Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Electrotherapy

Assessment of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Toxoplasma gondii. 📎

Abstract Title: Assessment of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Toxoplasma gondii. Abstract Source: Iran J Parasitol. 2016 Apr-Jun;11(2):159-167. PMID: 28096849 Abstract Author(s): Sercin Ozlem-Caliskan, Hatice Ertabaklar, Mehmet Dincer Bilgin, Sema Ertug Article Affiliation: Sercin Ozlem-Caliskan Abstract: BACKGROUND: The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on Toxoplasma gondii have not been explained yet. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of ELF-EMF on growth, survival time and viability of Toxoplasma gondii. In addition, the life span of Toxoplasma infected animals was investigated. METHODS: Sixty adult male BALB/c mice were used for in vivo and in vivo experiments in Laboratory of Biopyhsics and Parasitology of Medical Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, Turkey, in 2010. During in vivo experiments, pulsed and continuous EMFs were applied for 5 d to the infected mice. During in vivo experiments, pulsed and continuous EMF was applied to the tachyzoites within peritoneal exudates for 8 h/d at 4°C and the tachyzoites were then injected to mice. In both experiments, the number of T. gondii in peritoneal exudates was counted and T. gondii protein bands patterns were investigated with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western Blotting. RESULTS: Pulsed and continuous EMF exposure reduced the number of T. gondii tachyzoites in comparison to controls. However, no statistically significant differences were observed at the patterns of protein bands among the samples. CONCLUSION: EMF exposure induces a decrease in the number of T. gondii. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of EMF on intracellular parasites. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2016

A clinical study of acupuncture and SSP (silver spike point) electro-therapy for dry eye syndrome.

Abstract Title: A clinical study of acupuncture and SSP (silver spike point) electro-therapy for dry eye syndrome. Abstract Source: Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(2):197-206. PMID: 16552832 Abstract Author(s): Kuo-Lieh Tseng, Hsu-Jan Liu, Kam-Yuen Tso, Lin-Chung Woung, Yi-Chang Su, Jaung-Geng Lin Article Affiliation: Graduate Institute of Integration Chinese and Western Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. Abstract: The present study was designed as a clinical trial to assess the efficacy of acupuncture and silver spike point (SSP) electro-therapy on dry eye syndrome. A total of 43 dry eye syndrome patients participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into control, acupuncture and SSP electro-therapy groups. The three groups were all given artificial tears treatment. Patients in the treatment groups were given two 20-minute treatments of either acupuncture or SSP. Assessment was carried out using the Basal Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), visual analog scale (VAS) and an overall score of eye condition. After four weeks of treatment, both the acupuncture and SSP treatment groups showed improvements over the control group, in Schirmer tests of the left eye and average tearing of both eyes. After 8 weeks of treatment, both treatment groups showed improvements over the control group both in Schirmer tests and VAS. For the right eye, treatment groups showed significant improvements in Schirmer test and VAS versus the control group averages for both eyes. There was no significant difference in BUT at any time. Comparing scores before and after treatment, the acupuncture and SSP groups showed a significant improvement compared to the control group. The acupuncture group showed a greater 8-week improvement in Schirmer tests scores compared to the SSP group. However, the SSP group patients used fewer applications of artificial tears. Acupuncture and SSP electro-therapy were effective in increasing tear secretion in patients with dry eye syndrome. The SSP electro-therapy not only alleviated dry eye syndrome, but also reduced the number of applications of artificial tears necessary. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2006
Therapeutic Actions Electrotherapy

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A systematic review of clinical studies on electrical stimulation therapy for patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury.

Related Articles A systematic review of clinical studies on electrical stimulation therapy for patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Oct;97(41):e12778 Authors: Deng Y, Dong Y, Liu Y, Zhang Q, Guan X, Chen X, Li M, Xu L, Yang C Abstract BACKGROUND: This study aimed to perform a systematic literature review of the clinical trial evidence on electrical stimulation for the treatment of neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Systematic electronic searches were carried out in the PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, along with the reference lists in the include studies. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they adopted a controlled clinical design based on human population, the patients suffered from spinal cord injury, the main outcomes were the disorders of bowel function and the intervention was electrical stimulation. Also, the language was limited to English and Chinese. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included in this systematic review, comprising transcutaneous electrical stimulation, transrectal bowel stimulation, sacral nerve stimulation, intravesical electrical stimulation, etc. Of the 11 studies, 3 were randomized controlled trials, 8 were controlled before-and-after trials. The quality of the included studies was moderate bias risk. Most studies revealed that the electrical stimulation was beneficial for the patient with NBD after SCI. CONCLUSIONS: Only 11 small clinical studies with 298 participants have evaluated the efficacy of electrical stimulation for NBD after SCI. Although some studies showed electrical stimulation was benefit for the patient with NBD after SCI, there was currently not enough evidence to support the use of electrical stimulation could improve the clinical symptoms of those patients. Thus, well-designed randomized controlled trials with larger patient population are warranted to establish its benefit in clinical practice in the future. PMID: 30313096 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Percutaneous nerve electrical stimulation for fatigue caused by chemotherapy for cervical cancer.

Related Articles Percutaneous nerve electrical stimulation for fatigue caused by chemotherapy for cervical cancer. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Oct;97(41):e12020 Authors: Fu T, Guang HJ, Gao XZ Abstract This retrospective study investigated the effectiveness of percutaneous nerve electrical stimulation (PNES) for fatigue caused by chemotherapy for cervical cancer survivors.Totally, 83 cases of fatigue caused by chemotherapy for cervical cancer survivors were analyzed. All these cases were assigned to a treatment group (n = 43), and a control group (n = 40). Patients in the treatment group received PNES, while the subjects in the control group were on waiting list. The treatment was applied once daily for a total of 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was fatigue. It was evaluated by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), and Fatigue Questionnaire (FQ). The secondary endpoints consisted of anxiety and depression. They were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). All outcomes were measured before and after 6-week treatment.After treatment, PNES did not show significant difference in fatigue relief, measured by MFI (General fatigue, P = .31; Physical fatigue, P = .44; Activity, P = .36; Motivation, P = .55; Mental fatigue, P = .49), and FQ (Mental fatigue, P = .29; Physical fatigue, P = .35); and the reduction of anxiety and depression, measured by the HADS (Anxiety, P = .21; Depression, P = .17) after 6 weeks treatment between 2 groups.This study demonstrated that PNES may not benefit for cervical cancer survivors with fatigue caused by chemotherapy after 6-week treatment. PMID: 30313023 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Design of a novel stimulation system with time-varying paradigms for investigating new modes of high frequency stimulation in brain.

Related Articles Design of a novel stimulation system with time-varying paradigms for investigating new modes of high frequency stimulation in brain. Biomed Eng Online. 2018 Jun 22;17(1):90 Authors: Cai Z, Feng Z, Hu H, Hu N, Wei X Abstract BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown wide clinical applications for treating various disorders of central nervous system. High frequency stimulation (HFS) of pulses with a constant intensity and a constant frequency is typically used in DBS. However, new stimulation paradigms with time-varying parameters provide a prospective direction for DBS developments. To meet the research demands for time-varying stimulations, we designed a new stimulation system with a technique of LabVIEW-based virtual instrument. METHODS: The system included a LabVIEW program, a NI data acquisition card, and an analog stimulus isolator. The output waveforms of the system were measured to verify the time-varying parameters. Preliminary animal experiments were run by delivering the HFS sequences with time-varying parameters to the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats. RESULTS: Verification results showed that the stimulation system was able to generate pulse sequences with ramped intensity and hyperbolic frequency accurately. Application of the time-varying HFS sequences to the axons of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region resulted in neuronal responses different from those induced by HFS with constant parameters. The results indicated important modulations of time-varying stimulations to the neuronal activity that could prevent the stimulation from inducing over-synchronized firing of population neurons. CONCLUSIONS: The stimulation system provides a useful technique for investigating diverse stimulation paradigms for the development of new DBS treatments. PMID: 29929498 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Design of Multifunctional Automated External Defibrillator Based on STM32].

Related Articles [Design of Multifunctional Automated External Defibrillator Based on STM32]. Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi. 2018 Jan 30;42(1):22-26 Authors: Wang K, Xiao S, Ji Y, Fang Y Abstract This paper presents a design of multifunctional portable automated external defibrillator based on STM32F103VC SCM. The defibrillator mainly realizes the defibrillation and ECG analysis function, and according to the clinical actual need, increases information storage and transmission function, query of local records, the function of synchronous LCD display and voice prompt in the defibrillation process. The device uses the defibrillating electrodes to measure body resistance, ECG and so on. We detailedly researched and achieved the discharge module of biphasic defibrillation apparatus based on the damping of two order discharge circuit, and finished the real-time LCD display and voice prompt modules of defibrillation information based on the control of PIC24FJ256DA210 chip. PMID: 29862740 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Research progress of sacral neuromodulation procedure in the treatment of chronic constipation and fecal incontinence].

Related Articles [Research progress of sacral neuromodulation procedure in the treatment of chronic constipation and fecal incontinence]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2018 Apirl 25;21(4):476-480 Authors: He C, Liu S, Li S, Zhang B, Zheng J Abstract Sacral neuromodulation(SNM) procedure has become a new therapy to treat chronic constipation and fecal incontinence. The surgical procedure is easy and safe. It has a small incision compared with traditional surgery and is mainly used in patients whose traditional treatment was unsuccessful. Chronic constipation is one of the most common digestive symptoms. The quality of life in patients with severe constipation has decreased greatly. Although the incidence of fecal incontinence in China is not as high as that of constipation, it also seriously affects the life of the patients, resulting in a decline in the quality of life. Although the mechanism of SNM is uncertain, with more studies conducted, understanding has become more profound, and the curative effect has been recognized. SNM can improve the symptoms and the quality of life. Many studies have reported SNM treatment. Furthermore, some trials on SNM have been conducted. It is used after colorectal resections to promote symptoms of bowel dysfunction. However, few studies reported regarding SNM for constipation and fecal incontinence in China, and knowledge regarding SNM is limited. In this article, we will mainly discuss SNM in the treatment of chronic constipation and fecal incontinence, and its research progress on the mechanism and method, surgical procedure, effectiveness, complications, postoperative contraindications, and the population who need to pay attention, in order to provide reference for the treatment of SNM in China. PMID: 29682720 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Combination of Electronic Choledochoscopy and Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Complicated Biliary Calculus Treatment: A New Exploration.

Related Articles Combination of Electronic Choledochoscopy and Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Complicated Biliary Calculus Treatment: A New Exploration. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2018 Jun;28(3):e68-e73 Authors: Ni ZK, Jin HM, Li XW, Li Y, Huang H Abstract The safety and efficacy of the combination of electronic choledochoscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated bile duct stones were assessed. In total, 20 patients participated in this study, which was conducted between 2012 and 2017. None of the patients were candidates for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with stone extraction. Outcome measures included complete stone clearance and complications postprocedure. Mean stone size was 17±5.2 mm (8 to 30 mm) and mean number of stones was 1.7±1.3 (1 to 5). The mean number of laser sessions was 1.3±0.7 (1 to 4). A mean of 1.0 to 1.5 J/20 to 25 Hz was applied during laser lithotripsy sessions with a mean operative time of 67.8±24.8 minutes. The clearance rate of stone was 18/20 (90%). No mortality existed in this study; however, 1 patient developed acute pancreatitis. The combination of holmium laser lithotripsy and electronic choledochoscopy for complicated biliary calculi is safe, reliable, and minimally invasive and has low residual stone rate. PMID: 29668665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty vs CN XII stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: A single institution experience.

Related Articles Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty vs CN XII stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: A single institution experience. Am J Otolaryngol. 2018 May - Jun;39(3):266-270 Authors: Shah J, Russell JO, Waters T, Kominsky AH, Trask D Abstract OBJECTIVES: Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) therapy is an emerging surgical treatment for select patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aims to compare outcomes in patients with moderate to severe OSA who underwent HNS surgery (Inspire Medical Systems) and those who underwent traditional airway reconstructive surgery, specifically uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). METHODS: Patients who underwent HNS implantation (n = 20), all with moderate to severe OSA, inability to adhere to positive pressure therapy, and compliant with previously published inclusion criteria, were compared to a historical cohort that were intolerant of CPAP with similar inclusion criteria who all underwent UPPP (n = 20) with some also undergoing additional procedures such as septoplasty/turbinate reduction. Data including body mass index (BMI), pre- and post-implant apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were assessed. RESULTS: For patients who underwent HNS, mean preoperative BMI was 28.0. Mean AHI decreased significantly from 38.9 ± 12.5 to 4.5 ± 4.8. All patients achieved an AHI < 20 post implant with 65% (13/20) with an AHI ≤ 5. For patients who underwent traditional airway surgery, mean preoperative BMI was 27.5; mean AHI decreased from 40.3 ± 12.4 to 28.8 ± 25.4. CONCLUSION: While both traditional surgery and HNS are effective treatments for patients with moderate to severe OSA with CPAP intolerance, our study demonstrates that HNS is "curative" in normalizing the AHI to <5 in the majority of patients. For select patients, HNS therapy provides excellent objective improvement in outcome measures. PMID: 29540289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Technology Advances to Improve Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: What Clinicians Should Know.

Related Articles Technology Advances to Improve Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: What Clinicians Should Know. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2018 Jun;71(6):477-484 Authors: Auricchio A, Heggermont WA Abstract Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a well-established treatment for symptomatic heart failure patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, prolonged QRS duration, and abnormal QRS morphology. The ultimate goals of modern CRT are to improve the proportion of patients responding to CRT and to maximize the response to CRT in patients who do respond. While the rate of CRT nonresponders has moderately but progressively decreased over the last 20 years, mostly in patients with left bundle branch block, in patients without left bundle branch block the response rate is almost unchanged. A number of technological advances have already contributed to achieve some of the objectives of modern CRT. They include novel lead design (the left ventricular quadripolar lead, and multipoint pacing), or the possibility to go beyond conventional delivery of CRT (left ventricular endocardial pacing, His bundle pacing). Furthermore, to improve CRT response, a triad of actions is paramount: reducing the burden of atrial fibrillation, reducing the number of appropriate and inappropriate interventions, and adequately predicting heart failure episodes. As in other fields of cardiology, technology and innovations for CRT delivery have been at the forefront in transforming-improving-patient care; therefore, these innovations are discussed in this review. PMID: 29454549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Hemodynamic Effects of Different Pacing Modalities After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients With Reduced Left Ventricular Function.

Related Articles The Hemodynamic Effects of Different Pacing Modalities After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients With Reduced Left Ventricular Function. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2018 02;32(1):259-266 Authors: Gielgens RCW, Herold IHF, van Straten AHM, van Gelder BM, Bracke FA, Korsten HHM, Soliman Hamad MA, Bouwman RA Abstract OBJECTIVES: Patients with decreased left ventricular function undergoing cardiac surgery have a greater chance of difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and a poorer clinical outcome. Directly after weaning, interventricular dyssynchrony, paradoxical septal motion, and even temporary bundle-branch block might be observed. In this study, the authors measured arterial dP/dtmax, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac index using transpulmonary thermodilution, pulse contour analysis, and femoral artery catheter and compared the effects between right ventricular (A-RV) and biventricular (A-BiV) pacing on these parameters. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Single-center study. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 17 patients with a normal or prolonged QRS duration and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with or without valve replacement. INTERVENTIONS: Temporary pacing wires were placed on the right atrium and both ventricles. Different pacing modalities were used in a standardized order. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A-BiV pacing compared with A-RV pacing demonstrated higher arterial dP/dtmax values (846 ± 646 mmHg/s v 800 ± 587 mmHg/s, p = 0.023) and higher MAP values (77 ± 19 mmHg v 71 ± 18 mmHg, p = 0.036). CONCLUSION: In patients with preoperative decreased left ventricular function undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, A-BiV pacing improve the arterial dP/dtmax and MAP in patients with both normal and prolonged QRS duration compared with standard A-RV pacing. In addition, arterial dP/dtmax and MAP can be used to evaluate the effect of intraoperative pacing. In contrast to previous studies using more invasive techniques, transpulmonary thermodilution is easy to apply in the perioperative clinical setting. PMID: 29229263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Management of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis using functional electrical stimulation and exercise.

Related Articles Management of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis using functional electrical stimulation and exercise. Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2017 08;7(4):253-259 Authors: Street T Abstract Previously, it was believed that exercise-related activity was likely to lead to the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) becoming worse. More recently, it has been acknowledged that the consequences of not exercising are detrimental and may exacerbate symptoms of MS. In addition, it has been recognized that some of the disability that occurs after MS is likely to be due to deconditioning from a reduction in physical activity. The current paper will explore the potential role of functional electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve, for facilitating neurorehabilitation, through increasing mobility and overcoming barriers to accessing exercise. The paper will also examine the impact of using exercise-related activity to manage the symptoms of MS along with the potential neuroprotective effects. PMID: 28853641 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kilohertz frequency nerve block enhances anti-inflammatory effects of vagus nerve stimulation.

Related Articles Kilohertz frequency nerve block enhances anti-inflammatory effects of vagus nerve stimulation. Sci Rep. 2017 01 05;7:39810 Authors: Patel YA, Saxena T, Bellamkonda RV, Butera RJ Abstract Efferent activation of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) dampens systemic inflammatory processes, potentially modulating a wide-range of inflammatory pathological conditions. In contrast, afferent cVN activation amplifies systemic inflammatory processes, leading to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic nervous system through the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN), and elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ideally, to clinically implement anti-inflammatory therapy via cervical vagus nerve stimulation (cVNS) one should selectively activate the efferent pathway. Unfortunately, current implementations, in animal and clinical investigations, activate both afferent and efferent pathways. We paired cVNS with kilohertz electrical stimulation (KES) nerve block to preferentially activate efferent pathways while blocking afferent pathways. Selective efferent cVNS enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of cVNS. Our results demonstrate that: (i) afferent, but not efferent, cVNS synchronously activates the GSN in a dose-dependent manner; (ii) efferent cVNS enabled by complete afferent KES nerve block enhances the anti-inflammatory benefits of cVNS; and (iii) incomplete afferent KES nerve block exacerbates systemic inflammation. Overall, these data demonstrate the utility of paired efferent cVNS and afferent KES nerve block for achieving selective efferent cVNS, specifically as it relates to neuromodulation of systemic inflammation. PMID: 28054557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antimicrobial activity of a bioelectric dressing using an in vitro wound pathogen colony drip-flow reactor biofilm model.

Related Articles Antimicrobial activity of a bioelectric dressing using an in vitro wound pathogen colony drip-flow reactor biofilm model. J Wound Care. 2016 07 01;25(Sup7):S47-S52 Authors: Kim H, Izadjoo M Abstract OBJECTIVE: We performed in vitro antibiofilm testing of a silver and zinc containing microcurrent generating bioelectric dressing (BED) against clinical wound pathogens to determine its efficacy in preventing biofilm formation under low shear and continuous flow conditions, simulating wound infection environments. METHOD: We customised an in vitro colony drip-flow reactor (DFR) biofilm model for efficacy evaluation of BED. Each bacterial pathogen was diluted to 104CFU/ml and inoculated on the polycarbonate filter membrane as an abiotic support. BED and controls (no treatment, gauze, and blank polyester with no silver and zinc) were applied directly on the membranes where bacterial cultures were inoculated. Biofilms were continuously developed onto the membranes for 72 hours at room temperature. Biofilm formation was confirmed by crystal violet staining and microscopic observation. Through vigorous shaking and sonication, the released bacteria were serially diluted, plated, and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C to determine the numbers of surviving bacteria. RESULTS: Biofilms were well developed onto blank polyesters, but not the BED after 72 hours incubation. Crystal violet staining from the blank polyesters showed large and fully grown biofilms. We observed an inhibition in bacterial growth on BED treatment. The antibiofilm activity of the BED against each of eight monospecies biofilms showed a 1- or 2 log10 (or 10- or 100-fold) reduction in bacterial numbers compared with those of controls. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that colony DFR biofilm model was an appropriate for testing the antibiofilm efficacy of BED under low shear and continuous flow conditions for simulating clinical wound environments. The bioelectric currents generated from the silver and zinc active ingredients in the dressing resulted in antibiofilm activity of this wound care device. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors, based on scientific investigation, and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of Defense, the United States Government or any of the authors' employers. Dr. Mina Izadjoo has served as a consultant to Vomaris Innovations Inc. PMID: 29027847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]