Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Exercise Strength Training

Effect of strength training on resting metabolic rate and physical activity: age and gender comparisons.

Abstract Title: Effect of strength training on resting metabolic rate and physical activity: age and gender comparisons. Abstract Source: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Apr ;33(4):532-41. PMID: 11283427 Abstract Author(s): J T Lemmer, F M Ivey, A S Ryan, G F Martel, D E Hurlbut, J E Metter, J L Fozard, J L Fleg, B F Hurley Article Affiliation: Department of Kinesiology, College of Health and Human Performance, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare age and gender effects of strength training (ST) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy expenditure of physical activity (EEPA), and body composition. METHODS: RMR and EEPA were measured before and after 24 wk of ST in 10 young men (20-30 yr), 9 young women (20-30 yr), 11 older men (65-75 yr), and 10 older women (65-75 yr). RESULTS: When all subjects were pooled together, absolute RMR significantly increased by 7% (5928 +/- 1225 vs 6328 +/- 1336 kJ.d-1, P<0.001). Furthermore, ST increased absolute RMR by 7% in both young (6302 +/- 1458 vs 6719 +/- 1617 kJ x d(-1), P<0.01) and older (5614 +/- 916 vs 5999 +/- 973 kJ x d(-1), P<0.05) subjects, with no significant interaction between the two age groups. In contrast, there was a significant gender x time interaction (P<0.05) for absolute RMR with men increasing RMR by 9% (6645 +/- 1073 vs 7237 +/- 1150 kJ x d(-1), P<0.001), whereas women showed no significant increase (5170 +/- 884 vs 5366 +/- 692 kJ x d(-1), P = 0.108). When RMR was adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) using ANCOVA, with all subjects pooled together, there was still a significant increase in RMR with ST. Additionally, there was still a gender effect (P<0.05) and no significant age effect (P = NS), with only the men still showing a significant elevation in RMR. Moreover, EEPA and TEE estimated with a Tritrac accelerometer and TEE estimated by the Stanford Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire did not change in response to ST for any group. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, changes in absolute and relative RMR in response to ST are influenced by gender but not age. In contrast to what has been suggested previously, changes in body composition in response to ST are not due to changes in physical activity outside of training. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2001
Therapeutic Actions EXERCISE Strength Training

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Synchronized Pedaling with Martial Arts Improves Quality of Life of Women with Breast Cancer.

Related Articles Synchronized Pedaling with Martial Arts Improves Quality of Life of Women with Breast Cancer. Int J Sports Med. 2018 Oct 22;: Authors: Navarro-Sanz A, Espejo-Reina A, Cerezo-Guzman MV, Fernandez-Ortega JF, Meza-Leiva H, Conejo-Tirado I, Santiago-Sanchez C Abstract Physical exercise improves the physical condition of women who have been undergone surgery for breast cancer. This study evaluated the effect of a new martial arts program that combined aerobic endurance and muscle strength exercises on improving upper limb function and aerobic performance of women who have undergone breast cancer surgery. Fifty-three women who had previously undergone breast cancer surgery with axillary lymph node dissection, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy participated in the twelve-week program. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups; a study group (28 participants) in which participants carried out a synchronized pedaling with martial arts routine of 2 sessions per week, and a control group (22 participants) who received usual care. Study group participants demonstrated a significant increase in right hand and quadriceps strength, maximum oxygen consumption, max power-to-weight ratio, muscle mass percentage and a decrease in fat mass percentage (p≤0.05). A controlled training system like synchronized pedaling with martial arts, which combines aerobic and strength exercises, appears suitable for improving the muscle strength and aerobic capacity of these breast cancer participants. PMID: 30347415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Therapeutic and lifestyle approaches to obesity in older persons.

Related Articles Therapeutic and lifestyle approaches to obesity in older persons. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018 Oct 20;: Authors: Jiang BC, Villareal DT Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity rates worldwide continue to increase and will disproportionately affect older adults because of population aging. This review highlights recent progress pertaining to therapeutic approaches to obesity in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Caloric restriction alone improves physical function and quality of life in older adults with obesity but is associated with loss of lean mass and increases fracture risk. Adding progressive resistance training to caloric restriction attenuates loss of muscle and bone mass and increasing protein intake enhances this effect. Adding aerobic endurance training to caloric restriction further improves cardiorespiratory fitness but adding both aerobic endurance training and resistance training to caloric restriction results in the greatest improvement in overall physical function while still preserving lean mass. Future promising therapeutic interventions include testosterone, myostatin inhibitors, and bariatric surgery, but there are few studies specific to obese older adults. SUMMARY: The optimal approach toward obesity in older persons is lifestyle intervention incorporating caloric restriction and exercise consisting of aerobic endurance training and resistance training. Maintenance of adequate protein intake, calcium, and vitamin D is advisable. There is insufficient evidence specific to obese older adults to recommend testosterone or bariatric surgery at this time. Myostatin inhibitors may become a future treatment, and clinical trials are ongoing. PMID: 30346314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Influence of the Physical Training on Muscle Function and Walking Distance in Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease in Elderly.

Related Articles Influence of the Physical Training on Muscle Function and Walking Distance in Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease in Elderly. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:1937527 Authors: Kropielnicka K, Dziubek W, Bulińska K, Stefańska M, Wojcieszczyk-Latos J, Jasiński R, Pilch U, Dąbrowska G, Skórkowska-Telichowska K, Kałka D, Janus A, Zywar K, Paszkowski R, Rachwalik A, Woźniewski M, Szuba A Abstract Introduction: A typical symptom of chronic lower-limb ischaemia is lower-limb pain, which occurs during walking forcing the patient to stop, intermittent claudication (IC). Exercise rehabilitation is the basic form of treatment for these patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three types of physical training programmes conducted over a 12-week period in patients with chronic lower-limb arterial insufficiency. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five people qualified for the 3-month supervised motor rehabilitation programme, conducted three times a week. The respondents were assigned to three types of rehabilitation programmes using a pseudo-randomization method: Group I (TW), subjects undertaking treadmill walking training; Group II (NW), subjects undertaking Nordic walking training; Group III (RES+NW), subjects undertaking resistance and Nordic walking training. Treadmill test, 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and isokinetic test were repeated after 3 months of rehabilitation, which 80 people completed. Results: Combined training (RES+NW) is more effective than Nordic walking alone and supervised treadmill training alone for improving ankle force-velocity parameters (p<0.05) in patients with intermittent claudication. Each of the proposed exercise rehabilitation programmes increased walking distance of patients with intermittent claudication (p<0.05), especially in 6MWT (p=0.001). Significant relationships of force-velocity parameters are observed in the maximum distance obtained in 6MWT, both in Group III (RES + NW) and in Group II (NW) at the level of moderate and strong correlation strength, which indicates that if the lower limbs are stronger the walking distance achieved in 6MWT is longer. Conclusions: Given both the force-velocity parameters and the covered distance, the training RES + NW gives the most beneficial changes compared to training TW alone and NW alone. All types of training increased walking distance, which is an important aspect of the everyday functioning of people with IC. PMID: 30345295 [PubMed - in process]

Effects of 6 months supervised physical training on muscle strength and aerobic capacity in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

Related Articles Effects of 6 months supervised physical training on muscle strength and aerobic capacity in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Obes. 2018 Aug;8(4):227-235 Authors: Mundbjerg LH, Stolberg CR, Bladbjerg EM, Funch-Jensen P, Juhl CB, Gram B Abstract Obesity and physical inactivity are major health problems. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery results in significant weight loss and reduces obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Physical activity lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. The aims of this study were to elucidate the effects of RYGB followed by 6 months of supervised physical training on physical capacity. In a randomized controlled trial, 60 participants eligible for RYGB were randomized 6 months post-surgery to either two weekly physical training sessions for 26 weeks (INT) or a control group (CON). Aerobic capacity (VO2 max), muscle strength (MS) of the shoulder and hip and physical function were measured pre-surgery and 6, 12 and 24 months post-surgery. RYGB per se decreased MS in all tested muscle groups, had no effects on VO2 max but improved physical function. After the intervention, INT had a significant 0.33 L min-1 increase in VO2 max compared to CON (95% CI: 0.07-0.57, P = 0.013). Furthermore, MS in the hip adductor increased significantly with 13 N (95% CI: 3.6-22.4, P = 0.007) and a between-group difference was found in the Stair Climb Test (0.46 repetitions [95% CI: 0.02-0.91, P = 0.042]). The effects were not maintained at follow-up. Supervised physical training following RYGB improved VO2 max, hip MS and physical function, but the positive effects were not maintained at follow-up. While activities of daily life may become easier as a result of RYGB, the observed extensive post-operative loss of MS requires more attention to increase the patient's physical capacity prospectively. PMID: 29896844 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nandrolone combined with strenuous resistance training reduces vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

Related Articles Nandrolone combined with strenuous resistance training reduces vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Steroids. 2018 03;131:7-13 Authors: Guzzoni V, Cunha TS, das Neves VJ, Briet L, Costa R, Moura MJCS, Oliveira V, Franco MDCP, Novaes PD, Marcondes FK Abstract Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AASs) misuse has increased among adolescents and recreational athletes due to their potential effects on muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, AAS might induce alterations on cardiovascular system, although some controversies regarding AAS on vascular properties remain unknown. To address this question, we aimed to investigate the effects of high doses of nandrolone combined with strenuous resistance training (RT) on function and structure of thoracic aorta. Rats were randomized into four groups: non-trained vehicle (NTV), trained vehicle (TV), non-trained nandrolone (NTN), and trained nandrolone (TN), and submitted to 6 weeks of treatment with nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice a week) and/or resistance training. In vitro response of thoracic aorta to acetylcholine (ACh) was analyzed. Vascular nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis were evaluated using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2) and hydroethidine fluorescent techniques, respectively. Thoracic aorta was processed for microscopy analyses and tunica media thickness was measured. ACh-mediated relaxation response was impaired in endothelium intact aortic rings isolated from trained rats (TV and TN) as compared with their matched non-trained groups. TN rats showed reduced ACh-mediated vasodilatation than NTN rats. NO production and bioavailability decreased in thoracic aorta of nandrolone-treated rats in relation to their matched non-trained group (NTN vs. NTV; TN vs. TV). ROS production and tunica media thickness were increased in TN rats when compared with TV rats. These findings indicate that high doses of nandrolone combined with strenuous RT affect NO bioavailability and might induce endothelial dysfunction and arterial morphological alterations. PMID: 29317256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Inspiratory muscle training is effective to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications and length of hospital stay: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Related Articles Inspiratory muscle training is effective to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications and length of hospital stay: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Disabil Rehabil. 2018 04;40(8):864-882 Authors: Kendall F, Oliveira J, Peleteiro B, Pinho P, Bastos PT Abstract PURPOSE: This study systematically review and meta-analyse the effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) and length of hospital stay (LOS), both in the preoperative and/or postoperative periods of cardiac, pulmonary, and abdominal surgical patients. Sensitive analysis was performed to examine which patients benefit more from IMT according to methodological features (quality of studies and sample size), patient's characteristics (pulmonary risk stratification, age, and body mass index), type of surgery, period of training, and training protocols (training doses and level of supervision). METHODS: The literature search was made in the electronic databases PubMed®, EBSCO, Web of Science®, PEDro and Scopus®. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Data extraction, quality assessment and meta-analysis were performed. RESULTS: We included 17 randomized controlled trials in the systematic review, of which, 12 were included for the PPC meta-analysis and 11 for the LOS meta-analysis. IMT significantly reduced the risk of PPC (Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.39, 0.64, I2 = 0.0%), and a decrease in LOS (Mean Difference = -1.41, 95%CI: -2.07, -0.75, I2 = 0.0%). CONCLUSION: IMT is effective to reduce PPC and LOS in patients undergoing surgery. Implications for Rehabilitation Physiotherapy interventions with inspiratory muscle training (IMT) are effective to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) and length of hospital stay (LOS) after major surgery, and should start preoperatively. Rehabilitation with IMT is beneficial at all ages and risk levels, but older and high-risk patients benefit more, as well as pulmonary surgery patients. IMT is more effective if it is supervised, and prescription target at least two-week period, sessions with more than 15 minutes, with imposed load increment, and adding other exercise modes. PMID: 28093920 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]