Consumption of raw cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with bladder cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Apr;17(4):938-44. PMID: 18398034
Li Tang, Gary R Zirpoli, Khurshid Guru, Kirsten B Moysich, Yuesheng Zhang, Christine B Ambrosone, Susan E McCann
Cruciferous vegetables contain isothiocyanates, which show potent chemopreventive activity against bladder cancer in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, previous epidemiologic studies investigating cruciferous vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk have been inconsistent. Cooking can substantially reduce or destroy isothiocyanates, and could account for study inconsistencies. In this hospital-based case-control study involving 275 individuals with incident, primary bladder cancer and 825 individuals without cancer, we examined the usual prediagnostic intake of raw and cooked cruciferous vegetables in relation to bladder cancer risk. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for smoking and other bladder cancer risk factors. We observed a strong and statistically significant inverse association between bladder cancer risk and raw cruciferous vegetable intake (adjusted OR for highest versus lowest category = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.97), with a significant trend (P = 0.003); there were no significant associations for fruit, total vegetables, or total cruciferous vegetables. The associations observed for total raw crucifers were also observed for individual raw crucifers. The inverse association remained significant among current and heavy smokers with three or more servings per month of raw cruciferous vegetables (adjusted ORs, 0.46 and 0.60; 95% CI, 0.23-0.93 and 0.38-0.93, respectively). These data suggest that cruciferous vegetables, when consumed raw, may reduce the risk of bladder cancer, an effect consistent with the role of dietary isothiocyanates as chemopreventive agents against bladder cancer.
Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2008
Giacomo Castelvetro's salads. Anti-HER2 oncogene nutraceuticals since the 17th century?
Clin Transl Oncol. 2008 Jan;10(1):30-4. PMID: 18208790
R Colomer, R Lupu, A Papadimitropoulou, L Vellón, A Vázquez-Martín, J Brunet, A Fernández-Gutiérrez, A Segura-Carretero, J A Menéndez
We are accumulating evidence to suggest that 17(th) century Renaissance foodways -largely based on the old "Mediterranean dietary traditions"- may provide new nutraceutical management strategies against HER2-positive breast cancer disease in the 21st century. Epidemiological and experimental studies begin to support the notion that "The Sacred Law of Salads" (i.e., "raw vegetables... plenty of generous (olive) oil") -originally proposed in 1614 by Giacomo Castelvetro in its book The Fruit, Herbs&Vegetables of Italy- might be considered the first (unintended) example of customised diets for breast cancer prevention based on individual genetic make-up (i.e., nutraceuticals against human breast carcinomas bearing HER2 oncogene amplification/overexpression). First, the so-called salad vegetables dietary pattern (i.e., a high consumption of raw vegetables and olive oil) appears to exert a protective effect mostly confined to the HER2-positive breast cancer subtype, with no significant influence on the occurrence of HER2-negative breast cancers. Second, all the main olive oil constituents (i.e., the omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid and polyphenolic compounds such as the secoiridoid oleuropein or the lignan 1-[+]-acetoxypinoresinol) dramatically reduce HER2 expression and specifically induce apoptotic cell death in cultured HER2- positive breast cancer cells, with marginal effects against HER2-negative cells. Third, an olive oil-rich diet negatively influences experimental mammary tumorigenesis in rats likewise decreasing HER2 expression levels. If early 1600s Castelvetro's salads can be used as dietary protocols capable to protecting women against biologically aggressive HER2-positive breast cancer subtypes is an intriguing prospect that warrants to be evaluated in human pilot studies in the future. Here, at least, we would like to recognise Giacomo Castelvetro as the father of modern nutritional genomics in oncology.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2008
Fibromyalgia syndrome improved using a mostly raw vegetarian diet: an observational study.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2001;1:7. Epub 2001 Sep 26. PMID: 11602026
M S Donaldson, N Speight, S Loomis
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia engulfs patients in a downward, reinforcing cycle of unrestorative sleep, chronic pain, fatigue, inactivity, and depression. In this study we tested whether a mostly raw vegetarian diet would significantly improve fibromyalgia symptoms. METHODS: Thirty people participated in a dietary intervention using a mostly raw, pure vegetarian diet. The diet consisted of raw fruits, salads, carrot juice, tubers, grain products, nuts, seeds, and a dehydrated barley grass juice product. Outcomes measured were dietary intake, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), SF-36 health survey, a quality of life survey (QOLS), and physical performance measurements. RESULTS: Twenty-six subjects returned dietary surveys at 2 months; 20 subjects returned surveys at the beginning, end, and at either 2 or 4 months of intervention; 3 subjects were lost to follow-up. The mean FIQ score (n = 20) was reduced 46% from 51 to 28. Seven of the 8 SF-36 subscales, bodily pain being the exception, showed significant improvement (n = 20, all P for trend < 0.01). The QOLS, scaled from 0 to 7, rose from 3.9 initially to 4.9 at 7 months (n = 20, P for trend 0.000001). Significant improvements (n = 18, P < 0.03, paired t-test) were seen in shoulder pain at rest and after motion, abduction range of motion of shoulder, flexibility, chair test, and 6-minute walk. 19 of 30 subjects were classified as responders, with significant improvement on all measured outcomes, compared to no improvement among non-responders. At 7 months responders' SF-36 scores for all scales except bodily pain were no longer statistically different from norms for women ages 45-54. CONCLUSION: This dietary intervention shows that many fibromyalgia subjects can be helped by a mostly raw vegetarian diet.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2001
Oleuropein aglycone enhances UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats by activating β-adrenergic signaling.
J Nutr Biochem. 2017 Feb;40:209-218
Authors: Oi-Kano Y, Iwasaki Y, Nakamura T, Watanabe T, Goto T, Kawada T, Watanabe K, Iwai K
Oleuropein is the pungent principle of raw olives. Oleuropein aglycone (OA) is a major phenolic compound in extra virgin olive oil and the absorbed form of oleuropein. We aimed to determine the mechanism underlying the nutritional effects of oleuropein and OA on interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) in rats with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity by examining the agonistic activity of oleuropein and OA toward the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an HF (palm oil 30% wt:wt) diet alone or with oleuropein (HF-O, 1 g/kg diet) for 28 days. In rats fed HF-O compared to HF, urinary noradrenaline, adrenaline and UCP1 levels in IBAT were significantly higher, whereas plasma leptin levels and the total weight of the abdominal cavity adipose tissue were significantly lower. In anaesthetized 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, the OA (3.8 mg of intravenous injection)-induced increase in plasma noradrenaline secretion was suppressed by TRPA1 or TRPV1 antagonist and by a β2- or β3-adrenoceptor antagonist. Furthermore, OA-activated rat and human TRPV1s expressed on HEK293 cells at the same level as zingerone (pungent component in ginger). OA also activated humanTRPA1, and its potency was approximately 10-fold stronger than that for TRPV1. These findings suggest that OA is the agonist of both TRPA1 and TRPV1 and that OA enhances UCP1 expression in IBAT with a concomitant decrease in the visceral fat mass of HF-diet-induced obese rats through enhanced noradrenaline secretion via β-adrenergic action following TRPA1 and TRPV1 activation.
PMID: 27951473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]