CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions EXERCISE

Exercise reduces depression and inflammation but intensity matters.

Abstract Title: Exercise reduces depression and inflammation but intensity matters. Abstract Source: Biol Psychol. 2018 Mar ;133:79-84. Epub 2018 Feb 3. PMID: 29408464 Abstract Author(s): Emily M Paolucci, Dessi Loukov, Dawn M E Bowdish, Jennifer J Heisz Article Affiliation: Emily M Paolucci Abstract: BACKGROUND: Exercise may help to mitigate symptoms of depression by reducing inflammation; however, little is known about the influence of exercise intensity on depressed mood. METHODS: In the present study, sixty-one university students were assigned to six weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIT), moderate continuous training (MCT), or no exercise (CON) during their academic term. We measured changes in depression, anxiety and perceived stress along with pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and C-reactive protein (CRP). RESULTS: Depression increased for CON, demonstrating how quickly mental health can decline for students during their academic term. In contrast, MCT decreased depression and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α levels. Although HIT decreased depressive symptoms, it also increased perceived stress, TNF-α and IL-6 relative to MCT. This may be due to the higher level of physical stress evoked by the more strenuous exercise protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results suggest that moderate-intensity exercise may be an optimal intensity of exercise for the promotion of mental health by decreasing TNF-α. This is critical for informing the use of exercise as medicine for mental health. Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2018

Effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Abstract Title: Effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Abstract Source: Age Ageing. 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17. PMID: 29471456 Abstract Author(s): Chih-Chin Lai, Yu-Kang Tu, Tyng-Guey Wang, Yi-Ting Huang, Kuo-Liong Chien Article Affiliation: Chih-Chin Lai Abstract: Background: A variety of different types of exercise are promoted to improve muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Objective: We aimed to determine the relative effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Design: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Subjects: Adults aged 60 and over. Methods: Evidence from randomised controlled trials of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration were combined. The effects of exercise interventions on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance were evaluated by conducting a network meta-analysis to compare multiple interventions and usual care. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. A meta-regression was performed to assess potential effect modifiers. Results: Data were obtained from 30 trials involving 1,405 participants (age range: 60-92 years). No significant differences were found between the effects of exercise or usual care on lean body mass. Resistance training (minimum 6 weeks duration) achieved greater muscle strength improvement than did usual care (12.8 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5-17.0 kg). Resistance training and whole-body vibration were associated with greater physical performance improvement compared with usual care (2.6 times greater [95% CI: 1.3-3.9] and 2.1 times greater [95% CI: 0.5-3.7], respectively). Conclusions: Resistance training is the most effect intervention to improve muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Our findings also suggest that whole-body vibration is beneficial for physical performance. However, none of the three exercise interventions examined had a significant effect on lean body mass. Article Published Date : Feb 16, 2018

The Effects of Thai Yoga on Physical Fitness: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials.

Abstract Title: The Effects of Thai Yoga on Physical Fitness: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13. PMID: 29437484 Abstract Author(s): Chuenjid Kongkaew, Parinya Lertsinthai, Katechan Jampachaisri, Pajaree Mongkhon, Peerapong Meesomperm, Kunwarang Kornkaew, Phichamon Malaiwong Article Affiliation: Chuenjid Kongkaew Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Thai yoga is a traditional Thai exercise used for improving health-related physical fitness. Many studies have evaluated these effects, but their results remain inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the effectiveness of Thai yoga on physical fitness. DESIGN/METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, Thai Library Integrated System (ThaiLis), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), National Rehabilitation Information Center (Rehabdata), Scopus, Web of Science, Thai University library databases/journals, and Thai Physical Therapy database up to March 2016 were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of Thai yoga exercise compared with normal daily activities as controls, in any language. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were performed using the random-effects model. RESULTS: Seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Thai yoga training significantly improved body flexibility by 3.9 cm after 4 weeks [95% CI = 3.9-4.0; p < 0.001: no heterogeneity χ = 0.66, d.f.2, p = 0.7; I0.00%] and 8.9 cm after 8 weeks [95% CI = 7.4-10.5; p < 0.001: no heterogeneity χ = 0.16, d.f.2, p = 0.9; I0.00%] compared to controls. It also significantly increased range of motion (ROM) of right shoulder extension by 1.5 degrees at week 8, compared to controls [95% CI = 0.12-2.81; p = 0.03; low heterogeneity χ = 1.61, d.f.1, p = 0.2; I37.9%]. Greater ROM for right shoulder abduction was observed after 12 weeks compared to controls [22.2 degrees (95% CI = 20-24; p < 0.001): no heterogeneity χ = 0.29, d.f.1, p = 0.6; I0.00%]. CONCLUSIONS: Thai yoga exercises appeared useful, in particular, on body and right shoulder joint flexibility. Regular stretching exercise of Thai yoga and/or in combination with exercises could promote health-related physical fitness. Article Published Date : Feb 12, 2018

Melatonin therapy for blunt trauma and strenuous exercise: A mechanism involving cytokines, NFκB, Akt, MAFBX and MURF-1.

Abstract Title: Melatonin therapy for blunt trauma and strenuous exercise: A mechanism involving cytokines, NFκB, Akt, MAFBX and MURF-1. Abstract Source: J Sports Sci. 2018 Jan 9:1-5. Epub 2018 Jan 9. PMID: 29313427 Abstract Author(s): Gerald J Maarman, Russel J Reiter Article Affiliation: Gerald J Maarman Abstract: Muscle injury occurs due to trauma, strenuous exercise or sports activities; most people affected are athletes. Ineffectively treated muscle injury can negatively affect sports careers and quality of life after retirement from sports. Reports have indicated that the current therapeutic management of muscle injury, particularly anti-inflammatory drugs, are not necessarily effective. Therefore, better therapies are required. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated melatonin's potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions against musclepathology in sarcopenia or atrophy in systemic disease. However, the underlying mechanisms for the protective effect of melatonin in the context of trauma/strenuous exercise are multifactorial and not well described. This paper reviews data on melatonin's impact on muscle injury and findings that points toward the mechanisms through which melatonin achieves muscle protection. The general concept described in this review is that melatonin inhibits NFκB, reduces cytokine expression, increases Akt that downregulates the ratio of MAFBX and MURF-1 in order to limit the extent of muscle injury andpromote muscle recovery post-injury. The work discussed in this review supports the notion that melatonin may be considered a possible therapy against trauma/sports related muscle injury. Inclusion of melatonin as a therapy in sports medicine could therefore provide a better treatment option for injured athletes and sports individuals. Article Published Date : Jan 08, 2018

The Effects of Acute Exercise on Cognitive Function: Solomon Experimental Design.

Abstract Title: The Effects of Acute Exercise on Cognitive Function: Solomon Experimental Design. Abstract Source: J Prim Prev. 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5. PMID: 29305752 Abstract Author(s): Annese Jaffery, Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi Article Affiliation: Annese Jaffery Abstract: No study has yet evaluated the effects of an acute 5-min bout of exercise (walking) on cognitive function, which was the purpose of our study. We employed a Solomon-4 experimental design, in which 22 young adult participants were included in each group. Participants in two groups (1 and 3) walked on a treadmill for 5 min at a self-selected intensity. We assessed cognitive function by means of the Trail Making B test. We observed no difference in cognitive function between the two assessments for the control group (group 2: 42.8 vs. 40.6 s), but found a significant effect for adults in group 1 (56.3 vs. 35.7 s), whose cognitive function was markedly improved after the 5-min bout of walking. This within-group by between-group interaction (change due to the treatment) was statistically significant (- 20.4 vs. - 2.2 s). A 5-min bout of walking at a self-selected intensity is associated with improved cognitive function. Given our observed interaction effect of the pretest and treatment (walking) on cognitive function, we encourage researchers to investigate the potential additive or synergistic effects of mental training and acute exercise on cognition. Article Published Date : Jan 04, 2018

The effects of exercise on hypothalamic neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease mouse model. 📎

Abstract Title: The effects of exercise on hypothalamic neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2018 ;13(1):e0190205. Epub 2018 Jan 2. PMID: 29293568 Abstract Author(s): Khoa Do, Brenton Thomas Laing, Taylor Landry, Wyatt Bunner, Naderi Mersaud, Tomoko Matsubara, Peixin Li, Yuan Yuan, Qun Lu, Hu Huang Article Affiliation: Khoa Do Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system. In this study, we characterized and examined the early metabolic changes in the triple transgenic mouse AD model (3xtg-AD), and their relationship with the hypothalamus, a key regulator of metabolism in the central nervous system. We observed that the 3xtg-AD model exhibited significantly higher oxygen consumption as well as food intake before reported amyloid plaque formation, indicating that metabolic abnormalities occurred at early onset in the 3xtg-AD model compared with their counterparts. Analysis of gene expression in the hypothalamus indicated increased mRNA expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes, as well as decreased gene expression of Agouti-related protein (AgRP) and Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) at 12 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and NPY-expressing neurons decreased at 24 weeks in the 3xtg-AD model. Four weeks of voluntary exercise were sufficient to reverse the gene expression of inflammation and apoptotic markers in the hypothalamus, six weeks of exercise improved glucose metabolism, moreover, 8 weeks of voluntary exercise training attenuated apoptosis and augmented POMC and NPY-expressing neuronal populations in the hypothalamus compared to the control group. Our results indicated that early onset of metabolic abnormalities may contribute to the pathology of AD, which is associated with increased inflammation as well as decreased neuronal population and key neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, early intervention by voluntary exercise normalized hypothalamic inflammation and neurodegeneration as well as glucose metabolism in the 3xtg-AD model. The data, taken as a whole, suggests a hypothalamic-mediated mechanism where exercise prevents the progression of dementia and of Alzheimer's disease. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2017

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and White Matter Neuronal Fiber Integrity in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Abstract Title: Cardiorespiratory Fitness and White Matter Neuronal Fiber Integrity in Mild Cognitive Impairment. Abstract Source: J Alzheimers Dis. 2018 ;61(2):729-739. PMID: 29226864 Abstract Author(s): Kan Ding, Takashi Tarumi, David C Zhu, Benjamin Y Tseng, Binu P Thomas, Marcel Turner, Justin Repshas, Diana R Kerwin, Kyle B Womack, Hanzhang Lu, C Munro Cullum, Rong Zhang Article Affiliation: Kan Ding Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence showed the self-reported levels of physical activity are positively associated with white matter (WM) integrity and cognitive performance in normal adults and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the objective measure of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was not used in these studies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations of CRF measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) with WM fiber integrity and neurocognitive performance in older adults with MCI. METHODS: Eighty-one participants (age = 65±7 years, 43 women), including 26 cognitively normal older adults and 55 amnestic MCI patients, underwent VO2max test to measure CRF, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess WM fiber integrity, and neurocognitive assessment focused on memory and executive function. DTI data were analyzedby the tract-based spatial statistics and region-of-interest approach. RESULTS: Cognitively normal older adults and MCI patients were not different in global WM fiber integrity and VO2max. VO2max was associated positively with DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy in∼54% WM fiber tracts, and negatively with mean and radial diffusivities in ∼46% and ∼56% of the WM fiber tracts. The associations of VO2max with DTI metrics remained statistically significant after adjustment of age, sex, body mass index, WM lesion burden, and MCI status. The DTI metrics obtained from the area that correlated to VO2max were associated with executive function performance in MCI patients. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of CRF are associated with better WM fiber integrity, which in turn is correlated with better executive function performance in MCI patients. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2017

Influence of different types of compression garments on exercise-induced muscle damage markers after a soccer match.

Abstract Title: Influence of different types of compression garments on exercise-induced muscle damage markers after a soccer match. Abstract Source: Res Sports Med. 2018 Jan-Mar;26(1):27-42. Epub 2017 Oct 30. PMID: 29082755 Abstract Author(s): Diego Marqués-Jiménez, Julio Calleja-González, Iñaki Arratibel-Imaz, Anne Delextrat, Fernando Uriarte, Nicolás Terrados Article Affiliation: Diego Marqués-Jiménez Abstract: There is not enough evidence of positive effects of compression therapy on the recovery of soccer players after matches. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the influence of different types of compression garments in reducing exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) during recovery after a friendly soccer match. Eighteen semi-professional soccer players (24 ± 4.07 years, 177 ± 5 cm; 71.8 ± 6.28 kg and 22.73 ± 1.81 BMI) participated in this study. A two-stage crossover design was chosen. Participants acted as controls in one match and were assigned to an experimental group (compression stockings group, full-leg compression group, shortsgroup) in the other match. Participants in experimental groups played the match wearing the assigned compression garments, which were also worn in the 3 days post-match, for 7 h each day. Results showed a positive, but not significant, effect of compression garments on attenuating EIMD biomarkersresponse, and inflammatory and perceptual responses suggest that compression may improve physiological and psychological recovery. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2017

Metabolic effect of bodyweight whole-body vibration in a 20-min exercise session: A crossover study using verified vibration stimulus. 📎

Abstract Title: Metabolic effect of bodyweight whole-body vibration in a 20-min exercise session: A crossover study using verified vibration stimulus. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2018 ;13(1):e0192046. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29385196 Abstract Author(s): Chiara Milanese, Valentina Cavedon, Marco Sandri, Enrico Tam, Francesco Piscitelli, Federico Boschi, Carlo Zancanaro Article Affiliation: Chiara Milanese Abstract: The ability of whole body vibration (WBV) to increase energy expenditure (EE) has been investigated to some extent in the past using short-term single exercises or sets of single exercises. However, the current practice in WBV training for fitness is based on the execution of multiple exercises during a WBV training session for a period of at least 20 min; nevertheless, very limited and inconsistent data are available on EE during long term WBV training session. This crossover study was designed to demonstrate, in an adequately powered sample of participants, the ability of WBV to increase the metabolic cost of exercise vs. no vibration over the time span of a typical WBV session for fitness (20 min). Twenty-two physically active young males exercised on a vibration platform (three identical sets of six different exercises) using an accelerometer-verified vibration stimulus in both the WBV and no vibration condition. Oxygen consumption was measured with indirect calorimetry and expressed as area under the curve (O2(AUC)). Results showed that, in the overall 20-min training session, WBV increased both the O2(AUC) and the estimated EE vs. no vibration by about 22% and 20%, respectively (P<0.001 for both, partial eta squared [η2] ≥0.35) as well as the metabolic equivalent of task (+5.5%, P = 0.043; η2 = 0.02) and the rate of perceived exertion (+13%, P<0.001;ŋ2 = 0.16). Results demonstrated that vibration is able to significantly increase the metabolic cost of exercise in a 20-min WBV training session. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2017

Exercise improves recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex for rats modelling vascular dementia.

Abstract Title: Exercise improves recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex for rats modelling vascular dementia. Abstract Source: Neurol Res. 2018 Jan ;40(1):68-77. Epub 2017 Nov 10. PMID: 29126372 Abstract Author(s): Juntao Dong, Jingpu Zhao, Yangyang Lin, Huiying Liang, Xiaokuo He, Xiuyuan Zheng, Minghong Sui, Zhiqiang Zhuang, Tiebin Yan Article Affiliation: Juntao Dong Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may induce involuntary exercise and make beneficial effects on vascular dementia (VD) by strengthening the BDNF-pCREB-mediated pathway and hippocampal plasticity. Whether FES improves recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was investigated by establishing a VD model. METHODS: The VD rats were administered with two weeks of voluntary exercise, forced exercise, or involuntary exercise induced with FES. Sham-operated and control groups were also included. The behavioral changes were assessed with the novel object recognition test and novel object location test. The expression levels of key proteins related to synaptic plasticity in the PFC were also detected. RESULTS: All types of exercise improved the rats' novel object recognition index, but only voluntary exercise and involuntary exercise induced with FES improved the novel object location index. Any sort of exercise enhanced the expression of key proteins in the PFC. CONCLUSION: Involuntary exercise induced with FES can improve recognition memory in VD better than forced exercise. The mechanism is associated with increased synaptic plasticity in the PFC. FES may be a useful alternative tool for cognitive rehabilitation. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2017

Physical exercise improves strength, balance, mobility, and endurance in people with cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review. 📎

Abstract Title: Physical exercise improves strength, balance, mobility, and endurance in people with cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review. Abstract Source: J Physiother. 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27. PMID: 29289581 Abstract Author(s): Freddy Mh Lam, Mei-Zhen Huang, Lin-Rong Liao, Raymond Ck Chung, Timothy Cy Kwok, Marco Yc Pang Article Affiliation: Freddy Mh Lam Abstract: QUESTION: Does physical exercise training improve physical function and quality of life in people with cognitive impairment and dementia? Which training protocols improve physical function and quality of life? How do cognitive impairment and other patient characteristics influence the outcomes of exercise training? DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. PARTICIPANTS: People with mild cognitive impairment or dementia as the primary diagnosis. INTERVENTION: Physical exercise. OUTCOME MEASURES: Strength, flexibility, gait, balance, mobility, walking endurance, dual-task ability, activities of daily living, quality of life, and falls. RESULTS: Forty-three clinical trials (n=3988) were included. According to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, the meta-analyses revealed strong evidence in support of using supervised exercise training to improve the results of 30-second sit-to-stand test (MD 2.1 repetitions, 95% CI 0.3 to 3.9), step length (MD 5cm, 95% CI 2 to 8), Berg Balance Scale (MD 3.6 points, 95% CI 0.3 to 7.0), functional reach (3.9cm, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.5), Timed Up and Go test (-1second, 95% CI -2 to 0), walking speed (0.13m/s, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.24), and 6-minute walk test (50m, 95% CI 18 to 81) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Weak evidence supported the use of exercise in improving flexibility and Barthel Index performance. Weak evidence suggested that non-specific exercise did not improve dual-tasking ability or activity level. Strong evidence indicated that exercise did not improve quality of life in this population. The effect of exercise on falls remained inconclusive. Poorer physical function was a determinant of better response to exercise training, but cognitive performance did not have an impact. CONCLUSION: People with various levels of cognitive impairment can benefit from supervised multi-modal exercise for about 60minutes a day, 2 to 3days a week to improve physical function. [Lam FMH , Huang MZ, Liao LR, Chung RCK, Kwok TCY, Pang MYC (2018) Physical exercise improves strength, balance, mobility, and endurance in people with cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy XX: XX-XX]. Article Published Date : Dec 26, 2017

Exercise in the management of knee and hip osteoarthritis.

Abstract Title: Exercise in the management of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Abstract Source: Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14. PMID: 29251659 Abstract Author(s): Elizabeth Wellsandt, Yvonne Golightly Article Affiliation: Elizabeth Wellsandt Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on studies published during July 2001 to August 2017 of exercise as an intervention in knee and hip osteoarthritis, including its influence on an array of patient outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies continue to illustrate the efficacy of exercise in treating and managing osteoarthritis, with current literature more focused on the knee compared with the hip joint. Both traditional (e.g. strength, aerobic, flexibility) and more nontraditional (e.g. yoga, Tai Chi, aquatic) training modes improve patient outcomes related to joint symptoms, mobility, quality of life, psychological health, musculoskeletal properties, body composition, sleep, and fatigue. Exercise that is adequately dosed (e.g. frequency, intensity) and progressive in nature demonstrated the greatest improvements in patient outcomes. Supervised, partially supervised, and nonsupervised interventions can be successful in the treatment of osteoarthritis, but patient preference regarding level of supervision and mode of exercise may be key predictors in exercise adherence and degree of outcome improvement. A topic of increasing interest in osteoarthritis is the supplementary role of behavior training in exercise interventions. SUMMARY: Osteoarthritis is a complex, multifactorial disease that can be successfully managed and treated through exercise, with minimal risk for negative consequences. However, to have greatest impact, appropriate exercise prescription is needed. Efforts to achieve correct exercise doses and mitigate patient nonadherence are needed to lessen the lifelong burden of osteoarthritis. Article Published Date : Dec 13, 2017

Association between exercise and the risk of dementia: results from a nationwide longitudinal study in China. 📎

Abstract Title: Association between exercise and the risk of dementia: results from a nationwide longitudinal study in China. Abstract Source: BMJ Open. 2017 Dec 4 ;7(12):e017497. Epub 2017 Dec 4. PMID: 29208615 Abstract Author(s): Zi Zhou, Jian Fu, Y Alicia Hong, Ping Wang, Ya Fang Article Affiliation: Zi Zhou Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the causal association between exercise and the risk of dementia among older Chinese adults. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based study with a follow-up duration of 9 years. SETTING: Data for the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey waves occurring from 2002 to 2011-2012 were extracted from the survey database. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 7501 dementia-free subjects who were older than 65 years were included at baseline. Dementia was defined as a self-reported or proxy-reported physician's diagnosis of the disease. OUTCOME MEASURES AND METHODS: Regular exercise and potential confounding variables were obtained via a self-report questionnaire. We generated longitudinal logistic regression models based on time-lagged generalised estimating equation to examine the causal association between exercise and dementia risk. RESULTS: Of the 7501 older Chinese people included in this study, 338 developed dementia during the 9-year follow-up period after excluding those who were lost to follow-up or deceased. People who regularly exercised had lower odds of developing dementia (OR=0.53, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.85) than those who did not exercise regularly. CONCLUSION: Regular exercise was associated with decreased risk of dementia. Policy-makers should develop effective public health programmes and build exercise-friendly environments for the general public. Article Published Date : Dec 03, 2017

Effects of Regular Physical Activity on the Cognitive Performance of Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review.

Abstract Title: Effects of Regular Physical Activity on the Cognitive Performance of Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review. Abstract Source: Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2017 Dec ;15(10):481-493. Epub 2017 Nov 21. PMID: 29160740 Abstract Author(s): Natalie Podolski, Klara Brixius, Hans G Predel, Christian Brinkmann Article Affiliation: Natalie Podolski Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline has been shown to be associated with long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review analyzes the present literature to ascertain the role of regular physical activity (PA) for the functioning of the diabetic brain. METHODS: PubMed was systematically searched for relevant publications up to July 2017. RESULTS: Four cross-sectional, one longitudinal observational, and nine interventional studies with a total of∼7000 T2DM subjects are included in this review. Some significant positive relationships between the PA level of T2DM patients and their performance in several cognitive tests are reported in the cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal observational study implies a higher risk for developing dementia/mild cognitive impairment in T2DM patients with low PA behavior. Some significantly improved cognitive test results are reported for T2DM patients following physical training (PT) in six interventional studies. The quality of most of the training studies is low due to small sample sizes and/ormissing control groups. DISCUSSION: PT may potentially contribute to improving the cognitive performance in T2DM patients. Additional high-quality studies with standardized cognitive assessments are needed to further determine the dose-effect relationships between PA and cognitive performance in T2DM patients. Article Published Date : Nov 30, 2017

Lifelong Voluntary Exercise Modulates Age-Related Changes in Oxidative Stress.

Abstract Title: Lifelong Voluntary Exercise Modulates Age-Related Changes in Oxidative Stress. Abstract Source: Int J Sports Med. 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23. PMID: 29169189 Abstract Author(s): Mohamed Amine Bouzid, Edith Filaire, Régis Matran, Sophie Robin, Claudine Fabre Article Affiliation: Mohamed Amine Bouzid Abstract: The hypothesis that aging and regular physical activity could influence oxidative stress has been studied by comparing antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid andα-Tocopherol) and malondialdehyde level (MDA) in four groups: young sedentary (n=15; age: 20.3±2.8 years; YS), young active (n=16; age: 21.4±1.9 years; YA), old sedentary (n=15; age: 65.1±3.5 years; OS) and old active (n=17; age: 67.2±4.8 years; OA). Antioxidant activities and MDA level were assessed at rest and after an incremental exercise. There was no difference in resting antioxidant activities and lipid peroxidation between YS and OS. However, resting SOD and GR activities were higher in YA compared to OA (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) and resting MDA level was higher in OA compared to YA (p<0.01). After exercise, a significant increase in SOD and GPX activities was observed in YS, YA and OA (p<0.01). Likewise, after exercise a significant increase of MDA level in YA, OS and OA (p<0.01) was observed. In addition, the comparison of YA to OA and YS to OA revealed similar antioxidant activities and lipid peroxidation between YS and OA, whereas antioxidant activities were higher in YA compared to OA. These data suggest that beneficial effects of regular physical activity in antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation damage could be impaired by the aging process and that regular physical activity in older adults could maintain age-related decreases in antioxidant defense. Article Published Date : Nov 22, 2017