (β:1.11 kg/m2), intakes of processed meat (β:1.04 kg/m2), red meat (β:1.02 kg/m2), saturated fat (β:0.84 kg/m2), monounsaturated fat (β:0.80 kg/m2), protein (β:0.74 kg/m2), total energy intake (β:0.50 kg/m2), olive oil (β:0.36 kg/m2), sugar sweetened carbonated drinks (β:0.33 kg/m2) and sedentary time (β:0.73 kg/m2). In contrast, the main factors associated with lower BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were PA (β:-1.36 kg/m2), intakes of wholegrains (β:-1.05 kg/m2), fibre (β:-1.02 kg/m2), fruits and vegetables (β:-0.52 kg/m2), nuts (β:-0.52 kg/m2), polyunsaturated fat (β:-0.50 kg/m2), Healthy Eating Index (β:-0.42 kg/m2), Mediterranean diet score (β:-0.40 kg/m2), oily fish (β:-0.31 kg/m2), dairy (β:-0.31 kg/m2) and fruit juice (β:-0.25 kg/m2). CONCLUSIONS: These findings are important for public health and suggest that promotion of increased PA, reducing sedentary behaviours and improving the overall quality of dietary patterns are important strategies for addressing the existing obesity epidemic and associated disease burden. PMID: 29242527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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