Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Exercise Green

The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia. 📎

Abstract Title: The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2017 ;12(3):e0172200. Epub 2017 Mar 1. PMID: 28248974 Abstract Author(s): Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher J Gidlow, David Martínez, Jeroen de Bont, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Tania Martínez-Íñiguez, Gemma Hurst, Daniel Masterson, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Edmund Seto, Marc V Jones, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen Article Affiliation: Margarita Triguero-Mas Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i) the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii) the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii) the possible mechanisms explaining these effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: People (n = 26) with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park), blue (Castelldefels beach) and urban (Eixample neighbourhood) environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes) and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD), attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task), stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF), and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF). We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience. RESULTS: When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79) points difference], and salivary cortisol [-0.21 (-0.34, -0.08) log nmol/L] in the green exposure environment, and statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.53 (-7.57, -1.49) points difference], and statistically significant favourable changes in heart rate variability indicators (specifically LF:HF and CCV-LF:HF with around -0.20 points of difference of the indicators) in the blue exposure environment. Physical activity and self-perceived restoration experience partially mediated the associations between NOE and TMD. Physical activity and air pollution partially mediated the associations between NOE and heart rate variability. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the existing evidence on the benefits of NOE for people's health. It also suggests NOE potential as a preventive medicine, specifically focusing on people with indications of psychological distress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02624921. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

The Effects of Urban Forest-walking Program on Health Promotion Behavior, Physical Health, Depression, and Quality of Life: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Office-workers. 📎

Abstract Title: [The Effects of Urban Forest-walking Program on Health Promotion Behavior, Physical Health, Depression, and Quality of Life: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Office-workers]. Abstract Source: J Korean Acad Nurs. 2016 Feb ;46(1):140-8. PMID: 26963423 Abstract Author(s): Kyung Sook Bang, In Sook Lee, Sung Jae Kim, Min Kyung Song, Se Eun Park Article Affiliation: Kyung Sook Bang Abstract: PURPOSE: This study was performed to determine the physical and psychological effects of an urban forest-walking program for office workers. For many workers, sedentary lifestyles can lead to low levels of physical activity causing various health problems despite an increased interest in health promotion. METHODS: Fifty four office workers participated in this study. They were assigned to two groups (experimental group and control group) in random order and the experimental group performed 5 weeks of walking exercise based on Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills Model. The data were collected from October to November 2014. SPSS 21.0 was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the urban forest walking program had positive effects on the physical activity level (U=65.00, p<.001), health promotion behavior (t=-2.20, p=.033), and quality of life (t=-2.42, p=.020). However, there were no statistical differences in depression, waist size, body mass index, blood pressure, or bone density between the groups. CONCLUSION: The current findings of the study suggest the forest-walking program may have positive effects on improving physical activity, health promotion behavior, and quality of life. The program can be used as an effective and efficient strategy for physical and psychological health promotion for office workers. Article Published Date : Jan 31, 2016

Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

Abstract Title: Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities. Abstract Source: Health Place. 2016 Jan 18 ;38:8-15. Epub 2016 Jan 18. PMID: 26796323 Abstract Author(s): Magdalena van den Berg, Mireille van Poppel, Irene van Kamp, Sandra Andrusaityte, Birute Balseviciene, Marta Cirach, Asta Danileviciute, Naomi Ellis, Gemma Hurst, Daniel Masterson, Graham Smith, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Inga Uzdanaviciute, Puck de Wit, Willem van Mechelen, Christopher Gidlow, Regina Grazuleviciene, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Hanneke Kruize, Jolanda Maas Article Affiliation: Magdalena van den Berg Abstract: Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts. Article Published Date : Jan 17, 2016

A Lunchtime Walk in Nature Enhances Restoration of Autonomic Control during Night-Time Sleep: Results from a Preliminary Study. 📎

Abstract Title: A Lunchtime Walk in Nature Enhances Restoration of Autonomic Control during Night-Time Sleep: Results from a Preliminary Study. Abstract Source: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(3). Epub 2016 Mar 3. PMID: 26950138 Abstract Author(s): Valerie F Gladwell, Pekka Kuoppa, Mika P Tarvainen, Mike Rogerson Article Affiliation: Valerie F Gladwell Abstract: Walking within nature (Green Exercise) has been shown to immediately enhance mental well-being but less is known about the impact on physiology and longer lasting effects. Heart rate variability (HRV) gives an indication of autonomic control of the heart, in particular vagal activity, with reduced HRV identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Night-time HRV allows vagal activity to be assessed whilst minimizing confounding influences of physical and mental activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a lunchtime walk in nature increases night-time HRV. Participants (n = 13) attended on two occasions to walk a 1.8 km route through a built or a natural environment. Pace was similar between the two walks. HRV was measured during sleep using a RR interval sensor (eMotion sensor) and was assessed at 1-2 h after participants noted that they had fallen asleep. Markers for vagal activity were significantly greater after the walk in nature compared to the built walk. Lunchtime walks in nature-based environments may provide a greater restorative effect as shown by vagal activity than equivalent built walks. Nature walks may improve essential recovery during night-time sleep, potentially enhancing physiological health. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Green exercise as a workplace intervention to reduce job stress. Results from a pilot study.

Abstract Title: Green exercise as a workplace intervention to reduce job stress. Results from a pilot study. Abstract Source: Work. 2015 Dec 13. Epub 2015 Dec 13. PMID: 26684708 Abstract Author(s): Giovanna Calogiuri, Katinka Evensen, Andi Weydahl, Kim Andersson, Grete Patil, Camilla Ihlebæk, Ruth K Raanaas Article Affiliation: Giovanna Calogiuri Abstract: BACKGROUND: Stress and mental fatigue are major health threats to employees in office-based occupations. Physical activity is widely used as a stress-management intervention for employees. Moreover, experiences in contact with nature have been shown to provide stress-reduction and restoration from mental fatigue. OBJECTIVES: In a pilot study designed as a randomized controlled trial we investigated the impact of a green-exercise intervention on psychological and physiological indicators of stress in municipality employees. METHODS: Fourteen employees (7 females and 7 males, 49±8 yrs) volunteered in an exercise-based intervention in workplace either outdoors in a green/nature area or in an indoor exercise-setting. The intervention consisted of an information meeting and two exercise sessions, each including a biking bout and a circuit-strength sequence using elastic rubber bands (45-minutes, at about 55% of HR reserve, overall). Main outcomes were perceived environmental potential for restoration, affective state, blood pressure (BP) and cortisol awakening response (CAR AUCG and CAR AUCI) and cortisol levels in serum. Measurements were taken at baseline and in concomitance with the exercise sessions. Furthermore, affective state and self-reported physical activity levels were measured over a 10-weeks follow-up period. RESULTS: Compared with the indoor group, the nature group reported higher environmental potential for restoration (p < 0.001) and Positive Affect (p < 0.01), along with improved CAR AUCI (p = 0.04) and, marginally, diastolic BP (p = 0.05). The nature group also reported higher ratings of Positive Affect at follow-up (p = 0.02). Differences at post-exercise were not found for any of the other components of affective state, systolic BP, CAR AUCG and cortisol levels measured in serum. CONCLUSIONS: Green-exercise at the workplace could be a profitable way to manage stress and induce restoration among employees. Further studies on larger samples are needed in order to improve the generalizability of the results. Article Published Date : Dec 12, 2015

The association between green space and depressive symptoms in pregnant women: moderating roles of socioeconomic status and physical activity. 📎

Abstract Title: The association between green space and depressive symptoms in pregnant women: moderating roles of socioeconomic status and physical activity. Abstract Source: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Nov 11. Epub 2015 Nov 11. PMID: 26560759 Abstract Author(s): R R C McEachan, S L Prady, G Smith, L Fairley, B Cabieses, C Gidlow, J Wright, P Dadvand, D van Gent, M J Nieuwenhuijsen Article Affiliation: R R C McEachan Abstract: BACKGROUND: The current study explored the association between green space and depression in a deprived, multiethnic sample of pregnant women, and examined moderating and mediating variables. METHOD: 7547 women recruited to the 'Born in Bradford' cohort completed a questionnaire during pregnancy. A binary measure of depressive symptoms was calculated using a validated survey. Two green space measures were used: quintiles of residential greenness calculated using the normalised difference vegetation index for three neighbourhood sizes (100, 300 and 500 m buffer zones around participant addresses); access to major green spaces estimated as straight line distance between participant address and nearest green space (>0.5 hectares). Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between green space and depressive symptoms, controlling for ethnicity, demographics, socioeconomic status (SES) and health behaviours. Multiplicative interactions explored variations by ethnic group, SES or activity levels. Mediationanalysis assessed indirect effects via physical activity. RESULTS: Pregnant women in the greener quintiles were 18-23% less likely to report depressive symptoms than those in the least green quintile (for within 100 m of green space buffer zone). The green space-depressive symptoms association was significant for women with lower education or who were active. Physical activity partially mediated the association of green space, but explained only a small portion of the direct effect. CONCLUSIONS: Higher residential greenness was associated with a reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms. Associations may be stronger for more disadvantaged groups and for those who are already physically active. Improving green space is a promising intervention to reduce risk of depression in disadvantaged groups. Article Published Date : Nov 10, 2015

Effect of forest walking on autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals: a pilot study. 📎

Abstract Title: Effect of forest walking on autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals: a pilot study. Abstract Source: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Mar ;12(3):2687-99. Epub 2015 Mar 2. PMID: 25739004 Abstract Author(s): Chorong Song, Harumi Ikei, Maiko Kobayashi, Takashi Miura, Masao Taue, Takahide Kagawa, Qing Li, Shigeyoshi Kumeda, Michiko Imai, Yoshifumi Miyazaki Article Affiliation: Chorong Song Abstract: There has been increasing attention on the therapeutic effects of the forest environment. However, evidence-based research that clarifies the physiological effects of the forest environment on hypertensive individuals is lacking. This study provides scientific evidence suggesting that a brief forest walk affects autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals. Twenty participants (58.0±10.6 years) were instructed to walk predetermined courses in forest and urban environments (as control). Course length (17-min walk), walking speed, and energy expenditure were equal between the forest and urban environments to clarify the effects of each environment. Heart rate variability (HRV)and heart rate were used to quantify physiological responses. The modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States were used to determine psychological responses. The natural logarithm of the high-frequency component of HRV was significantly higher and heart rate was significantly lower when participants walked in the forest than when they walked in the urban environment. The questionnaire results indicated that, compared with the urban environment, walking in the forest increased"comfortable","relaxed","natural"and"vigorous"feelings and decreased"tension-anxiety,""depression,""anxiety-hostility,""fatigue"and"confusion". A brief walk in the forest elicited physiological and psychological relaxation effects on middle-aged hypertensive individuals. Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2015

The Effect of Park and Urban Environments on Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Randomized Trial. 📎

Abstract Title: The Effect of Park and Urban Environments on Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Randomized Trial. Abstract Source: Biomed Res Int. 2015 ;2015:403012. Epub 2015 Jun 16. PMID: 26161399 Abstract Author(s): Regina Grazuleviciene, Jone Vencloviene, Raimondas Kubilius, Vytautas Grizas, Audrius Dedele, Tomas Grazulevicius, Indre Ceponiene, Egle Tamuleviciute-Prasciene, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Marc Jones, Christopher Gidlow Article Affiliation: Regina Grazuleviciene Abstract: AIM: To test the hypothesis that walking in a park has a greater positive effect on coronary artery disease (CAD) patients' hemodynamic parameters than walking in an urban environment. METHODS: Twenty stable CAD patients were randomized into two groups: 30-minute walk on 7 consecutive days in either a city park or busy urban street. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was employed to study short-term (30 min) and cumulative changes (following 7 consecutive days of exposure) in resting hemodynamic parameters in different environments. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the baseline and peak exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), exercise duration, or HR recovery in urban versus park exposure groups. Seven days of walking slightly improved all hemodynamic parameters in both groups. Compared to baseline, the city park group exhibited statistically significantly greater reductions in HR and DBP and increases in exercise duration and HR recovery. The SBP and DBP changes in the urban exposed group were lower than in the park exposed group. CONCLUSIONS: Walking in a park had a greater positive effect on CAD patients' cardiac function than walking in an urban environment, suggesting that rehabilitation through walking in green environments after coronary events should be encouraged. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

How might contact with nature promote human health? Promising mechanisms and a possible central pathway. 📎

Abstract Title: How might contact with nature promote human health? Promising mechanisms and a possible central pathway. Abstract Source: Front Psychol. 2015 ;6:1093. Epub 2015 Aug 25. PMID: 26379564 Abstract Author(s): Ming Kuo Article Affiliation: Ming Kuo Abstract: How might contact with nature promote human health? Myriad studies have linked the two; at this time the task of identifying the mechanisms underlying this link is paramount. This article offers: (1) a compilation of plausible pathways between nature and health; (2) criteria for identifying a possible central pathway; and (3) one promising candidate for a central pathway. The 21 pathways identified here include environmental factors, physiological and psychological states, and behaviors or conditions, each of which has been empirically tied to nature and has implications for specific physical and mental health outcomes. While each is likely to contribute to nature's impacts on health to some degree and under some circumstances, this paper explores the possibility of a central pathway by proposing criteria for identifying such a pathway and illustrating their use. A particular pathway is more likely to be central if it can account for the size of nature's impacts on health, account for nature's specific health outcomes, and subsume other pathways. By these criteria, enhanced immune functioning emerges as one promising candidate for a central pathway between nature and health. There may be others. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

The effect of green exercise on blood pressure, heart rate and mood state in primary school children. 📎

Abstract Title: The effect of green exercise on blood pressure, heart rate and mood state in primary school children. Abstract Source: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Apr ;11(4):3678-88. Epub 2014 Apr 2. PMID: 24699030 Abstract Author(s): Michael J Duncan, Neil D Clarke, Samantha L Birch, Jason Tallis, Joanne Hankey, Elizabeth Bryant, Emma L J Eyre Article Affiliation: Michael J Duncan Abstract: The aim of this study was exploratory and sought to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and mood state responses in primary school children of moderate intensity cycling whilst viewing a green environment compared to exercise alone. Following ethics approval and parental informed consent, 14 children (seven boys, seven girls, Mean age± SD = 10 ± 1 years) undertook two, 15 min bouts of cycling at a moderate exercise intensity in a counterbalanced order. In one bout they cycled whilst viewing a film of cycling in a forest setting. In the other condition participants cycled with no visual stimulus. Pre-, immediately post-exerciseand 15 min post-exercise, BP, HR and Mood state were assessed. Analysis of variance, indicated significant condition X time interaction for SBP (p = 0.04). Bonferroni post-hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that systolic blood pressure (SBP) 15 min post exercise was significantly lower following green exercise compared to the control condition (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (all p>0.05). HR immediately post exercise was significantly higher than HR pre exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (p = 0.001). Mood scores for fatigue were significantly higher and scores for vigor lower 15 min post exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (both p = 0.0001). Gender was not significant in any analyses (p>0.05). Thus, the present study identifies an augmented post exercise hypotensive effect for children following green exercise compared to exercise alone. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2014

The relationship between nature connectedness and happiness: a meta-analysis. 📎

Abstract Title: The relationship between nature connectedness and happiness: a meta-analysis. Abstract Source: Front Psychol. 2014 ;5:976. Epub 2014 Sep 8. PMID: 25249992 Abstract Author(s): Colin A Capaldi, Raelyne L Dopko, John M Zelenski Article Affiliation: Colin A Capaldi Abstract: Research suggests that contact with nature can be beneficial, for example leading to improvements in mood, cognition, and health. A distinct but related idea is the personality construct of subjective nature connectedness, a stable individual difference in cognitive, affective, and experiential connection with the natural environment. Subjective nature connectedness is a strong predictor of pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors that may also be positively associated with subjective well-being. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between nature connectedness and happiness. Based on 30 samples (n = 8523), a fixed-effect meta-analysis found a small but significant effect size (r = 0.19). Those who are more connected to nature tended to experience more positive affect, vitality, and life satisfaction compared to those less connected to nature. Publication status, year, average age, and percentage of females in the sample were not significant moderators. Vitality had the strongest relationship with nature connectedness (r = 0.24), followed by positive affect (r = 0.22) and life satisfaction (r = 0.17). In terms of specific nature connectedness measures, associations were the strongest between happiness and inclusion of nature in self (r = 0.27), compared to nature relatedness (r = 0.18) and connectedness to nature (r = 0.18). This research highlights the importance of considering personality when examining the psychological benefits of nature. The results suggest that closer human-nature relationships do not have to come at the expense of happiness. Rather, this meta-analysis shows that being connected to nature and feeling happy are, in fact, connected. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2013

The mental and physical health outcomes of green exercise.

Abstract Title: The mental and physical health outcomes of green exercise. Abstract Source: Int J Environ Health Res. 2005 Oct ;15(5):319-37. PMID: 16416750 Abstract Author(s): Jules Pretty, Jo Peacock, Martin Sellens, Murray Griffin Article Affiliation: Jules Pretty Abstract: Both physical activity and exposure to nature are known separately to have positive effects on physical and mental health. We have investigated whether there is a synergistic benefit in adopting physical activities whilst being directly exposed to nature ('green exercise'). Five groups of 20 subjects were exposed to a sequence of 30 scenes projected on a wall whilst exercising on a treadmill. Four categories of scenes were tested: rural pleasant, rural unpleasant, urban pleasant and urban unpleasant. The control was running without exposure to images. Blood pressure and two psychological measures (self-esteem and mood) were measured before and after the intervention. There was a clear effect of both exercise and different scenes on blood pressure, self-esteem and mood. Exercise alone significantly reduced blood pressure, increased self-esteem, and had a positive significant effect on 4 of 6 mood measures. Both rural and urban pleasant scenes produced a significantly greater positive effect on self-esteem than the exercise-only control. This shows the synergistic effect of green exercise in both rural and urban environments. By contrast, both rural and urban unpleasant scenes reduced the positive effects of exercise on self-esteem. The rural unpleasant scenes had the most dramatic effect, depressing the beneficial effects of exercise on three different measures of mood. It appears that threats to the countryside depicted in rural unpleasant scenes have a greater negative effect on mood than already urban unpleasant scenes. We conclude that green exercise has important public and environmental health consequences. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2005

Shinrin-yoku (forest-air bathing and walking) effectively decreases blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

Abstract Title: Shinrin-yoku (forest-air bathing and walking) effectively decreases blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Abstract Source: Int J Biometeorol. 1998 Feb ;41(3):125-7. PMID: 9531856 Abstract Author(s): Y Ohtsuka, N Yabunaka, S Takayama Article Affiliation: Y Ohtsuka Abstract: The influence of"shinrin-yoku"(forest-air bathing and walking) on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients was examined. Eighty-seven (29 male and 58 female) non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients [61 (SEM 1) years old] participated in the present study. Shinrin-yoku was performed nine times over a period of 6 years. The patients were divided into two parties. They then walked in the forest for 3 km or 6 km according to their physical ability and/or the existence of diabetic complications. The mean blood glucose level after forest walking changed from 179 (SEM 4) mg.100 ml-1 to 108 (SEM 2) mg.100 ml-1 (P<0.0001). The level of glycated haemoglobin A1c also decreased from 6.9 (SEM 0.2)% (before the first shinrin-yoku) to 6.5 (SEM 0.1)% (after the last shinrin-yoku; P<0.05). Blood glucose values declined by 74 (SEM 9) mg.100 ml-1 and 70 (SEM 4) mg.100 ml-1 after short- and long-distance walking respectively. There was no significant difference between these values. Since the forest environment causes changes in hormonal secretion and autonomic nervous functions, it is presumed that, in addition to the increased calorie consumption and improved insulin sensitivity, walking in a forest environment has other beneficial effects in decreasing blood glucose levels. Article Published Date : Jan 31, 1998
Therapeutic Actions EXERCISE Green

NCBI pubmed

Footprints reveal direct evidence of group behavior and locomotion in Homo erectus.

Related Articles Footprints reveal direct evidence of group behavior and locomotion in Homo erectus. Sci Rep. 2016 07 12;6:28766 Authors: Hatala KG, Roach NT, Ostrofsky KR, Wunderlich RE, Dingwall HL, Villmoare BA, Green DJ, Harris JW, Braun DR, Richmond BG Abstract Bipedalism is a defining feature of the human lineage. Despite evidence that walking on two feet dates back 6-7 Ma, reconstructing hominin gait evolution is complicated by a sparse fossil record and challenges in inferring biomechanical patterns from isolated and fragmentary bones. Similarly, patterns of social behavior that distinguish modern humans from other living primates likely played significant roles in our evolution, but it is exceedingly difficult to understand the social behaviors of fossil hominins directly from fossil data. Footprints preserve direct records of gait biomechanics and behavior but they have been rare in the early human fossil record. Here we present analyses of an unprecedented discovery of 1.5-million-year-old footprint assemblages, produced by 20+ Homo erectus individuals. These footprints provide the oldest direct evidence for modern human-like weight transfer and confirm the presence of an energy-saving longitudinally arched foot in H. erectus. Further, print size analyses suggest that these H. erectus individuals lived and moved in cooperative multi-male groups, offering direct evidence consistent with human-like social behaviors in H. erectus. PMID: 27403790 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]