Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Exercise Cycling

Ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Following a Fatiguing Bout of Exercise Accelerates Post-Exercise Acid-Base Balance Recovery and Improves Subsequent High-Intensity Cycling Time to Exhaustion.

Abstract Title: Ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Following a Fatiguing Bout of Exercise Accelerates Post-Exercise Acid-Base Balance Recovery and Improves Subsequent High-Intensity Cycling Time to Exhaustion. Abstract Source: Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017 May 22:1-25. Epub 2017 May 22. PMID: 28530505 Abstract Author(s): Lewis A Gough, Steven Rimmer, Callum J Osler, Matthew F Higgins Article Affiliation: Lewis A Gough Abstract: This study evaluated the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on post-exercise acid-base balance recovery kinetics and subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, nine healthy and active males (age: 23±2 years, height: 179±5 cm, body mass: 74±9 kg, peak mean minute power (WPEAK) 256±45 W, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2PEAK) 46±8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarisation and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1) at 100% WPEAK on two occasions (TLIM1 and TLIM2) interspersed by a 90 min passive recovery period. Using a double blind approach, 30 min into a 90 min recovery period participants ingested either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a placebo (PLA) containing 0.1 g.kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (NaCl) mixed with 4 ml.kg(-1) tap water and 1 ml.kg(-1) orange squash. The mean differences between TLIM2 and TLIM1 was larger for PLA compared to NaHCO3 (-53±53 vs. -20±48 s; P=0.008, d=0.7, CI=-0.3, 1.6), indicating superior subsequent exercise time to exhaustion following NaHCO3. Blood lactate [BLa(-)] was similar between treatments post TLIM1, but greater for NaHCO3 post TLIM2 and 5 min post TLIM2. Ingestion of NaHCO3 induced marked increases (P<0.01) in both blood pH (+0.07±0.02, d=2.6, CI=1.2, 3.7) and bicarbonate ion concentration [HCO3(-)] (+6.8±1.6 mmo.l(-1), d=3.4, CI=1.8, 4.7) compared to the PLA treatment, prior to TLIM2. It is likely both the acceleration of recovery, and the marked increases of acid-base after TLIM1 contributed to greater TLIM2 performancecompared to the PLA condition. Article Published Date : May 21, 2017

Long-term bicycle riding ameliorates the depression of the patients undergoing hemodialysis by affecting the levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18. 📎

Abstract Title: Long-term bicycle riding ameliorates the depression of the patients undergoing hemodialysis by affecting the levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18. Abstract Source: Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017 ;13:91-100. Epub 2016 Dec 28. PMID: 28096677 Abstract Author(s): Chunhui Zhao, Hui Ma, Lei Yang, Yong Xiao Article Affiliation: Chunhui Zhao Abstract: PURPOSE: Hemodialysis patients with depression have a higher risk of death and hospitalization. Although there is pharmacological management for the depression of hemodialysis patients, the adverse effect of the drug limits the use. The nonpharmacological way, bicycle riding, may be an effective way for the therapy of the depression in hemodialysis patients. However, the underlying mechanism of this relationship is still not fully explained, while interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) are associated with depression and exercise. Thus, the effects of bicycle riding on the levels of the interleukin were explored. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty-nine patients with chronic hemodialysis were selected and randomly assigned to three groups of medicine (MG, received 20-mg escitalopram daily), medicine and aerobic exercise (MAG, received 20-mg escitalopram daily and bicycle riding six times weekly), and only aerobic exercise (AG, received 20-mg placebo daily and bicycle riding six times weekly). The whole experiment lasted for 18 weeks. The quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey) and depression severity according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition [DSM-IV] were measured before and at the end of this study. The serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18 were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. RESULTS: The quality of life was improved and depression severity was reduced significantly in the MAG and AG groups when compared with the MG group (P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18 were the highest in the MG group, moderate in the MAG group and the lowest in AG group. On the other hand, the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18 were closely associated with depression scores (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise improves the quality of life and ameliorates the depression severity of the patients undergoing hemodialysis by affecting the levels of IL-6 and IL-18. Bicycle riding is a potential way for the depression therapy of the patients with chronic hemodialysis. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Whole Body Vibration Increases Subsequent Sprint Performance in Well-Trained Cyclists.

Abstract Title: Whole Body Vibration Increases Subsequent Sprint Performance in Well-Trained Cyclists. Abstract Source: Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016 Dec 14:1-18. Epub 2016 Dec 14. PMID: 27967282 Abstract Author(s): Bent R Rønnestad, Gunnar Slettaløkken Falch, Stian Ellefsen Article Affiliation: Bent R Rønnestad Abstract: PURPOSE: Postactivation potentiation (PAP) exercise with added whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a potential way to acutely improve sprint performance. In cycling, there are many competitions and situations where sprinting abilities are important. In the present study we investigated the effect of adding WBV to warm-up procedures on subsequent cycle sprint performance. METHODS: Eleven well-trained cyclists participated in the study. All cyclists performed a familiarization session before two separate test sessions in randomized order. Each session included a standardized warm-up followed by one of the following preconditioning exercises; 30 s of half-squats without WBV or 30 s of half-squats with WBV at 40 Hz. A 15 s Wingate sprint was performed one minute after the preconditioning exercise. RESULTS: Performing preconditioning exercise with WBV at 40 Hz resulted in superior peak power output compared to preconditioning exercise without WBV (1413±257 W vs. 1353±213 W, p=0.04) and a tendency towards superior mean power output during a 15 s all-out sprint (850±119 W vs. 828±101 W, p=0.08). Effect sizes showed a moderate practical effect of WBV vs. no WBV on both peak and mean power output. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, preconditioning exercise performed with WBV at 40 Hz seems to have a positive effect on cycling sprint performance in young well-trained cyclists. This suggests that athletes can incorporate body-loaded squats with WBV into preparations to specific sprint training to improve the quality of the sprint training and also in order to improve sprint performance in relevant competitions. Article Published Date : Dec 13, 2016

A randomized controlled trial examining the effects of 16 weeks of moderate-to-intensive cycling and honey supplementation on lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage and cytokine changes in male road cyclists.

Abstract Title: A randomized controlled trial examining the effects of 16 weeks of moderate-to-intensive cycling and honey supplementation on lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage and cytokine changes in male road cyclists. Abstract Source: Cytokine. 2016 Sep 24 ;88:222-231. Epub 2016 Sep 24. PMID: 27676156 Abstract Author(s): Behzad Hajizadeh Maleki, Bakhtyar Tartibian, Frank C Mooren, Karsten Krüger, Leah Z FitzGerald, Mohammad Chehrazi Article Affiliation: Behzad Hajizadeh Maleki Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate whether honey supplementation (70g, ninety minutes before each training session) attenuates changes in lymphocyte counts, DNA damage, cytokines, antioxidative and peroxidative biomarkers following moderate-to-intensive exercise training in male road cyclists. Healthy nonprofessional cyclists (n=24, aged 17-26years) were randomly assigned to exercise+supplement (EX+S, n=12) and exercise (EX, n=12) groups for an experimental period of 16weeks. Moderate-to-intensive exercise training increased lymphocytes DNA damage, cytokines and peroxidative biomarkers as well as decreased antioxidative biomarkers in the EX group. These changes were significantly attenuated in the EX+S group. Furthermore, for both groups the observed changes in peroxidative and antioxidative biomarkers could be correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with lymphocyte DNA damage and cytokines. Findings suggest that honey attenuates oxidative stress and lymphocyte DNA damage after exercise, activities that are most likely attributable to its high antioxidant capacity. Article Published Date : Sep 23, 2016

Daily consumption of tea catechins improves aerobic capacity in healthy male adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

Abstract Title: Daily consumption of tea catechins improves aerobic capacity in healthy male adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Abstract Source: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2016 Aug 26:1-6. Epub 2016 Aug 26. PMID: 27562352 Abstract Author(s): Noriyasu Ota, Satoko Soga, Akira Shimotoyodome Article Affiliation: Noriyasu Ota Abstract: Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with tea catechins combined with exercise improved endurance capacity in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of daily tea catechin consumption on aerobic capacity in humans. Sixteen Japanese non-athlete male subjects (aged 25-47 years) took 500 mL of a test beverage with or without tea catechins (570 mg) daily for 8 weeks and attended a training program twice a week. Aerobic capacity was evaluated by indirect calorimetry and near-infrared spectroscopy during graded cycle exercise. Catechin beverage consumption was associated with a significantly higher ventilation threshold during exercise and a higher recovery rate of oxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin levels after graded cycle exercise when compared to subjects receiving the placebo beverage. These results indicate that daily consumption of tea catechins increases aerobic capacity when combined with semiweekly light exercise, which may be due to increased skeletal muscle aerobic capacity. Article Published Date : Aug 25, 2016

High-Speed Cycling Intervention Improves Rate-Dependent Mobility in Older Adults. 📎

Abstract Title: High-Speed Cycling Intervention Improves Rate-Dependent Mobility in Older Adults. Abstract Source: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Aug 6. Epub 2016 Aug 6. PMID: 27501360 Abstract Author(s): Maria Bellumori, Mehmet Uygur, Christopher A Knight Article Affiliation: Maria Bellumori Abstract: PURPOSE: The aim was to determine the feasibility of a six-week speed-based exercise program that could be used to initiate new exercise behaviors and improve rapid movement in older adults approaching frailty. METHODS: The intervention group included 14 older adults (3 males, 11 females, mean (SD) age: 70 (7.6) years, height: 1.6 (.11) m, mass: 76.8 (12.0) kg, BMI: 27.7(4.7)). The control group included 12 older adults (6 males, 6 females, mean (SD) age: 69.2 (6.9) years, height: 1.7 (.09) m, mass: 78.2 (10.9) kg, BMI: 25.3 (2.7)). Subjects included active older adults, including regular exercisers, but none were engaged in sports or exercises with an emphasis on speed (e.g. cycling spin classes or tennis). Stationary recumbent cycling was selected to minimize fall risk and low pedaling resistance reduced musculoskeletal and cardiovascular load. Two weekly 30-minute exercise sessions consisted of interval training in which subjects pedaled at preferred cadence and performed ten 20-s fast cadence intervals separated by 40-s of active recovery at preferred cadence. RESULTS: Significant Group by Time interactions (p<.05) supported a 2-s improvement in the timed up and go test and a 34% improvement in rapid isometric knee extension contractions in the exercise group but not in controls. Central neural adaptations are suggested because this lower extremity exercise program also elicited significant improvements in the untrained upper extremities of the exercise group (elbow extension RFD-SF and 9-Hole Peg Test, p<.05). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that a relatively low dose of speed-based exercise can improve neuromuscular function and tests of mobility in older adults. Such a program serves as a sensible precursor to subsequent, more vigorous training or as an adjunct to a program where a velocity emphasis is lacking. Article Published Date : Aug 05, 2016

What Makes a 97-Year-Old Man Cycle 5,000 km a Year?

Abstract Title: What Makes a 97-Year-Old Man Cycle 5,000 km a Year? Abstract Source: Gerontology. 2016 Jan 19. Epub 2016 Jan 19. PMID: 26780108 Abstract Author(s): Sulin Cheng, Hans Degens, Michael Evans, Shu Mei Cheng, Harri Selänne, Jörn Rittweger, Ari Heinonen, Harri Suominen, Timo Strandberg, Markku Alen, Marko T Korhonen Article Affiliation: Sulin Cheng Abstract: BACKGROUND: The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in the study of longevity, health and successful aging. OBJECTIVE: We present a 97-year-old man (I.K.) as an example of the effects of habitual exercise on the aging process. METHODS: Extensive assessments included medical examinations, interviews, musculoskeletal structure, performance characteristics, cognitive function and gut microbiota composition. RESULTS: I.K. suffers from iatrogenic hypogonadism, prostate cancer, hypothyroidism and a history of deep popliteal thrombosis. Notwithstanding, he cycles up to 5,000 km a year and participates in competitive sports. His musculoskeletal properties, athletic performance, cognitive function and gut microbiota are outstanding. Some traits even exceed those seen in middle-aged men. CONCLUSIONS: His long-term physically and intellectually active lifestyles combined with extensive social interactions have most likely contributed to his exercise capacity, despite his medical history. Article Published Date : Jan 18, 2016

Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study. 📎

Abstract Title: Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study. Abstract Source: J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 ;13:6. Epub 2016 Feb 19. PMID: 26900386 Abstract Author(s): Takashi Suzuki, Masahiko Morita, Yoshinori Kobayashi, Ayako Kamimura Article Affiliation: Takashi Suzuki Abstract: BACKGROUND: Many human studies report that nitric oxide (NO) improves sport performance. This is because NO is a potential modulator of blood flow, muscle energy metabolism, and mitochondrial respiration during exercise. L-Citrulline is an amino acid present in the body and is a potent endogenous precursor of L-arginine, which is a substrate for NO synthase. Here, we investigated the effect of oral L-citrulline supplementation on cycling time trial performance in humans. METHODS: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study was employed. Twenty-two trained males consumed 2.4 g/day of L-citrulline or placebo orally for 7 days. On Day 8 they took 2.4 g of L-citrulline or placebo 1 h before a 4-km cycling time trial. Time taken to complete the 4 km cycle, along with power output/VO2 ratio (PO/VO2), plasma nitrite and nitrate (NOx) and amino acid levels, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, was evaluated. RESULTS: L-Citrulline supplementation significantly increased plasma L-arginine levels and reduced completion time by 1.5 % (p < 0.05) compared with placebo. Moreover, L-citrulline significantly improved subjective feelings of muscle fatigue and concentration immediately after exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Oral L-citrulline supplementation reduced the time take to complete a cycle ergometer exercise trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials UMIN000014278. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists.

Abstract Title: New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists. Abstract Source: Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015 Jul 15. Epub 2015 Jul 15. PMID: 26175097 Abstract Author(s): Matthew David Cook, Stephen David Myers, Sam David Blacker, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems Article Affiliation: Matthew David Cook Abstract: PURPOSE: Blackcurrant intake increases peripheral blood flow in humans, potentially by anthocyanin-induced vasodilation which may affect substrate delivery and exercise performance. We examined the effects of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on substrate oxidation, cycling time-trial performance and plasma lactate responses following the time-trial in trained cyclists. METHODS: Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 14 healthy men (age: 38 ± 13 years, height: 178 ± 4 cm, body mass: 77 ± 9 kg, [Formula: see text]O2max: 53 ± 6 mL kg(-1) min(-1), mean ± SD) ingested NZBC extract (300 mg day(-1) CurraNZ™ containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo (PL, 300 mg microcrystalline cellulose M102) for 7 days (washout14 days). On day 7, participants performed 30 min of cycling (3 × 10 min at 45, 55 and 65 % [Formula: see text]O2max), followed by a 16.1 km time-trial with lactate sampling during a 20-min passive recovery. RESULTS: NZBC extract increased fat oxidation at 65 % [Formula: see text]O2max by 27 % (P < 0.05) and improved 16.1 km time-trial performance by 2.4 % (NZBC: 1678 ± 108 s, PL: 1722 ± 131 s, P < 0.05). Plasma lactate was higher with NZBC extract immediately following the time-trial (NZBC: 7.06 ± 1.73 mmol L(-1), PL: 5.92 ± 1.58 mmol L(-1), P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves 16.1 km cycling time-trial performance and increases fat oxidation during moderate intensity cycling. Article Published Date : Jul 14, 2015

Effect of sauna-based heat acclimation on plasma volume and heart rate variability.

Abstract Title: Effect of sauna-based heat acclimation on plasma volume and heart rate variability. Abstract Source: Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015 Apr ;115(4):785-94. Epub 2014 Nov 29. PMID: 25432420 Abstract Author(s): Jamie Stanley, Aaron Halliday, Shaun D'Auria, Martin Buchheit, Anthony S Leicht Article Affiliation: Jamie Stanley Abstract: PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of post-exercise sauna bathing on plasma volume (PV) expansion and whether such responses can be tracked by changes in heart rate (HR)-based measures. METHODS: Seven, well-trained male cyclists were monitored for 35 consecutive days (17 days baseline training, 10 days training plus sauna, 8 days training). Sauna exposure consisted of 30 min (87°C, 11 % relative humidity) immediately following normal training. Capillary blood samples were collected while resting seated to assess PV changes. HR (HRwake) and vagal-related HR variability (natural logarithm of square root mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals, ln rMSSDwake) were assessed daily upon waking. A sub-maximal cycle test (5 min at 125 W) was performed on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 25, 29, and 35 and HR recovery (HRR60s) and ln rMSSDpostex were assessed post-exercise. Effects were examined using magnitude-based inferences. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, sauna resulted in: (1) peak PV expansion after four exposures with a likely large increase [+17.8 % (90 % confidence limits, 7.4; 29.2)]; (2) reduction of HRwake by a trivial-to-moderate amount [-10.2 % (-15.9; -4.0)]; (3) trivial-to-small changes for ln rMSSDwake [4.3 % (1.9; 6.8)] and ln rMSSDpostex [-2.4 % (-9.1; 4.9)]; and (4) a likely moderate decrease in HRR60s [-15.6 % (-30.9; 3.0)]. Correlations between individual changes in PV and HR measures were all unclear. CONCLUSIONS: Sauna bathing following normal training largely expanded PV in well-trained cyclists after just four exposures. The utility of HR and HRV indices for tracking changes in PV was uncertain. Future studies will clarify mechanisms and performance benefits of post-training sauna bathing. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2015

Dose-response associations between cycling activity and risk of hypertension in regular cyclists: The UK Cycling for Health Study. 📎

Abstract Title: Dose-response associations between cycling activity and risk of hypertension in regular cyclists: The UK Cycling for Health Study. Abstract Source: J Hum Hypertens. 2015 Apr ;29(4):219-23. Epub 2014 Oct 2. PMID: 25273856 Abstract Author(s): M Hollingworth, A Harper, M Hamer Article Affiliation: M Hollingworth Abstract: Most population studies on physical activity and health have involved largely inactive men and women, thus making it difficult to infer if health benefits occur at exercise levels above the current minimum guidelines. The aim was to examine associations between cycling volume and classical cardiovascular risk markers, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, in a population sample of habitual cyclists. A nationwide sample comprising 6949 men and women (aged 47.6 years on average) completed questions about their cycling levels, demographics and health. Nearly the entire sample (96.3%) achieved the current minimum physical activity recommendation through cycling alone. There was a dose-response association between cycling volume and risk of diagnosed hypertension (P-trend =0.001), with odds ratios of 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80-1.21), 0.86 (0.70, 1.06), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53-0.83) across categories of 23-40, 40-61 and>61 metabolic equivalent hours/week (MET-h/week) compared with<23 MET-h/week. These associations persisted in models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, body mass index (BMI) and other moderatevigorous physical activities. We also observed inverse associations between cycling volume and other risk factors including BMI and hypercholesterolemia. In summary, results from a population sample of cyclists suggest that additional cardiovascular health benefits can be achieved beyond the current minimum physical activity recommendation. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2015

Improvement of 10-km time-trial cycling with motivational self-talk compared with neutral self-talk.

Abstract Title: Improvement of 10-km time-trial cycling with motivational self-talk compared with neutral self-talk. Abstract Source: Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015 Mar ;10(2):166-71. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PMID: 25010539 Abstract Author(s): Martin J Barwood, Jo Corbett, Christopher R D Wagstaff, Dan McVeigh, Richard C Thelwell Article Affiliation: Martin J Barwood Abstract: PURPOSE: Unpleasant physical sensations during maximal exercise may manifest themselves as negative cognitions that impair performance, alter pacing, and are linked to increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE). This study examined whether motivational self-talk (M-ST) could reduce RPE and change pacing strategy, thereby enhancing 10-km time-trial (TT) cycling performance in contrast to neutral self-talk (N-ST). METHODS: Fourteen men undertook 4 TTs, TT1-TT4. After TT2, participants were matched into groups based on TT2 completion time and underwent M-ST (n=7) or N-ST (n=7) after TT3. Performance, power output, RPE, and oxygen uptake (VO2) were compared across 1-km segments using ANOVA. Confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for performance data. RESULTS: After TT3 (ie, before intervention), completion times were not different between groups (M-ST, 1120±113 s; N-ST, 1150±110 s). After M-ST, TT4 completion time was faster (1078±96 s); the N-ST remained similar (1165±111 s). The M-ST group achieved this through a higher power output and VO2 in TT4 (6th-10th km). RPE was unchanged. CI data indicated the likely true performance effect lay between13- and 71-s improvement (TT4 vs TT3). CONCLUSION: M-ST improved endurance performance and enabled a higher power output, whereas N-ST induced no change. The VO2 response matched the increase in power output, yet RPE was unchanged, thereby inferring a perceptual benefit through M-ST. The valence and content of self-talk are important determinants of the efficacy of this intervention. These findings are primarily discussed in the context of the psychobiological model of pacing. Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2015

The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Function of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

Abstract Title: The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Function of Alzheimer's Disease Patients. Abstract Source: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015 ;14(10):1292-7. PMID: 26556080 Abstract Author(s): Si-Yu Yang, Chun-Lei Shan, He Qing, Wei Wang, Yi Zhu, Meng-Mei Yin, Sergio Machado, Ti-Fei Yuan, Ting Wu Article Affiliation: Si-Yu Yang Abstract: To evaluate the effect of moderate intensity of aerobic exercise on elderly people with mild Alzheimer's disease, we recruited fifty volunteers aged 50 years to 80 years with cognitive impairment. They were randomized into two groups: aerobic group (n=25) or control group (n=25). The aerobic group was treated with cycling training at 70% of maximal intensity for 40 min/d, 3 d/wk for 3 months. The control group was only treated with heath education. Both groups were received cognitive evaluation, laboratory examination before and after 3 months. The results showed that the Minimum Mental State Examination score, Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease score and the plasma Apo-a1 level was significantly increased (P<0.05), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition score, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire score was significantly decreased.(P<0.05) in aerobic group before and after 3 months in aerobic group. For the control group, there was no significant difference in scores of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease, Apo-a1 (P>0.05), while Minimum Mental State Examination scores decreased significantly after 3 months (P<0.05). In conclusion, moderate intensity of aerobic exercise can improve cognitive function in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Dark chocolate supplementation reduces the oxygen cost of moderate intensity cycling. 📎

Abstract Title: Dark chocolate supplementation reduces the oxygen cost of moderate intensity cycling. Abstract Source: J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 ;12:47. Epub 2015 Dec 15. PMID: 26674253 Abstract Author(s): Rishikesh Kankesh Patel, James Brouner, Owen Spendiff Article Affiliation: Rishikesh Kankesh Patel Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dark chocolate (DC) is abundant in flavanols which have been reported to increase the bioavailability and bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO). Increasing NO bioavailability has often demonstrated reduced oxygen cost and performance enhancement during submaximal exercise. METHODS: Nine moderately-trained male participants volunteered to undertake baseline (BL) measurements that comprised a cycle [Formula: see text] test followed by cycling at 80 % of their established gas exchange threshold (GET) for 20-min and then immediately followed by a two-minute time-trial (TT). Using a randomised crossover design participants performed two further trials, two weeks apart, with either 40 g of DC or white chocolate (WC) being consumed daily. Oxygenconsumption, RER, heart rate and blood lactate (BLa) were measured during each trial. RESULTS: DC consumption increased GET and TT performance compared to both BL and WC (P < 0.05). DC consumption increased [Formula: see text] by 6 % compared to BL (P < 0.05), but did not reach statistical significance compared to WC. There were no differences in the moderate-intensity cycling for [Formula: see text], RER, BLa and heart rate between conditions, although, [Formula: see text] and RER exhibited consistently lower trends following DC consumption compared to BL and WC, these did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Chronic supplementation with DC resulted in a higher GET and enhanced TT performance. Consequently, ingestion of DC reduced the oxygen cost of moderate intensity exercise and may be an effective ergogenic aid for short-duration moderate intensity exercise. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Caffeine Affects Time to Exhaustion and Substrate Oxidation during Cycling at Maximal Lactate Steady State. 📎

Abstract Title: Caffeine Affects Time to Exhaustion and Substrate Oxidation during Cycling at Maximal Lactate Steady State. Abstract Source: Nutrients. 2015 ;7(7):5254-64. Epub 2015 Jun 30. PMID: 26133971 Abstract Author(s): Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Tiago Turnes, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo, Ralph Beneke, Fabrizio Caputo Article Affiliation: Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz Abstract: This study analyzed the effects of caffeine intake on whole-body substrate metabolism and exercise tolerance during cycling by using a more individualized intensity for merging the subjects into homogeneous metabolic responses (the workload associated with the maximal lactate steady state-MLSS). MLSS was firstly determined in eight active males (25± 4 years, 176 ± 7 cm, 77 ± 11 kg) using from two to four constant-load tests of 30 min. On two following occasions, participants performed a test until exhaustion at the MLSS workload 1 h after taking either 6 mg/kg of body mass of caffeine or placebo (dextrose), in a randomized, double-blindedmanner. Respiratory exchange ratio was calculated from gas exchange measurements. There was an improvement of 22.7% in time to exhaustion at MLSS workload following caffeine ingestion (95% confidence limits of ±10.3%, p = 0.002), which was accompanied by decrease in respiratory exchange ratio (p =0.001). These results reinforce findings indicating that sparing of the endogenous carbohydrate stores could be one of the several physiological effects of caffeine during submaximal performance around 1 h. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014
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Near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green dye for minimally invasive measurement of respiratory and leg muscle blood flow in patients with COPD.

Near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green dye for minimally invasive measurement of respiratory and leg muscle blood flow in patients with COPD. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2018 Jun 21;: Authors: Louvaris Z, Habazettl H, Wagner H, Zakynthinos SG, Wagner PD, Vogiatzis I Abstract Reliability of Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), measuring indocyanine green (ICG) for minimally invasive assessment of relative muscle blood flow during exercise has been examined in fit young individuals, but not in COPD. Here we ask whether it could be used to evaluate respiratory and locomotor muscle perfusion in COPD patients. Vastus lateralis muscle blood flow (MBF, the reference method calculated from arterial and muscle ICG concentration curves) and a blood flow index (BFI, calculated using only the (same) muscle ICG concentration curves) were compared in 10 patients (FEV1:51{plus minus}6%predicted) at rest and during cycling at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of WRpeak. Intercostal muscle MBF and BFI were also compared during isocapnic hyperpnea at rest, reproducing ventilation levels up to those at WRpeak. Intercostal and vastus lateralis BFI increased with increasing ventilation during hyperpnea (from 2.5{plus minus}0.3 to 4.5{plus minus}0.7nM/s) and cycling load (from 1.0{plus minus}0.2 to 12.8{plus minus}1.9nM/s), respectively. There were strong correlations between BFI and MBF for both intercostal (r=0.993 group mean data, r=0.872 individual data) and vastus lateralis (r=0.994 group mean data, r=0.895 individual data). Fold changes from rest in BFI and MBF did not differ for either the intercostal muscles or the vastus lateralis. Group mean BFI data showed strong interrelationships with respiratory and cycling workload, and whole body metabolic demand (r ranged from 0.913 to 0.989) simultaneously recorded during exercise. We conclude that BFI is a reliable and minimally invasive tool for evaluating relative changes in respiratory and locomotor muscle perfusion from rest to peak exercise in COPD patient groups. PMID: 29927736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]