Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Exercise Resistance Training

Resistance exercise improves cardiac function and mitochondrial efficiency in diabetic rat hearts.

Abstract Title: Resistance exercise improves cardiac function and mitochondrial efficiency in diabetic rat hearts. Abstract Source: Pflugers Arch. 2017 Oct 14. Epub 2017 Oct 14. PMID: 29032504 Abstract Author(s): Tae Hee Ko, Jubert C Marquez, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Seung Hun Jeong, SungRyul Lee, Jae Boum Youm, In Sung Song, Dae Yun Seo, Hye Jin Kim, Du Nam Won, Kyoung Im Cho, Mun Gi Choi, Byoung Doo Rhee, Kyung Soo Ko, Nari Kim, Jong Chul Won, Jin Han Article Affiliation: Tae Hee Ko Abstract: Metabolic disturbance and mitochondrial dysfunction are a hallmark of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Resistance exercise (RE) not only enhances the condition of healthy individuals but could also improve the status of those with disease. However, the beneficial effects of RE in the prevention of DC and mitochondrial dysfunction are uncertain. Therefore, this study investigated whether RE attenuates DC by improving mitochondrial function using an in vivo rat model of diabetes. Fourteen Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were assigned to sedentary control (SC, n = 7) and RE (n = 7) groups at 28 weeks of age. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used as the non-diabetic control. The RE rats were trained by 20 repetitions of climbing a ladder 5 days per week. RE rats exhibited higher glucose uptake and lower lipid profiles, indicating changes in energy metabolism. RE rats significantly increased the ejection fraction and fractional shortening compared with the SC rats. Isolated mitochondria in RE rats showed increase in mitochondrial numbers, which were accompanied by higher expression of mitochondrial biogenesis proteins such as proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and TFAM. Moreover, RE rats reduced proton leakage and reactive oxygen species production, with higher membrane potential. These results were accompanied by higher superoxide dismutase 2 and lower uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and UCP3 levels in RE rats. These datasuggest that RE is effective at ameliorating DC by improving mitochondrial function, which may contribute to the maintenance of diabetic cardiac contractility. Article Published Date : Oct 13, 2017

Can resistance training impact MRI outcomes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis?

Abstract Title: Can resistance training impact MRI outcomes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis? Abstract Source: Mult Scler. 2017 Jul 1:1352458517722645. Epub 2017 Jul 1. PMID: 28752800 Abstract Author(s): Tue Kjølhede, Susanne Siemonsen, Damian Wenzel, Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Steffen Ringgaard, Bodil Ginnerup Pedersen, Egon Stenager, Thor Petersen, Kristian Vissing, Christoph Heesen, Ulrik Dalgas Article Affiliation: Tue Kjølhede Abstract: BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by accelerated brain atrophy, which relates to disease progression. Previous research shows that progressive resistance training (PRT) can counteract brain atrophy in other populations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of PRT by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical measures of disease progression in people with MS. METHODS: This study was a 24-week randomised controlled cross-over trial, including a Training ( n = 18, 24 weeks of PRT followed by self-guided physical activity) and Waitlist group ( n = 17, 24 weeks of habitual lifestyle followed by PRT). Assessments included disability measures and MRI (lesion load, global brain volume, percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and cortical thickness). RESULTS: While the MS Functional Composite score improved, Expanded Disability Status Scale, lesion load and global brain volumes did not differ between groups. PBVC tended to differ between groups and higher absolute cortical thickness values were observed in 19 of 74 investigated cortical regions after PRT. Observed changes were confirmed and reproduced when comparing relative cortical thickness changes between groups for four areas: anterior cingulate gyrus, temporal pole, orbital sulcus and inferior temporal sulcus. CONCLUSION: PRT seem to induce an increase in cortical thickness, indicating that PRT have a neuroprotective or even neuroregenerative effect in relapsing-remitting MS. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2017

Resistance exercise reduces memory impairment induced by monosodium glutamate in male and female rats.

Abstract Title: Resistance exercise reduces memory impairment induced by monosodium glutamate in male and female rats. Abstract Source: Exp Physiol. 2017 Apr 23. Epub 2017 Apr 23. PMID: 28436061 Abstract Author(s): Paulo Cesar Oliveira Araujo, Caroline Brandão Quines, Natália Silva Jardim, Marlon Regis Leite, Cristina Wayne Nogueira Article Affiliation: Paulo Cesar Oliveira Araujo Abstract: NEW FINDINGS: Monosodium glutamate causes cognitive impairment. Resistance exercise is effective against monosodium glutamate induced memory impairment in male and female mice. ABSTRACT: Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer in diets, causes cognitive impairment in humans. Exercise has been reported to protect against impairment of memory in humans. This study investigated if resistance exercise improves the performance of male and female rats treated with MSG in tests of memory and motor coordination. Wistar rats received MSG (4g kg day(-1) , s.c.) from post natal day 1 to 10. At postnatal day 60, the animals started a resistance exercise protocol in an 80° inclined vertical ladder apparatus and performed it during 7 weeks. Rats performed object recognition and location memory tests. Resistance exercise reduced impairment in motor coordination of male and female rats treated with MSG. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in exploratory preference in the long-term recognition memory (LTM) for novel objects of male rats treated with MSG. In MSG-treated female rats, resistance exercise was effectiveagainst the decrease in exploratory preference in the novel object location test (OLT). The exploratory preference of female rats in the LTM test was similar in all groups. The short-term memory was not altered by MSG or resistance exercise in male and female rats. This study demonstrates that MSGaffected in a different way memory of male and female rats. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in recognition for male and in location memory for female rats treated with MSG. This report demonstrates the beneficial effects of resistance exercise against the prejudice of motor condition and impairment of memory induced by MSG in male and female rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Article Published Date : Apr 22, 2017

Effect of Moderate Intensity Exercise on Inflammatory Markers Among Postmenopausal Women.

Abstract Title: Effect of Moderate Intensity Exercise on Inflammatory Markers Among Postmenopausal Women. Abstract Source: J Phys Act Health. 2017 Mar 2:1-22. Epub 2017 Mar 2. PMID: 28253046 Abstract Author(s): Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas, Mariana Rotta Bonfim, Bruna Camilo Turi, Nair Cristina Margarida Brondino, Henrique Luiz Monteiro Article Affiliation: Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas Abstract: BACKGROUND: Declines in ovarian function in postmenopausal women may contribute to increase inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to chronic diseases. However, studies have shown that exercise interventions are important to manage inflammatory conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise intervention on inflammatory markers among obese and postmenopausal women. METHODS: 70 women composed the sample (Exercise group [EG; n=35] and non-exercise group [nEG; n=35]). IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were the inflammatory markers analyzed. Exercise program was 20 weeks long and consisted of aerobic and neuromuscular training. Data about chronic diseases, medication use, dietary intake, body composition and biochemical variables were collected. RESULTS: EG showed significant reductions in body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage, as well as increased lean body mass. EG showed significant reductions in TNF-α and significant interaction between group and intervention time. Reductions in IL-10 were identified only in nEG. Substantial effect of exercise intervention was observed with increased ratio of IL-10/IL-6 and IL-10/TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training was effective in reducing inflammation. Thus, implementation and maintenance of similar exercise programs can contribute to reduce chronic inflammation among obese postmenopausal women. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2017

The benefit of a supplement with the antioxidant melatonin on redox status and muscle damage in resistance trained athletes.

Abstract Title: The benefit of a supplement with the antioxidant melatonin on redox status and muscle damage in resistance trained athletes. Abstract Source: Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13. PMID: 28192673 Abstract Author(s): Roberto C Leonardo-Mendonça, Javier Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Tomás de Haro, Carlos de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández, Iryna Rusanova, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Ramy Ka Sayed, Germaine Escames, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo Article Affiliation: Roberto C Leonardo-Mendonça Abstract: Previous data showed that the administration of high doses of melatonin improved the circadian system in athletes. Here, we investigated in the same experimental paradigm whether the antioxidant properties of melatonin has also beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes. Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg.day-1 of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during four weeks in a randomized double-blind scheme. Exercise intensity was higher during the study that before starting it. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment, and plasma was used for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrite plus nitrate (NOx), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) determinations. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG) levels, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase (GRd) activities, were measured in erythrocytes. Melatonin intake increased ORAC, reduced LPO and NOx levels, and prevented the increase of AOPP, compared to placebo group. Melatonin was also more efficient than placebo in reducing GSSG.GSH-1 and GPx.GRd-1 ratios. Melatonin, but not placebo, reduced creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and total cholesterol levels. Overall, the data reflect a beneficial effect of melatonin treatment in resistance-training athletes, preventing extra- and intracellular oxidative stress induced by exercise, and yielding further skeletal muscle protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage. Article Published Date : Feb 12, 2017

Effect of exercise on the quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

Abstract Title: Effect of exercise on the quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Abstract Source: . PMID: 27990609 Abstract Author(s):   Abstract: PURPOSE: Diabetic patients tend to have a poor quality of life. A sedentary lifestyle is considered to be a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes and an independent predictor of poor quality of life. Exercise is a key treatment for people living with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effect of exercise on the quality of life of people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and three Chinese databases were searched for studies published until January 2016. The review included all clinical trials that evaluated the effect of exercise on quality of life compared with that of usual care for people with type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of all the included studies, by using the Downs and Black Quality Index (QI). RESULTS: Thirty studies met inclusion criteria, with 2785 participants. We divided the exercise into four modes: aerobic, resistance, a combination of aerobic and resistance and yoga. Aerobic exercise showed a significant effect between groups. Resistance and combined exercise showed mixed results. Yoga also showed good intervention effects on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of aerobic exercise on the quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes was safe and effective. Then, most of the studies on aerobic exercise were of good methodological quality. The effects of resistance exercise and combined exercise on the quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes were mixed, and the effect of yoga on quality of life still need more research. Article Published Date : Jan 18, 2038

Resistance training and redox homeostasis: Correlation with age-associated genomic changes.

Abstract Title: Resistance training and redox homeostasis: Correlation with age-associated genomic changes. Abstract Source: Redox Biol. 2016 Dec ;10:34-44. Epub 2016 Sep 21. PMID: 27687219 Abstract Author(s): Ivan Dimauro, Mattia Scalabrin, Cristina Fantini, Elisa Grazioli, Maria Reyes Beltran Valls, Neri Mercatelli, Attilio Parisi, Stefania Sabatini, Luigi Di Luigi, Daniela Caporossi Article Affiliation: Ivan Dimauro Abstract: Regular physical activity is effective as prevention and treatment for different chronic conditions related to the ageing processes. In fact, a sedentary lifestyle has been linked to a worsening of cellular ageing biomarkers such as telomere length (TL) and/or specific epigenetic changes (e.g. DNA methylation), with increase of the propensity to aging-related diseases and premature death. Extending our previous findings, we aimed to test the hypothesis that 12 weeks of low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) may attenuate age-associated genomic changes. To this aim, TL, global DNA methylation, TRF2, Ku80, SIRT1, SIRT2 and global protein acetylation, as well as other proteins involved in apoptotic pathway (Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3), antioxidant response (TrxR1 and MnSOD) and oxidative damage (myeloperoxidase) were evaluated before and after EMRT in whole blood or peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of elderly subjects. Our findings confirm the potential of EMRT to induce an adaptive change in the antioxidant protein systems at systemic level and suggest a putative role of resistance training in the reduction of global DNA methylation. Moreover, we observed that EMRT counteracts the telomeres' shortening in a manner that proved to be directly correlated with the amelioration of redox homeostasis and efficacy of training regime, evaluated as improvement of both muscle's power/strength and functional parameters. Article Published Date : Nov 30, 2016

Vitamin D supplementation affects the IGF system in men after acute exercise.

Abstract Title: Vitamin D supplementation affects the IGF system in men after acute exercise. Abstract Source: Growth Horm IGF Res. 2016 Nov 5 ;30-31:45-51. Epub 2016 Aug 5. PMID: 27863277 Abstract Author(s): Rachel L Darr, Kathleen J Savage, Mark Baker, Gregory E Wilding, Amy Raswalsky, Todd Rideout, Richard W Browne, Peter J Horvath Article Affiliation: Rachel L Darr Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Contradictory data between the Insulin-Like Growth Factor System (IGF) system and exercise may be due to alteration in IGF binding proteins. Vitamin D (D) deficiency has been related to muscle weakness and Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3). A Vit. D and acute exercise merge is proposed to modify the IGF system. DESIGN: D insufficient and deficient men (39.0±8.6yo with serum D (25OH D) 20.0±7.7ng/mL) did 1h of stretching (ST), aerobic (AB), and resistance (RT) exercises, before and after 28d of 4000IU/d Vit. D3 (D, n=6) or Placebo (P, n=7). ST, a time/attention control visit, interchanged unreceptive movements. AB was moderate intensity treadmill walking. RT rotated moderate strength 50% 1-RM repetitions (15, 10) of squat, bench press, leg press, and lat pull down. Serum Total IGF1 (TIGF1), Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 (IGFBP1), and IGFBP3 were measured before (T1, fasting), immediately after (T2), and 2h post (T3) exercise. RESULTS: After ST, IGFBP3 was greater in the D group at T2 (2948, 2130ng/mL; p<0.03) and T3 (3087, 2212; p<0.02). During RT, TIGF1 decreased in the Placebo (P) group from T1 to T3 (151.4, 107.3ng/mL; p<0.05), while IGFBP1 increased in the D group from T1 to T3 (26.5, 96.2ng/mL; p<0.05). RT IGFBP3 was greater at T1, T2, and T3 in the D group (2932.5, 2110.7; p<0.03), (3163.9, 2392.5; p<0.04), and (3355.3, 2353.1; p<0.01). In AB, IGFBP3 was greater in the D group at T2 (3128.6, 2226.3.0; p<0.04) and T3 (2949.7, 2135.1; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: D supplementation amplified IGFBP3 after low or moderate activity which may increase the delivery of IGF1 to tissues. Resistance exercise with D not only increased IGFBP3 and IGFBP1 levels but also conserved TIGF1 levels, possibly shifting the IGF system for enriched muscle well-being. Article Published Date : Nov 04, 2016

The Case for Increased Physical Activity in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Brief Review.

Abstract Title: The Case for Increased Physical Activity in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Brief Review. Abstract Source: Int J Sports Med. 2016 Apr 26. Epub 2016 Apr 26. PMID: 27116344 Abstract Author(s): R J Shephard Article Affiliation: R J Shephard Abstract: Regular physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer, but there is little information on the merits of such activity in the prevention and management of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). The present systematic review thus documents current levels of habitual physical activity and aerobic and muscular function in CIBD, and examines the safety, practicality and efficacy of exercise programmes in countering the disease process, correcting functional deficits and enhancing quality of life. A systematic search of the Ovid/Medline database from January 1996 to May 2015 linked the terms physical activity/motor activity/physical fitness/physical training/physical education/training/exercise/exercise therapy with Crohn's disease/colitis/ulcerative colitis/inflammatory bowel disease, supplementing this information by a scanning of reference lists and personal files.12 of 16 published studies show a low level of habitual physical activity in CIBD, with sub-normal values for aerobic power, lean tissue mass and muscular strength. 3 of 4 studies suggest physical activity may reduce the risk of developing IBD, and 11 interventions all note that exercise programmes are well tolerated with some decreases of disease activity, and functional gains leading to an increased health-related quality of life. Moreover, programme compliance rates compare favourably with those seen in the treatment of other chronic conditions. More information on mechanisms is needed, but regular moderate aerobic and/or resistance exercise improves the health status of patients with CIBD both by modulating immune function and by improving physical function. A regular exercise programme should thus become an important component in the management of CIBD. Article Published Date : Apr 25, 2016

The effect of resistance training on markers of immune function and inflammation in previously sedentary women recovering from breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

Abstract Title: The effect of resistance training on markers of immune function and inflammation in previously sedentary women recovering from breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Abstract Source: Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016 Jan 28. Epub 2016 Jan 28. PMID: 26820653 Abstract Author(s): Amanda D Hagstrom, Paul W M Marshall, Chris Lonsdale, Shona Papalia, Birinder S Cheema, Catherine Toben, Bernhard T Baune, Maria A Fiatarone Singh, Simon Green Article Affiliation: Amanda D Hagstrom Abstract: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effects of resistance training (RT) on markers of inflammation and immune function in breast cancer survivors. Thirty-nine breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to a RT (n = 20) or control (n = 19) group. RT performed supervized exercise three times per week. Natural killer cell (NK) and natural killer T-cell (NKT) function, and markers of inflammation (serum TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and CRP) were measured before and after training. Changes in NK and NKT cell function were analyzed using ANCOVA, with the change score the dependent variable, and the baseline value of the same variable the covariate. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated via partial eta-squared. We found a significant reduction, and large associated ESs, in the RT group compared to the control groupfor change in NK cell expression of TNF-α (p = 0.005, ES = 0.21) and NKT cell expression of TNF-α (p = 0.04, ES = 0.12). No differences were observed in any serum marker. Significant improvements in all measurements of strength were found in RT compared to control (p < 0.001; large ESs ranging from 0.32 to 0.51). These data demonstrate that RT has a beneficial effect on the NK and NKT cell expression of TNF-α indicating that RT may be beneficial in improving the inflammatory profile in breast cancer survivors. Article Published Date : Jan 27, 2016

A Ketogenic Diet in Rodents Elicits Improved Mitochondrial Adaptations in Response to Resistance Exercise Training Compared to an Isocaloric Western Diet.

Abstract Title: A Ketogenic Diet in Rodents Elicits Improved Mitochondrial Adaptations in Response to Resistance Exercise Training Compared to an Isocaloric Western Diet. Abstract Source: Front Physiol. 2016 ;7:533. Epub 2016 Nov 8. PMID: 27877138 Abstract Author(s): Hayden W Hyatt, Wesley C Kephart, A Maleah Holland, Petey Mumford, C Brooks Mobley, Ryan P Lowery, Michael D Roberts, Jacob M Wilson, Andreas N Kavazis Article Affiliation: Hayden W Hyatt Abstract: Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2% protein, 42.7% CHO, 42.0% fat, n = 16) for 6 weeks. During these 6 weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, n = 8 per diet group) or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, n = 8 per diet group). Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. Results: In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher (p<0.05) in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher (p<0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1α mRNA expression were higher (p<0.05) in EXE animals regardless of diet. Conclusion: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Acute bout of resistance exercise increases vitamin D receptor protein expression in rat skeletal muscle.

Abstract Title: Acute bout of resistance exercise increases vitamin D receptor protein expression in rat skeletal muscle. Abstract Source: Exp Physiol. 2015 Sep 7. Epub 2015 Sep 7. PMID: 26347486 Abstract Author(s): Yuhei Makanae, Riki Ogasawara, Koji Sato, Yusuke Takamura, Kenji Matsutani, Kohei Kido, Naruhiro Shiozawa, Koichi Nakazato, Satoshi Fujita Article Affiliation: Yuhei Makanae Abstract: Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are involved in maintaining skeletal muscle mass and function. Although resistance exercise is well known to enhance muscle growth and improve muscle function, the effect of resistance exercise on VDR has been unclear. We investigated intramuscular VDR expression in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise and endurance exercise. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either resistance exercise (isometrically exercised via percutaneous electrical stimulation for 5 sets of ten 3-s contractions, with a 7-s interval between contractions and 3-min rest intervals between sets) or endurance exercise (treadmill at 25 m min(-1) for 60 min). Rats were killed immediately or 1, 3, 6, or 24 h after completion of the resistance or endurance exercise, and gastrocnemius muscles were removed. Non-exercise control animals were killed in a basal state (control group). Intramuscular VDR expression was significantly higher immediately after resistance exercise and elevated for 3 h after exercise compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and the resistance exercise significantly increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Mnk1 expression (P < 0.05), which may be associated with VDR expression, immediately after exercise. Additionally, intramuscular cytochrome P450 27B1 expression, an enzyme related to vitamin D metabolism, was significantly higher at 1 and 3 h after exercise (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. In contrast, endurance exercise had no effect on any of the measured proteins. Our results indicate that resistance exercise may be an efficient way to increase intramuscular VDR and related enzyme expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Article Published Date : Sep 06, 2015

Compression garment promotes muscular strength recovery after resistance exercise.

Abstract Title: Compression garment promotes muscular strength recovery after resistance exercise. Abstract Source: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014 Dec ;46(12):2265-70. PMID: 25003778 Abstract Author(s): Kazushige Goto, Takuma Morishima Article Affiliation: Kazushige Goto Abstract: PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing a compression garment (CG) for 24 h on changes in muscular strength and blood parameters over time after resistance exercise. METHODS: Nine trained men conducted resistance exercises (10 repetitions of 3-5 sets at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) for nine exercises) in two trials, wearing either a CG or a normal garment (CON) for 24 h after exercise. Recovery of muscular strength, blood parameters, muscle soreness, and upper arm and thigh circumference were compared between the trials. RESULTS: Both trials showed decreases in maximal strength after the exercise (P<0.05). However, the CG trial showed faster recovery of one-repetition maximum for the chest press from 3 to 8 h after exercise (P<0.05). Recovery of maximal knee extension strength was also improved in the CG trial 24 h after exercise (P<0.05). The CG trial was associated with lower muscle soreness and subjective fatigue scores the following morning (P<0.05). The upper arm and thigh circumferences were significantly higher during the recovery period in the CON trial, whereas no change was observed in the CG trial. Blood lactate, insulin like growth factor-1, free testosterone, myoglobin, creatine kinase, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist concentrations for 24 h after exercise were similar in both trials. CONCLUSIONS: Wearing a CG after resistance exercise facilitates the recovery of muscular strength. Recovery for upper body muscles significantly improved within 3-8 h after exercise. However, facilitation of recovery of lower limb muscles by wearing the CG took a longer time. Article Published Date : Nov 30, 2014

Association between physical activity advice only or structured exercise training with blood pressure levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Abstract Title: Association between physical activity advice only or structured exercise training with blood pressure levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Abstract Source: Sports Med. 2014 Nov ;44(11):1557-72. PMID: 25047852 Abstract Author(s): Franciele R Figueira, Daniel Umpierre, Felipe V Cureau, Alessandra T N Zucatti, Mériane B Dalzochio, Cristiane B Leitão, Beatriz D Schaan Article Affiliation: Franciele R Figueira Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with marked cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the association between different types of exercise training and blood pressure (BP) changes is not fully clear in type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) was to determine the effects of structured exercise training (aerobic [AER], resistance [RES], or combined [COMB]) and physical activity (PA) advice only on BP changes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Searches in five electronic databases were conducted to retrieve studies published from 1980 to 2013. Eligible studies were RCTs consisting of structured exercise training or PA advice versus no intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes. We used random effect models to derive weighted mean differences (WMDs) of exercises on absolute changes in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). RESULTS: A total of 30 RCTs of structured training (2,217 patients) and 21 of PA advice (7,323 patients) were included. Data were extracted independently in duplicate. Structured exercise was associated with reductions in SBP (WMD -4.22 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI] -5.89 to -2.56) and DBP (WMD -2.07 mmHg; 95% CI -3.03 to -1.11) versus controls. In structured exercise interventions, AER and RES were associated with declines in BP, and COMB was not associated with BP changes. However, in sensitivity analysis, a high-intensity protocol within COMB was associated with declines in SBP (WMD -3.30 mmHg; 95% CI -4.71 to -1.89). Structured exercise longer than 150 min/week was associated with greater BP reductions. PA advice only was associated with reduction in SBP (WMD -2.97 mmHg; 95% CI -4.52 to -1.43) and DBP (WMD -1.41 mmHg; 95% CI -1.94 to -0.88) versus controls. CONCLUSIONS: AER, RES, and high-intensity combined training are associated with BP reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in exercise programs lasting more than 150 min/week. PA advice only is also associated with lower BP levels. Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2014

Acute resistance exercise induces antinociception by activation of the endocannabinoid system in rats.

Abstract Title: Acute resistance exercise induces antinociception by activation of the endocannabinoid system in rats. Abstract Source: Anesth Analg. 2014 Sep ;119(3):702-15. PMID: 24977916 Abstract Author(s): Giovane Galdino, Thiago Romero, José Felippe Pinho da Silva, Daniele Aguiar, Ana Maria de Paula, Jader Cruz, Cosimo Parrella, Fabiana Piscitelli, Igor Duarte, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Andrea Perez Article Affiliation: Giovane Galdino Abstract: BACKGROUND: Resistance exercise (RE) is also known as strength training, and it is performed to increase the strength and mass of muscles, bone strength, and metabolism. RE has been increasingly prescribed for pain relief. However, the endogenous mechanisms underlying this antinociceptive effect are still largely unexplored. Thus, we investigated the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in RE-induced antinociception. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to acute RE in a weight-lifting model. The nociceptive threshold was measured by a mechanical nociceptive test (paw pressure) before and after exercise. To investigate the involvement of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids in RE-induced antinociception, cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists, endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors, and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor were injected before RE. After RE, CB1 cannabinoid receptors were quantified in rat brain tissue by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In addition, endocannabinoid plasma levels were measured by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. RESULTS: RE-induced antinociception was prevented by preinjection with CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists. By contrast, preadministration of metabolizing enzyme inhibitors and the anandamide reuptake inhibitor prolonged and enhanced this effect. RE also produced an increase in the expression and activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in rat brain tissue and in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal regions and an increase in endocannabinoid plasma levels. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that a single session of RE activates the endocannabinoid system to induce antinociception. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2014
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Therapeutic Actions EXERCISE Resistance Training

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Benefits of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A CASE REPORT.

Related Articles Benefits of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A CASE REPORT. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2018 Apr 18;: Authors: Perrotta F, Bianco A, Cioffi G, Cennamo A, Mazzarella G Abstract CLINICAL CASE: We describe the case of a 50-y-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) who underwent pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). The 8-wk training program, including resistance training and aerobic exercises, was conducted 3 d/wk under physiotherapist supervision. Clinical and functional assessment was performed prior to and following the program. At the end of the training program, meaningful improvements in primary outcomes, including spirometry values and exertional parameters, were noted. DISCUSSION: Pulmonary rehabilitation may represent a valid treatment in the management of symptoms in patients with IPF. Although the current guidelines for diagnosis and management of IPF recommend the use of PR programs, patients are not routinely referred to PR centers and exercise training for these patients is not standardized. SUMMARY: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disease characterized by the loss of lung function, which results in a severe impairment of daily activities. Prospective studies testing the effectiveness of PR programs in larger cohorts of patients are still lacking. Furthermore, a standardization of pulmonary training programs should be developed to better understand the benefit of PR. PMID: 29672359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An Exercise Intervention to Unravel the Mechanisms Underlying Insulin Resistance in a Cohort of Black South African Women: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial and Baseline Characteristics of Participants.

Related Articles An Exercise Intervention to Unravel the Mechanisms Underlying Insulin Resistance in a Cohort of Black South African Women: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial and Baseline Characteristics of Participants. JMIR Res Protoc. 2018 Apr 18;7(4):e75 Authors: Goedecke JH, Mendham AE, Clamp L, Nono Nankam PA, Fortuin-de Smidt MC, Phiri L, Micklesfield LK, Keswell D, Woudberg NJ, Lecour S, Alhamud A, Kaba M, Lutomia FM, van Jaarsveld PJ, de Villiers A, Kahn SE, Chorell E, Hauksson J, Olsson T Abstract BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in black African women is complex and differs from that in their white counterparts. However, earlier studies have been cross-sectional and provide little insight into the causal pathways. Exercise training is consistently used as a model to examine the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance and risk for T2D. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the mechanisms underlying the changes in insulin sensitivity and secretion in response to a 12-week exercise intervention in obese black South African (SA) women. METHODS: A total of 45 obese (body mass index, BMI: 30-40 kg/m2) black SA women were randomized into a control (n=22) or experimental (exercise; n=23) group. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of supervised combined aerobic and resistance training (40-60 min, 4 days/week), while the control group maintained their typical physical activity patterns, and both groups were requested not to change their dietary patterns. Before and following the 12-week intervention period, insulin sensitivity and secretion (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) and its primary and secondary determinants were measured. Dietary intake, sleep quality and quantity, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors were measured every 4 weeks. RESULTS: The final sample included 20 exercise and 15 control participants. Baseline sociodemographics, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, physical activity, and diet did not differ between the groups (P>.05). CONCLUSIONS: The study describes a research protocol for an exercise intervention to understand the mechanisms underlying insulin sensitivity and secretion in obese black SA women and aims to identify causal pathways underlying the high prevalence of insulin resistance and risk for T2D in black SA women, targeting specific areas for therapeutic intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201711002789113; http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/ appmanager/atm/atmregistry?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=portals_app_atmregistry_portal_page_13 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6xLEFqKr0). PMID: 29669711 [PubMed]

Joint-level energetics differentiate isoinertial from speed-power resistance training-a Bayesian analysis.

Related Articles Joint-level energetics differentiate isoinertial from speed-power resistance training-a Bayesian analysis. PeerJ. 2018;6:e4620 Authors: Liew BXW, Drovandi CC, Clifford S, Keogh JWL, Morris S, Netto K Abstract Background: There is convincing evidence for the benefits of resistance training on vertical jump improvements, but little evidence to guide optimal training prescription. The inability to detect small between modality effects may partially reflect the use of ANOVA statistics. This study represents the results of a sub-study from a larger project investigating the effects of two resistance training methods on load carriage running energetics. Bayesian statistics were used to compare the effectiveness of isoinertial resistance against speed-power training to change countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and joint energetics. Methods: Active adults were randomly allocated to either a six-week isoinertial (n = 16; calf raises, leg press, and lunge), or a speed-power training program (n = 14; countermovement jumps, hopping, with hip flexor training to target pre-swing running energetics). Primary outcome variables included jump height and joint power. Bayesian mixed modelling and Functional Data Analysis were used, where significance was determined by a non-zero crossing of the 95% Bayesian Credible Interval (CrI). Results: The gain in CMJ height after isoinertial training was 1.95 cm (95% CrI [0.85-3.04] cm) greater than the gain after speed-power training, but the gain in SJ height was similar between groups. In the CMJ, isoinertial training produced a larger increase in power absorption at the hip by a mean 0.018% (equivalent to 35 W) (95% CrI [0.007-0.03]), knee by 0.014% (equivalent to 27 W) (95% CrI [0.006-0.02]) and foot by 0.011% (equivalent to 21 W) (95% CrI [0.005-0.02]) compared to speed-power training. Discussion: Short-term isoinertial training improved CMJ height more than speed-power training. The principle adaptive difference between training modalities was at the level of hip, knee and foot power absorption. PMID: 29666769 [PubMed]

Letter to the editor concerning the article "Bar velocities capable of optimising the muscle power in strength-power exercises" by Loturco, Pereira, Abad, Tabares, Moraes, Kobal, Kitamura & Nakamura (2017).

Related Articles Letter to the editor concerning the article "Bar velocities capable of optimising the muscle power in strength-power exercises" by Loturco, Pereira, Abad, Tabares, Moraes, Kobal, Kitamura & Nakamura (2017). J Sports Sci. 2018 May;36(9):994-996 Authors: Jaric S, Garcia Ramos A Abstract Loturco and co-workers (2017) recently published data in the Journal of Sports Sciences to present the optimum loading magnitudes regarding the maximization of the "mean propulsive power" of the leg and arm muscles. Among the most important findings were that (1) the recorded power in the squat and squat jump exercises was markedly low, (2) the optimum external load that maximized the power in the same exercises was close to 100% of body weight, while (3) the ballistic bench press throw revealed smaller power than the regular bench press typically performed with relatively low level of muscle activation towards the end of the propulsive lifting phase. The findings are either counter-intuitive, or contradict the literature findings, or both, and we believe that they originate from apparent methodological flaws. The first one is neglecting the force acting against the body segments moved together with the external load that is particularly high in squat exercises. The second one is an erroneous calculation of the propulsive phase that included a part of the bar's flight time. Both of these methodological flaws are frequent in the literature and could be associated with the improper use and calculation of variables when utilizing linear position transducers. PMID: 28686081 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women.

Related Articles Effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2017 Oct;29(5):977-984 Authors: Yoon SJ, Lee MJ, Lee HM, Lee JS Abstract BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have reported that heat stress stimulates the activation of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), leading to an increase in muscle synthesis. Some studies suggested that low-intensity resistance training combined with heat stress could improve muscle size and strength. AIM: This study aimed to identify the effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress over 12 weeks on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women. METHODS: The subjects were physically healthy women of 65-75 years, who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a low-intensity resistance training with heating sheet group (HRT group, n = 8), a moderate-intensity resistance training (RT group, n = 6), and a heating sheet group (HEAT group, n = 7). Computed tomography scans, 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and blood samples were taken pre- and post-training. RESULTS: The HSP72 did not vary significantly between the different groups and times. The IGF-1 and 1RM had significantly increased in all three groups after the training (respectively, p < 0.05). Moreover, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps showed a significantly greater increase in the HRT group than in the HEAT group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We found that low-intensity training with heat stress stimulated the anabolic hormones of elderly women, improving their muscle strength and hypertrophy. We believe that low-intensity training with heat stress is an effective way to prevent muscle atrophy and to improve muscle strength in elderly women. PMID: 27866347 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]