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Effects of a community-based neonatal care package program.

Effects of a community-based neonatal care package program. Health Policy Plan. 2018 Mar 19;: Authors: Acharya Y Abstract This article evaluates a community-based effort aimed at reducing neonatal mortality. I use nationally representative data from Nepal, where 22 children per 1000 die within the first month of their birth, and evaluate the impact of Community-Based Neonatal Care Package. The identification is based on a before-and-after comparison of outcomes in program districts relative to those in non-program districts. I find that the program was successful in encouraging cleaner deliveries for births that took place at home and in increasing prenatal visits to the health center by pregnant women significantly. Despite these positive effects on intermediate outcomes, there is no evidence that the program reduced neonatal mortality. There is also no evidence that the program improved other intermediate outcomes, namely institutional or professional-attended deliveries. While the lack of an effect on a few of the outcomes may be mainly due to supply-side constraints, the findings also suggest the need for a broader examination of the role of the Female Community Health Volunteers. PMID: 29562262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Household incense burning and infant gross motor development: Results from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

Related Articles Household incense burning and infant gross motor development: Results from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. Environ Int. 2018 Mar 17;115:110-116 Authors: Wei CF, Chen MH, Lin CC, Guo YL, Lin SJ, Hsieh WS, Chen PC Abstract BACKGROUND: Air pollution from biomass burning were associated with neurodevelopmental deceleration, but limited studies concerned about the effect of indoor biomass burning. Incense burning is a common household ritual practice in Taiwan, while past studies mainly focused on birth weight and allergic disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find the association between incense burning exposure and children's neurodevelopment. METHODS: In Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS), a nationwide representative birth cohort study, children were assessed upon home interview with structured questionnaires upon six and eighteen months old. Multivariate logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting confounding factors were applied to explore the odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) between household incense burning exposure and caregiver-reported neurodevelopment milestones. RESULTS: In this study, 15,310 term singletons were included, and household incense burning was associated with delay in gross motor neurodevelopment milestone, such as walking with support (Occasional incense burning: OR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 1.47, HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.11; persistent incense burning: OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.69, HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.16) and walking steadily (Occasional incense burning: OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.32, HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.11, persistent incense burning: OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.45, HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested household incense burning exposure was associated with delay in gross motor neurodevelopmental milestones. Further research is warranted to elucidate the possible mechanism and causal relationship. PMID: 29558633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prevalence and correlates of home delivery amongst HIV-infected women attending care at a rural public health facility in Coastal Kenya.

Related Articles Prevalence and correlates of home delivery amongst HIV-infected women attending care at a rural public health facility in Coastal Kenya. PLoS One. 2018;13(3):e0194028 Authors: Chea SK, Mwangi TW, Ndirangu KK, Abdullahi OA, Munywoki PK, Abubakar A, Hassan AS Abstract BACKGROUND: Home delivery, referring to pregnant women giving birth in the absence of a skilled birth attendant, is a significant contributor to maternal mortality, and is encouragingly reported to be on a decline in the general population in resource limited settings. However, much less is known about home delivery amongst HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). We described the prevalence and correlates of home delivery among HIV-infected women attending care at a rural public health facility in Kilifi, Coastal Kenya. METHODS: A cross-sectional design using mixed methods was used. Quantitative data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires from HIV-infected women with a recent pregnancy (within 5 years, n = 425), whilst qualitative data were collected using focused group discussions (FGD, n = 5). Data were analysed using logistic regression and a thematic framework approach respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 108 (25.4%, [95% CI: 21.3-29.8]) participants delivered at home. Correlates of home delivery included lack of formal education (aOR 12.4 [95% CI: 3.4-46.0], p<0.001), history of a previous home delivery (2.7 [95% CI:1.2-6.0], p = 0.019) and being on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, 0.4 [95% CI:0.2-0.8], p = 0.006).Despite a strong endorsement against home delivery, major thematic challenges included consumer-associated barriers, health care provider associated barriers and structural barriers. CONCLUSION: A quarter of HIV-infected women delivered at home, which is comparable to estimates reported from the general population in this rural setting, and much lower than estimates from other sSA settings. A tailored package of care targeting women with no formal education and with a history of a previous home delivery, coupled with interventions towards scaling up HAART and improving the quality of maternal care in HIV-infected women may positively contribute to a decline in home delivery and subsequent maternal mortality in this setting. PMID: 29558474 [PubMed - in process]

Postnatal women's perspectives on the feasibility of introducing postpartum home visits: a Jordanian study.

Related Articles Postnatal women's perspectives on the feasibility of introducing postpartum home visits: a Jordanian study. Home Health Care Serv Q. 2018 Mar 20;: Authors: Shaban I, Al-Awamreh K, Mohammad K, Gharaibeh H Abstract In Jordan, there is a deficiency in postnatal care provided to women and their newborns. This study investigated the feasibility of initiating postnatal home visits in Jordan. Thirty Jordanian mothers who had recently given birth were recruited from two governmental hospitals in the northern region of Jordan to participate in a qualitative study through face-to-face, voice-recorded interviews. The findings revealed that initiating postnatal home visits as part of postnatal care was well-received by the participants. Mothers' views and perceptions regarding postpartum home visits play an integral role in finding areas to improve postnatal services. PMID: 29558322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

High frequency jet ventilation in preterm infants: experience from Western Australia.

Related Articles High frequency jet ventilation in preterm infants: experience from Western Australia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 Mar 20;:1-6 Authors: Anvekar AP, Shah PS, Nathan EA, Doherty DA, Patole SK, Simmer KN Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess if high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is associated with reduced odds of death or discharge home on oxygen in preterm infants. METHODS: A case control study (1 February 2010 - 1 June 2014) comparing the primary outcome as "death or discharge home on oxygen" in preterm infants who needed HFJV (Cases) versus those who did not (Controls). Controls were matched to cases (1:1) on gestation, birthweight, gender, place of birth, growth status, antenatal glucocorticoids, and dexamethasone as treatment for severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Logistic regression analysis was used to control for confounders. RESULTS: Data on all preterm infants who needed HFJV (Cases: n = 50) and 50 controls during the study period were analysed. Primary outcome was more frequent in cases versus controls, but not significant after adjusting for mean airway pressure and adjuvant therapy (e.g. diuretics) [aOR: 1.46 (0.23-9.14), p = .687]. Death before discharge [odds ratios (OR): 6.00 (1.34-55.2), p = .013] was more frequent in cases; discharge on home oxygen [OR: 0.88 (0.27-2.76), p = 1.000] was comparable between groups. Duration of oxygen [adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 1.23 (0.69-2.17), p = .475] and incidence of treatment warranting retinopathy of prematurity [aOR: 0.10 (0.01-1.96), p = .127] was not significant between cases versus controls. CONCLUSIONS: HFJV was not associated with reduced odds of death or discharge home on oxygen in preterm infants in our study. Adequately powered randomized trials are required to assess the efficacy and safety of HFJV in preterm infants. PMID: 29558222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Developmental Exposures to Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs): An Update of Associated Health Outcomes.

Related Articles Developmental Exposures to Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs): An Update of Associated Health Outcomes. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2018 Mar 19;: Authors: Liew Z, Goudarzi H, Oulhote Y Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed and summarized the epidemiological evidence for the influence that pre- and postnatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may have on health outcomes in offspring, with a particular focus on birth outcomes and postnatal growth, immunomodulatory effects and neurodevelopment. RECENT FINDINGS: PFASs are persistent organic pollutants that have been widely produced and used in a range of commercial products since the 1950s. Human exposures to PFASs are nearly ubiquitous globally, but studies that addressed potential health effects of PFASs have only begun to accumulate in recent years. Animal studies suggest adverse effects resulting from developmental encompasses prenatal exposures to PFASs. In humans, the developing fetus is exposed to PFASs via active or passive placenta transfer, while newborns might be exposed via breastfeeding or PFAS in the home environment. Overall, epidemiological findings are consistent and suggest possible associations with fetal and postnatal growth and immune function, while the findings on neurodevelopmental endpoints to date are rather inconclusive. Methodological challenges and future directions for PFASs-focused research are discussed. PMID: 29556975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Classic Presentation.

Related Articles Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Classic Presentation. Skinmed. 2018;16(1):55-58 Authors: Sehgal VN, Singh N, Sharma S, Rohatgi J, Oberai R, Chatterjee K Abstract An 11-year-old girl presented with an insidiously evolving, reddish-brown, small, hard, elevated lesion, occupying the midsection of her face, which had been present since early childhood. There were also a few small white spots over the trunk. There was no history of seizures or visual deficit, and no burning on exposure to sunlight. There were no known congenital defect noted at birth, and her parents were nonconsanguineous. There was no significant family history. There were numerous 2- to 4-mm reddish-brown papules located symmetrically on the nose, nasolabial folds, and cheeks (Figure 1A). In addition, there was an uneven 3-cm plaque in the lumbosacral region that resembled orange peel-a shagreen patch (Figure 1B). There were also two well-defined, 5- to 10-mm, hypomelanotic, ivory-white macule(s) with irregular margins (Figure 1C). The buccal mucosa and nails were unremarkable, and indirect ophthalmoscopic and slitlamp examination of the eye was normal. Laboratory studies were unremarkable. Ultrasonography of the abdomen was normal, as were abdominal and chest x-rays. PMID: 29551117 [PubMed - in process]

Women's experiences of mistreatment during childbirth: A comparative view of home- and facility-based births in Pakistan.

Related Articles Women's experiences of mistreatment during childbirth: A comparative view of home- and facility-based births in Pakistan. PLoS One. 2018;13(3):e0194601 Authors: Hameed W, Avan BI Abstract INTRODUCTION: Respectful and dignified healthcare is a fundamental right for every woman. However, many women seeking childbirth services, especially those in low-income countries such as Pakistan, are mistreated by their birth attendants. The aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalence of mistreatment and types of mistreatment among women giving birth in facility- and home-based settings in Pakistan in order to address the lack of empirical evidence on this topic. The study also examined the association between demographics (socio-demographic, reproductive history and empowerment status) and mistreatment, both in general and according to birth setting (whether home- or facility-based). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In phase one, we identified 24 mistreatment indicators through an extensive literature review. We then pre-tested these indicators and classified them into seven behavioural types. During phase two, the survey was conducted (April-May 2013) in 14 districts across Pakistan. A total of 1,334 women who had given birth at home or in a healthcare facility over the past 12 months were interviewed. Linear regression analysis was employed for the full data set, and for facility- and home-based births separately, using Stata version 14.1. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in manifestations of mistreatment between facility- and home-based childbirths. Approximately 97% of women reported experiencing at least one disrespectful and abusive behaviour. Experiences of mistreatment by type were as follows: non-consented care (81%); right to information (72%); non-confidential care (69%); verbal abuse (35%); abandonment of care (32%); discriminatory care (15%); and physical abuse (15%). In overall analysis, experience of mistreatment was lower among women who were unemployed (β = -1.17, 95% CI -1.81, -0.53); and higher among less empowered women (β = 0.11, 95% CI 0.06, 0.16); and those assisted by a traditional birth attendant as opposed to a general physician (β = 0.94, 95% CI 0.13, 1.75). Sub-group analyses for home-based births identified the same significant associations with mistreatment, with ethnicity included. In facility-based births, there was a significant relationship between women's employment and empowerment status and mistreatment. Women with prior education on birth preparedness were less likely to experience mistreatment compared to those who had received no previous birth preparedness education. CONCLUSION: In order to promote care that is woman-centred and provided in a respectful and culturally appropriate manner, service providers should be cognisant of the current situation and ensure provision of quality antenatal care. At the community level, women should seek antenatal care for improved birth preparedness, while at the interpersonal level strategies should be devised to leverage women's ability to participate in key household decisions. PMID: 29547632 [PubMed - in process]

INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention reduces infant's screen time and television exposure.

Related Articles INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention reduces infant's screen time and television exposure. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 Mar 15;15(1):24 Authors: Adams EL, Marini ME, Stokes J, Birch LL, Paul IM, Savage JS Abstract BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviors, including screen time, in childhood have been associated with an increased risk for overweight. Beginning in infancy, we sought to reduce screen time and television exposure and increase time spent in interactive play as one component of a responsive parenting (RP) intervention designed for obesity prevention. METHODS: The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study is a randomized trial comparing a RP intervention with a safety control intervention. Primiparous mother-newborn dyads (N = 279) were randomized after childbirth. Research nurses delivered intervention content at infant ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks and research center visits at 1 and 2 years. As one component of INSIGHT, developmentally appropriate messages on minimizing screen time, reducing television exposure in the home, and promoting parent-child engagement through interactive play were delivered. Mothers self-reported their infant's screen time at ages 44 weeks, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 years; interactive play was reported at 8 and 20 weeks and 2 years. RESULTS: More RP than control parents reported their infants met the American Academy of Pediatrics' no screen time recommendation at 44 weeks (53.0% vs. 30.2%) and at 1 year on weekdays (42.5% vs. 27.6%) and weekends (45.5% vs. 26.8%), but not after age 1 year. RP mothers and RP children had less daily screen time than controls at each time point (p ≤ 0.01). Fewer RP than control group mothers reported the television was ever on during infant meals (p < 0.05). The frequency of tummy time and floor play did not differ by study group; approximately 95% of infants spent time in restrictive devices (i.e. swing) at 8 and 20 weeks. At 2 years of age, there were no study group differences for time children spent in interactive play. CONCLUSION: From infancy to early childhood, the INSIGHT RP intervention reduced screen time and television exposure, but did not increase the frequency or amount of interactive play. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01167270 . Registered on 21 July 2010. PMID: 29544506 [PubMed - in process]

Predictors of Early Childbirth Among Female Adolescents in Foster Care.

Related Articles Predictors of Early Childbirth Among Female Adolescents in Foster Care. J Adolesc Health. 2017 Aug;61(2):226-232 Authors: King B, Van Wert M Abstract PURPOSE: Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. METHODS: A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. RESULTS: Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p < .001) in birth rates were observed across demographic characteristics, maltreatment history, and foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. PMID: 28438523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]