Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Hypnosis

Hypnosis versus diazepam for embryo transfer: a randomized controlled study.

Abstract Title: Hypnosis versus diazepam for embryo transfer: a randomized controlled study. Abstract Source: Am J Clin Hypn. 2013 Apr ;55(4):378-86. PMID: 23724572 Abstract Author(s): Patrick Catoire, Laurent Delaunay, Thomas Dannappel, Dominique Baracchini, Sabine Marcadet-Fredet, Olivier Moreau, Luc Pacaud, Daniel Przyrowski, Emmanuel Marret Article Affiliation: Clinique du Mail, Department of Anesthesia, La Rochelle, France. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Levitas et al. (2006) showed in a cohort study that hypnosis during embryo transfer (ET) increased pregnancy ratio by 76%. In order to evaluate hypnosis during ET in a general population, the authors performed a randomized prospective controlled study comparing diazepam (usual premedication) administered before ET plus muscle relaxation versus hypnosis plus placebo in 94 patients. Additionally, the authors studied anxiety pre and post ET. Anxiety scores were not different in the two groups before and after ET. No difference in pregnancy and birth ratio was found in the two groups. Hypnosis during ET is as effective as diazepam in terms of pregnancy ratio and anxiolytic effects, but with fewer side effects and should be routinely available. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2013

Group hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome with long-term follow-up.

Abstract Title: Group hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome with long-term follow-up. Abstract Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2013 Jan ;61(1):38-54. PMID: 23153384 Abstract Author(s): Charles D Gerson, Jessica Gerson, Mary-Joan Gerson Article Affiliation: a Mount Sinai School of Medicine , New York , New York , USA. Abstract: Abstract This study tested whether group gut-focused hypnotherapy would improve irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several possible outcome predictors were also studied. Before treatment, 75 patients completed a Symptom Severity Scale, a Mind-Body attribution questionnaire, and a Quality of Relationship Inventory (QRI). The symptom scale was completed posttreatment, 3, 6, and 12 months later. There was significant symptom reduction at each data point (p<.001). Sixty percent had a reduction of more than 50 points, indicative of clinical improvement. Initial severity score (p = .0004) and QRI conflict (p = .057) were directly correlated with a response to hypnotherapy, while attribution of symptoms to mind (emotional) causation was inversely correlated (p = .0056). The authors conclude that group hypnotherapy is effective in patients with IBS. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Efficacy of hypnosis-based treatment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pilot study. 📎

Abstract Title: Efficacy of hypnosis-based treatment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pilot study. Abstract Source: Front Psychol. 2012 ;3:465. Epub 2012 Nov 5. PMID: 23162510 Abstract Author(s): Arianna Palmieri, Johann Roland Kleinbub, Vincenzo Calvo, Gianni Sorarù, Irene Grasso, Irene Messina, Marco Sambin Article Affiliation: Arianna Palmieri Abstract: BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its devastating neurodegenerative consequences have an inevitably psychological impact on patients and their caregivers: however, although it would be strongly needed, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of psychological intervention. Our aim was to investigate the effect of hypnosis-based intervention on psychological and perceived physical wellbeing in patients and the indirect effect on caregivers. METHODS: We recruited eight ALS volunteers patients as a pilot sample for an hypnosis intervention and self-hypnosis training protocol lasting 1 month. Anxiety and depression level was measured in patients and caregivers at pre and post treatment phase. Quality of life and perceived physical symptoms changes were also investigated in patients. RESULTS: One month pre-post treatment improvement in depression, anxiety, and quality of life was clearly clinically observed and confirmed by psychometric analyses on questionnaire data. Moreover, decreases in physical symptoms such as pain, sleep disorders, emotional lability, and fasciculations were reported by our patients. Improvements in caregiver psychological wellbeing, likely as a consequence of patients psychological and perceived physical symptomatology improvement, were also observed. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, even if at a preliminary level, this is the first report on efficacy psychological intervention protocol on ALS patients. The findings provide initial support for using hypnosis and self-hypnosis training to manage some ALS physical consequences and mainly to cope its dramatic psychological implications for patients and, indirectly, for their caregivers. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011

Long-term follow-up of self-hypnosis training for recurrent headaches: what the children say.

Abstract Title: Long-term follow-up of self-hypnosis training for recurrent headaches: what the children say. Abstract Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Oct;58(4):417-32. PMID: 20799121 Abstract Author(s): Daniel P Kohen Article Affiliation: University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: The author sent surveys to 178 consecutive youths previously referred for hypnosis for headaches. The survey sought current status of headaches: treatment, application of self-hypnosis, headache intensity, frequency, duration after self-hypnosis, generalization of self-hypnosis to other problems, and attitudes regarding self-hypnosis and life stresses. Of 134 delivered surveys, 52 were returned complete. Years after treatment, 85% (44/52) reported continued relief with self-hypnosis, 44% (23/52) reported decreased headache frequency, 31% (16/52) noted decreased severity, and 56% (29/52) reported that self-hypnosis reduced headache intensity. Many (26/52) emphasized the value of self-hypnosis to life stresses. In children and adolescents, self-hypnosis is associated with significant improvement of headaches and with an enduring positive effect for many years following training. Results suggest common and spontaneous generalizability of self-hypnosis by young people to modulation of other problems in their lives. Article Published Date : Oct 01, 2010

Nonpharmacological treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome adding videotape training to self-hypnosis.

Abstract Title: Nonpharmacological treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome adding videotape training to self-hypnosis. Abstract Source: J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010 Jul-Aug;31(6):498-504. PMID: 20585264 Abstract Author(s): Jeffrey E Lazarus, Susan K Klein Article Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital; daggerCase Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This case series examines the practicality of using a standardized method of training children in self-hypnosis (SH) methods to explore its efficiency and short-term efficacy in treating tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. METHODS: The files of 37 children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome referred for SH training were reviewed, yielding 33 patients for analysis. As part of a protocol for SH training, all viewed a videotape series of a boy undergoing SH training for tic control. Improvement in tic control was abstracted from subjective patient report. RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent of the patients trained in this technique experienced short-term clinical response, defined as control over the average 6-week follow-up period. Of the responders, 46% achieved tic control with SH after only 2 sessions and 96% after 3 visits. One patient required 4 visits. CONCLUSIONS: Instruction in SH, aided by the use of videotape training, augments a protocol and probably shortens the time of training in this technique. If SH is made more accessible in this way, it will be a valuable addition to multi-disciplinary management of tic disorders in Tourette syndrome. Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2010

Efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women: rural and urban samples.

Abstract Title: Efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women: rural and urban samples. Abstract Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Jan;58(1):102-21. PMID: 20183741 Abstract Author(s): Arreed Barabasz, Linda Higley, Ciara Christensen, Marianne Barabasz Article Affiliation: Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA. Abstract: This article investigates the effect of hypnosis on immunity and whether this is the key mechanism in the hypnotic treatment of the genital infection caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease and can lead to cervical and other cancers. Current medical treatments are aimed at tissue assault (acids, freezing, surgery). Medical wart clearance rates are only 30% to 70% and reoccurrence is common. Our research contrasted hypnosis-only with medical-only therapies, using both urban hospital and rural community samples. Both hypnosis and medical therapy resulted in a statistically significant (p<.04) reduction in areas and numbers of lesions. Yet, at the 12-week follow-up, complete clearance rates were 5 to 1 in favor of hypnosis. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010

Effects of hypnosis as an adjunct to intravenous sedation for third molar extraction: a randomized, blind, controlled study.

Abstract Title: Effects of hypnosis as an adjunct to intravenous sedation for third molar extraction: a randomized, blind, controlled study. Abstract Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Jan;58(1):21-38. PMID: 20183736 Abstract Author(s): Edward F Mackey Article Affiliation: West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. Abstract: The effects of hypnosis/therapeutic suggestion in connection with intravenous sedation and surgery have been described in many clinical publications; however, few randomized, controlled, and blind studies have been performed in the outpatient area. This study aimed to evaluate the use of hypnosis/therapeutic suggestion as an adjunct to intravenous (IV) sedation in patients having 3rd molar removal in an outpatient setting. The patients were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 46) or control (n = 54) group. The treatment group listened to a rapid conversational induction and therapeutic suggestions via headphones throughout the entire surgical procedure along with a standard sedation dose of intravenous anesthetic. The control group listened to only music without any hypnotic intervention. Intraoperative Propofol administration, patient postoperative pain ratings, and postoperative prescription pain reliever consumption were all significantly reduced in the treatment compared to the control group. Implications of these results are discussed. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010

Hypnosis treatment for chronic low back pain.

Abstract Title: Hypnosis treatment for chronic low back pain. Abstract Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Jan;58(1):53-68. PMID: 20183738 Abstract Author(s): Gabriel Tan, Tenley Fukui, Mark P Jensen, John Thornby, Karen L Waldman Article Affiliation: Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Abstract: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a significant healthcare problem, and many individuals with CLBP remain unresponsive to available interventions. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is effective for many chronic pain conditions; however, data to support its efficacy for CLBP are outdated and have been limited primarily to case studies. This pilot study indicated that a brief, 4-session standardized self-hypnosis protocol, combined with psycho-education, significantly and substantially reduced pain intensity and pain interference. Significant session-to-session improvements were also noted on pain ratings and mood states; however, follow-up data suggest that these benefits may not have been maintained across time in this sample. These findings need to be replicated and confirmed in a larger clinical trial, which could also assess the long-term effects of this treatment. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010

Out-of-illness experience: hypnotically induced dissociation as a therapeutic resource in treating people with obstinate mental disorders.

Abstract Title: Out-of-illness experience: hypnotically induced dissociation as a therapeutic resource in treating people with obstinate mental disorders. Abstract Source: Am J Psychother. 2009;63(2):133-46. PMID: 19711767 Abstract Author(s): Joseph Meyerson, Joseph Myerson, Andres Konichezy Article Affiliation: Israeli Society of Hypnosis. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Psychological dissociation is commonly perceived by mental health professionals as the pathological splitting of consciences or as an impairment in adaptive integration. In hypnotherapy dissociation is considered one of the most significant features of hypnosis, constituting a major therapeutic resource. In the present article, we use hypnotically induced dissociation (HID) to treat patients with obstinate mental disorders (OMD). These disorders are characterized by persistent, problematic behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that become organizing principals of identity and form enduring psychopathologies. To promote psychological change in patients with OMD, we use HID to enhance dissociative processes that enable the differentiation of health from pathology and allow the emergence of experiences previously overshadowed by pathological personality patterns. Three clinical cases of OMD (chronic depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and a personality disorder) illustrate the effects of HID as an effective therapeutic tool that facilitates emotional processing, consolidates therapeutic achievements, and secures therapeutic results. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2009

Hypnotic approaches for alopecia areata.

Abstract Title: Hypnotic approaches for alopecia areata. Abstract Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2008 Jul;56(3):318-33. PMID: 18569142 Abstract Author(s): Ria Willemsen, Johan Vanderlinden Abstract: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease leading to loss of scalp hairs. The disease seems triggered by stress. Data on the possibility of using hypnotherapy in the treatment of AA are very limited. Twenty-eight patients with extensive AA, all refractory to previous conventional treatment, were treated with hypnosis at the Academic Hospital UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. This paper describes in detail the authors' hypnotherapeutic approach combining symptom-oriented suggestions with suggestions to improve self-esteem. Twelve out of 21 patients, including 4 with total loss of scalp hair, presented a significant hair growth. All patients presented a significant decrease in scores for anxiety and depression. Although the exact mechanism of hypnotic interventions has not been elucidated, the authors' results demonstrate that hypnotic interventions may ameliorate the clinical outcome of patients with AA and may improve their psychological well-being. Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2008

Hypnosis for smoking cessation: a randomized trial.

Abstract Title: Hypnosis for smoking cessation: a randomized trial. Abstract Source: Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 May;10(5):811-8. PMID: 18569754 Abstract Author(s): Timothy P Carmody, Carol Duncan, Joel A Simon, Sharon Solkowitz, Joy Huggins, Sharon Lee, Kevin Delucchi Article Affiliation: San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypnosis would be more effective in helping smokers quit than standard behavioral counseling when both interventions are combined with nicotine patches (NP). A total of 286 current smokers were enrolled in a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants in both treatment conditions were seen for two 60-min sessions, and received three follow-up phone calls and 2 months of NP. At 6 months, 29% of the hypnosis group reported 7-day point-prevalence abstinence compared with 23% of the behavioral counseling group (relative risk [RR] = 1.27; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.84-1.92). Based on biochemical or proxy confirmation, 26% of the participants in the hypnosis group were abstinent at 6 months compared with 18% of the behavioral group (RR = 1.44; 95% CI 0.91-2.30). At 12 months, the self-reported 7-day point-prevalence quit rate was 24% for the hypnosis group and 16% for the behavioral group (RR = 1.47; 95% CI 0.90-2.40). Based on biochemical or proxy confirmation, 20% of the participants in the hypnosis group were abstinent at 12 months compared with 14% of the behavioral group (RR = 1.40; 95% CI 0.81-2.42). Among participants with a history of depression, hypnosis yielded significantly higher validated point-prevalence quit rates at 6 and 12 months than standard treatment. It was concluded that hypnosis combined with NP compares favorably with standard behavioral counseling in generating long-term quit rates. Article Published Date : May 01, 2008

Treating postpartum depression with hypnosis: addressing specific symptoms presented by the client.

Abstract Title: Treating postpartum depression with hypnosis: addressing specific symptoms presented by the client. Abstract Source: Am J Clin Hypn. 2007 Jan;49(3):219-23. PMID: 17265979 Abstract Author(s): Melinda J Yexley Abstract: Postpartum depression is experienced by 10-15% of women who give birth (Bloch, Rolenberg, Koren,&Klein, 2006). This disorder causes maternal distress and has been significantly associated with infant and child developmental problems (Carter, Garrity-Rokous, Chazan-Cohen, Little,&Briggs-Gowan, 2001). Once believed to be contraindicated (Crasilneck&Hall, 1985), hypnosis for depressive disorders has been advocated as an effective intervention strategy (Yapko, 2001). Addressing specific symptoms and skill development has been promoted as an effectual hypnotic strategy for depression (Yapko, 2001); however, little empirical evidence of the efficacy of hypnotherapy for postpartum depression or effective hypnotic strategies exists. The present article is a report of a single case in which hypnotherapy was successfully utilized in the treatment of Postpartum Depression by attending to the specific problems presented by the client and developing client skills to resolve existing problems and prevent their recurrence. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2007

Intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation: a prospective study.

Abstract Title: Intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation: a prospective study. Abstract Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2006 Jul;54(3):303-15. PMID: 16766441 Abstract Author(s): Gary Elkins, Joel Marcus, Jeff Bates, M Hasan Rajab, Teresa Cook Article Affiliation: Scott and White Memorial Hospital and Clinic, Temple, Texas, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: This study reports on a prospective pilot trial of intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. The hypnotherapy involved multiple individual sessions (8 visits) over approximately 2 months, individualization of hypnotic suggestions, and a supportive therapeutic relationship. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either an intensive hypnotherapy condition or to a wait-list control condition. The target quitting date was 1 week after beginning treatment. Patients were evaluated for smoking cessation at the end of treatment and at Weeks 12 and 26. Self-reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon-monoxide concentration in expired air of 8 ppm or less. The rates of point prevalence smoking cessation, as confirmed by carbon-monoxide measurements for the intensive hypnotherapy group, was 40% at the end of treatment; 60% at 12 weeks, and 40% at 26 weeks (p<.05). Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2006

Hypnosis and suggestion-based approaches to smoking cessation: an examination of the evidence.

Abstract Title: Hypnosis and suggestion-based approaches to smoking cessation: an examination of the evidence. Abstract Source: Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2000 Apr;48(2):195-224. PMID: 10769984 Abstract Author(s): J P Green, S J Lynn Article Affiliation: Ohio State University, Lima 45804, USA. Abstract: This article reviews 59 studies of hypnosis and smoking cessation as to whether the research empirically supports hypnosis as a treatment. Whereas hypnotic procedures generally yield higher rates of abstinence relative to wait-list and no-treatment conditions, hypnotic interventions are generally comparable to a variety of nonhypnotic treatments. The evidence for whether hypnosis yields outcomes superior to placebos is mixed. In short, hypnosis cannot be considered a specific and efficacious treatment for smoking cessation. Furthermore, in many cases, it is impossible to rule out cognitive/behavioral and educational interventions as the source of positive treatment gains associated with hypnotic treatments. Hypnosis cannot, as yet, be regarded as a well-established treatment for smoking cessation. Nevertheless, it seems justified to classify hypnosis as a "possibly efficacious" treatment for smoking cessation. Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2000

Using hypnosis to accelerate the healing of bone fractures: a randomized controlled pilot study.

Abstract Title: Using hypnosis to accelerate the healing of bone fractures: a randomized controlled pilot study. Abstract Source: Altern Ther Health Med. 1999 Mar;5(2):67-75. PMID: 10069091 Abstract Author(s): C S Ginandes, D I Rosenthal Abstract: CONTEXT: Hypnosis has been used in numerous medical applications for functional and psychological improvement, but has been inadequately tested for anatomical healing. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a hypnotic intervention accelerates bodily tissue healing using bone fracture healing as a site-specific test. DESIGN: Randomized controlled pilot study. SETTING: Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass, and McLean Hospital, Belmont, Mass. PATIENTS: Twelve healthy adult subjects with the study fracture were recruited from an orthopedic emergency department and randomized to either a treatment (n = 6) or a control group (n = 6). One subject, randomized to the treatment group, withdrew prior to the intervention. INTERVENTION: All 11 subjects received standard orthopedic care including serial radiographs and clinical assessments through 12 weeks following injury. The treatment group received a hypnotic intervention (individual sessions, audiotapes) designed to augment fracture healing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Radiological and orthopedic assessments of fracture healing 12 weeks following injury and hypnotic subjects' final questionnaires and test scores on the Hypnotic Induction Scale. RESULTS: Results showed trends toward faster healing for the hypnosis group through week 9 following injury. Objective radiographic outcome data revealed a notable difference in fracture edge healing at 6 weeks. Orthopedic assessments showing trends toward better healing for hypnosis subjects through week 9 included improved ankle mobility; greater functional ability to descend stairs; lower use of analgesics in weeks 1, 3, and 9; and trends toward lower self-reported pain through 6 weeks. CONCLUSION: Despite a small sample size and limited statistical power, these data suggest that hypnosis may be capable of enhancing both anatomical and functional fracture healing, and that further investigation of hypnosis to accelerate healing is warranted. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 1999
Therapeutic Actions Hypnosis

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Evaluation of the Sleep-Prolonging Effect of Lagenaria vulgaris and Cucurbita pepo Extracts on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep and Possible Mechanisms of Action.

Related Articles Evaluation of the Sleep-Prolonging Effect of Lagenaria vulgaris and Cucurbita pepo Extracts on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep and Possible Mechanisms of Action. Medicina (Kaunas). 2018 Jul 31;54(4): Authors: Baradaran Rahimi V, Askari VR, Tajani AS, Hosseini A, Rakhshandeh H Abstract Introduction: Sleeplessness is the most common sleep disorder. In this study, the hypnotic effect of macerated (HAME) and soxhlet (HASE) extract of Lagenaria vulgaris (fruit and seed) and Cucurbita pepo (fruit) were studied in mice. Methods: Extracts and fractions were administered intra-peritoneally (i.p.) in mice 30 min before the sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the influence of flumazenil or naloxone on the hypnotic effects of the extract and its toxic effects were evaluated. Results: The HAME and HASE of C. pepo prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration at dose of 200 mg/kg. The HAME of L. vulgaris (fruit) at dose of 200 mg/kg increased the sleeping time. The HAME and HASE of L. vulgaris (seed) increased sleep duration at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Besides, flumazenil (2 mg/kg) reversed the effects of both diazepam (P < 0.001 vs. diazepam group), 200 mg/kg of HAME of C. pepo and 50 mg/kg of HAME and HASE of L. vulgaris (seed). All fractions especially ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of L. vulgaris (seed) increased the sleep duration. Naloxone reversed the hypnotic effect of HAME and HASE of L. vulgaris (seed). The extracts showed no neurotoxic effects on PC12 and L929 cell lines. Conclusion: The results showed that L. vulgaris (seed and fruit) and C. pepo potentiated pentobarbital hypnosis without toxic influence. The hypnotic effects of L. vulgaris seed was greater than its fruit and C. pepo. The GABA and opioid receptors may play role in the sleep-induction of L. vulgaris seed. PMID: 30344286 [PubMed - in process]

Psychological interventions for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A systematic review.

Related Articles Psychological interventions for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A systematic review. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Oct;57(5):644-649 Authors: Emami-Sahebi A, Elyasi F, Yazdani-Charati J, Shahhosseini Z Abstract Various studies have investigated the role that psychological factors play in the etiology of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. The current research was aimed at reviewing the psychological interventions that are implemented to treat the aforementioned conditions. Vocabulary from the Medical Subject Headings database was used as basis for identifying search keywords, which were then employed to search for relevant articles in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, Scopus, the Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, Magiran, and IranDoc. A total of 174,270 articles published in the period between 1985 and 2017 were obtained. After the elimination of repetitive and unrelated articles, six clinical trials were evaluated using the Oxford quality scoring system or Jadad scale. Psychological interventions for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy fall into four categories, namely, behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, hypnosis, and progressive muscle relaxation. On the basis of the Jadad scale, all the reviewed studies were evaluated as being of poor methodological quality. Further studies are needed to obtain strong evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. PMID: 30342643 [PubMed - in process]