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The effects of whole body vibration combined biofeedback postural control training on the balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients. 📎

Abstract Title: The effects of whole body vibration combined biofeedback postural control training on the balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients. Abstract Source: J Phys Ther Sci. 2017 Nov ;29(11):2022-2025. Epub 2017 Nov 24. PMID: 29200649 Abstract Author(s): Yo-Han Uhm, Dae-Jung Yang Article Affiliation: Yo-Han Uhm Abstract: [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration in acute stroke patients on balance and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated in this study and were divided into a group of 10, a group for biofeedback postural control training combined with a whole body vibration, one for biofeedback postural control training combined with an aero-step, and one for biofeedback postural control training. Biorescue was used to measure the limits of stability, balance ability, and Lukotronic was used to measure step length, gait ability. [Results] In the comparison of balance ability and gait ability between the groups for before and after intervention, Group I showed a significant difference in balance ability and gait ability compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that biofeedback postural control training using whole body vibration is effective for improving balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients. Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2017

Music as an Adjunct to Opioid-Based Analgesia.

Abstract Title: Music as an Adjunct to Opioid-Based Analgesia. Abstract Source: J Med Toxicol. 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23. PMID: 28646359 Abstract Author(s): Peter R Chai, Stephanie Carreiro, Megan L Ranney, Ketki Karanam, Marko Ahtisaari, Robert Edwards, Kristin L Schreiber, Lubabah Ben-Ghaly, Timothy B Erickson, Edward W Boyer Article Affiliation: Peter R Chai Abstract: Epidemic increases in opioid use in the USA and globally highlight the need for effective adjunctive therapies to opioid-based analgesia. Given the shortcomings of behavioral adjuncts to opioid-based pain treatment, an urgent need exists for pain-related behavioral interventions that resonate with broad patient populations, can be delivered confidentially in any environment, and can incorporate new content automatically. Understanding the potential for automated behavioral therapies like music therapy in modulating the experience of pain may unlock methods to transition patients to lower doses of pharmacologic therapy or provide alternatives to opioids during acute exacerbations of pain. This manuscript describes the neurologic mechanism of action, theoretical basis, and potential applications of personalized music as a smartphone-based mHealth intervention for acute and chronic pain management. Article Published Date : Jun 22, 2017

Evaluation of Efficacy of 1% Curcuminoids as Local Application in Management of Oral Lichen Planus - Interventional Study. 📎

Abstract Title: Evaluation of Efficacy of 1% Curcuminoids as Local Application in Management of Oral Lichen Planus - Interventional Study. Abstract Source: J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Apr ;11(4):ZC89-ZC93. Epub 2017 Apr 1. PMID: 28571271 Abstract Author(s): Anju Elizabeth Thomas, Beena Varma, Seema Kurup, Renju Jose, Marina Lazar Chandy, Sreeja P Kumar, M S Aravind, Athira Aruna Ramadas Article Affiliation: Anju Elizabeth Thomas Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease affecting the oral cavity which has been associated with severe burning sensation which in turn affects the quality of life of the patients. Currently, the effective treatment of choice remains the use of corticosteroids. The chronicity and recalcitrant nature of the disease demand the long term use of these drugs with ensuing adverse effects. Turmeric and its active ingredient,"curcumin", have been found to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Hence, this intervention study was done to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin oral gel in the management of oral lichen planus. AIM: The study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 1% curcumin gel with the conventional mid-potent topical corticosteroid, triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% in managing the signs and symptoms of OLP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An intervention study was conducted on 75 patients diagnosed with OLP divided into three groups, Group 1 (0.1% triamcinolone acetonide oral paste thrice daily in tapering doses), Group 2 (curcumin oral gel thrice daily) and Group 3 (curcumin oral gel six times daily). The patients were analysed for the symptom (burning) and sign (erythema and ulceration) using the numerical rating score and Modified Oral Mucositis Index (MOMI) for a period of three months on a bimonthly basis. The results were analysed using Students t-test and unpaired t-test. RESULTS: Intragroup comparison using paired t-test showed statistically significant reduction in burning sensation (p<0.001) as well as erythema and ulceration (p<0.001) in all the three groups. However, when the three groups were compared Group 1 showed the maximum reduction in burning sensation (77%) and erythema and ulceration (67%). Among the curcuminoid group, increased frequency was found to be more beneficial. CONCLUSION: Curcumin oral gel can bring about clinical improvements in OLP patients; however it cannot be used as a mainstay drug. Instead, it can be used as a maintenance drug after the patient is treated with an initial course of corticosteroids. Further studies with larger sample size and increased drug concentrations may be required. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2017

An open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study of the efficacy of sorghum bicolor extract in preoperative anemia.

Abstract Title: An open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study of the efficacy of sorghum bicolor extract in preoperative anemia. Abstract Source: Nutrition. 2017 Jan ;33:113-117. Epub 2016 May 18. PMID: 27461168 Abstract Author(s): Adetokunbo O Tayo, Adedoyin O Dosunmu, Ireti O Akinola, Adeniyi Adewunmi, Olufemi A Oloyede, Akinsegun A Akinbami, Bodunrin I Osikomaiya, Samira B L Makanjuola Article Affiliation: Adetokunbo O Tayo Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Anemia in patients presenting for elective surgery is associated with increased morbidity, allogeneic blood transfusion, and delay of surgery. Extract of sorghum bicolor has been shown to have hemopoietic, immune-stimulating, and antioxidant effects in rats and in patients with HIV. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the extract in patients with preoperative anemia booked for myomectomy. METHODS: Consenting patients (N = 66) were randomly assigned to two groups. The test group (n = 34) was given folic acid 5 mg/d, 200 mg iron tablet three times daily, and 500 mg/d of the extract. The control group (n = 32) was given the same doses of folic acid and iron for a period of 3 wk. Blood samples were taken atbaseline and weekly for full blood cell count and liver and kidney function tests. Participants were screened for tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis, and sickle cell anemia. RESULTS: Increases in red blood cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration in participants in the test group were highly significant (P < 0.0002, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively). Participants in the control group had a significant increase in the hemoglobin concentration (P > 0.04). The changes in liver enzymes, urea, and creatinine for participants in the test group were within the normal ranges. CONCLUSION: The addition of the extract of sorghum bicolor to routine hematinics is superior to the use of routine hematinics alone. Although the difference is not statistically significant, the extract will correct preoperative anemia in an additional 15% of the patients. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

The Combination of Resveratrol and High-Fluence Light Emitting Diode-Red Light Produces Synergistic Photobotanical Inhibition of Fibroblast Proliferation and Collagen Synthesis: A Novel Treatment for Skin Fibrosis.

Abstract Title: The Combination of Resveratrol and High-Fluence Light Emitting Diode-Red Light Produces Synergistic Photobotanical Inhibition of Fibroblast Proliferation and Collagen Synthesis: A Novel Treatment for Skin Fibrosis. Abstract Source: Dermatol Surg. 2017 Jan ;43(1):81-86. PMID: 28027199 Abstract Author(s): Andrew Mamalis, Jared Jagdeo Article Affiliation: Andrew Mamalis Abstract: BACKGROUND: Skin fibrosis is a debilitating condition that significantly impacts patient quality of life. Ultraviolet phototherapy is currently used to treat several diseases featuring skin fibrosis. High-fluence light-emitting diode-generated red light (HF-LED-RL) does not cause DNA damage associated with skin cancer, and it is generally regarded as safe, portable, and cost-effective. Early clinical observations suggest that LED-generated light may possess antifibrotic effects, although these findings are largely unexplored. Previously published research demonstrated that HF-LED-RL decreases fibroblast proliferation and collagen in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare the combination effects of HF-LED-RL alone with HF-LED-RL in combination with resveratrol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is hypothesized that resveratrol, an active ingredient in red wine, a potent antioxidant scavenger of reactive oxygen species, and an inhibitor of collagen production, may synergistically decrease fibroblast proliferation and collagen production when combined with HF-LED-RL. RESULTS: In this study, evidence is provided that resveratrol combined with HF-LED-RL acts synergistically to decrease fibroblast proliferation and procollagen 1A1 production, and this represents a new potential therapeutic modality that is termed the"photobotanical"effect due to the combined light and botanical properties observed. CONCLUSION: The study, discovery, and use of photobotanical combinations may usher in new therapeutics or phototherapy adjuvants for the treatment of dermatologic diseases. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

The Effect of Yoga on Functional Recovery Level in Schizophrenic Patients.

Abstract Title: The Effect of Yoga on Functional Recovery Level in Schizophrenic Patients. Abstract Source: Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2016 Dec ;30(6):761-767. Epub 2016 Jul 30. PMID: 27888972 Abstract Author(s): Funda Kavak, Mine Ekinci Article Affiliation: Funda Kavak Abstract: PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of yoga on functional recovery level in schizophrenic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group. The population of the study consisted of schizophrenic patients with registered in Malatya and Elazığ Community Mental Health Centers and regularly going to these centers. The sample group of the study consisted of totally 100 patients including 50 patients in the experimental group and 50 patients in the control group who were specified through power analysis and chosen by using random sampling method from this population. The data were collected between April 2015 and August 2015. 'Patient Description Form' and 'FROGS' were used to collect the data. Yoga was applied to patients in the experimental group. Any intervention was not made to patients in the control group. Percentage distribution, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, chi-square, independent samples t test, and paired t test were used to assess the data. RESULTS: Patients in the control and experimental group pretest subscale and the total means scores of FROGS was found to be low. In the posttest subscale and total means scores of FROGS in the experimental group were higher than in the control group and the differences between them were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). In the experimental group pretest and posttest subscale and total means scores of FR0GS was determined to be statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Yoga that applied to schizophrenic patients it was determined to increased the level of functional recovery. It can be suggested that yoga should be used as an complementary method in nursing practise in order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Article Published Date : Nov 30, 2016

Bright Light Therapy as Augmentation of Pharmacotherapy for Treatment of Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Abstract Title: Bright Light Therapy as Augmentation of Pharmacotherapy for Treatment of Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Abstract Source: Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2016 Oct 20 ;18(5). Epub 2016 Aug 20. PMID: 27835725 Abstract Author(s): Thomas M Penders, Cornel N Stanciu, Alexander M Schoemann, Philip T Ninan, Richard Bloch, Sy A Saeed Article Affiliation: Thomas M Penders Abstract: Background: Bright light therapy has demonstrated efficacy and is an accepted treatment for seasonal depression. It has been suggested that bright light therapy may have efficacy in nonseasonal depressions. Also, there is evidence that bright light therapy may improve responsiveness to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Data Sources: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and Academic OneFile for English-language literature published between January 1998 and April 2016, using the keywords bright light therapy AND major depression, bright light therapy AND depress*, bright light therapy AND bipolar depression, bright light therapy AND affective disorders, circadian rhythm AND major depression, circadian rhythm AND depress*, and circadian rhythm AND affective disorder. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Studies that reported randomized trials comparing antidepressant pharmacotherapy with bright light therapy≥ 5,000 lux for ≥ 30 minutes to antidepressant pharmacotherapy without bright light therapy for the treatment of nonseasonal depression were included. Studies of seasonal depression were excluded. Following review of the initial 112 returns, 2 of the authors independently judged each trial, applying the inclusionary and exclusionary criteria. Ten studies were selected as meeting these criteria. Subjects in these studies were pooled using standard techniques of meta-analysis. Results: Ten studies involving 458 patients showed improvement using bright light therapy augmentation versus antidepressant pharmacotherapy alone. The effect size was similar to that of other accepted augmentation strategies, roughly 0.5. Conclusions: Analysis of pooled data from randomized trials provides evidence for the efficacy of use of bright light therapy≥ 5,000 lux for periods ≥ 30 minutes when used as augmentation to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar depression without a seasonal pattern. Article Published Date : Oct 19, 2016

"Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy (MY-OT): A feasibility and pilot study".

Abstract Title: "Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy (MY-OT): A feasibility and pilot study". Abstract Source: Complement Ther Med. 2016 Oct ;28:44-9. Epub 2016 Aug 10. PMID: 27670869 Abstract Author(s): Arlene A Schmid, Marieke Van Puymbroeck, Jennifer D Portz, Karen E Atler, Christine A Fruhauf Article Affiliation: Arlene A Schmid Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility and benefits of the Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy (MY-OT) intervention. DESIGN: This is the primary analysis of a non-controlled pretest-posttest pilot study to understand the feasibility and impact of MY-OT on balance, balance self-efficacy, and fall risk factor management in people with chronic stroke. SETTING: University research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: People with chronic stroke were included in the study if they: had sustained a fall or had fear of falling, were able to stand, and hand impaired balance and were at risk for falls (≤46 on the Berg Balance Scale (BBS)). INTERVENTIONS: Individuals completed an 8 week intervention that included 16 sessions of both yoga and group occupational therapy (OT). Yoga included physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation. OT focused on post-stroke fall risk factor management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The BBS was used to assess balance, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) was used to measure balance self-efficacy. Five fall risk factor management scales were used. RESULTS: Overall, the intervention was considered feasible, as individuals were able to safely complete the intervention with little attrition and high attendance. Balance improved by 30% (p=0.002). Balance self-efficacy improved by 15% (p=0.034). Each of the five fall risk factor management scales improved, but only two significantly improved (Fall Prevention and Management Questionnaire, 29%, p=0.004 and Fall Prevention Strategy Survey, 42%, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that MY-OT is a potential intervention to improve multiple fall related outcomes for people with stroke. Therapists may consider these interventions for people with stroke, but additional research is warranted. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2016

Cognitive training and Bacopa monnieri: Evidence for a combined intervention to alleviate age associated cognitive decline.

Abstract Title: Cognitive training and Bacopa monnieri: Evidence for a combined intervention to alleviate age associated cognitive decline. Abstract Source: Med Hypotheses. 2016 Oct ;95:71-76. Epub 2016 Sep 7. PMID: 27692172 Abstract Author(s): Grace M McPhee, Luke A Downey, Anthony Noble, Con Stough Article Affiliation: Grace M McPhee Abstract: As the elderly population grows the impact of age associated cognitive decline as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia will increase. Ageing is associated with consistent impairments in cognitive processes (e.g., processing speed, memory, executive function and learning) important for work, well-being, life satisfaction and overall participation in society. Recently, there has been increased effort to conduct research examining methods to improve cognitive function in older citizens. Cognitive training has been shown to improve performance in some cognitive domains; including memory, processing speed, executive function and attention in older adults. These cognitive changes are thought to be related to improvements in brain connectivity and neural circuitry. Bacopa monnieri has also been shown to improve specific domains of cognition, sensitive to age associated cognitive decline (particularly processing speed and memory). These Bacopa monnieri dependent improvements may be due to the increase in specific neuro-molecular mechanisms implicated in the enhancement of neural connections in the brain (i.e. synaptogenesis). In particular, a number of animal studies have shown Bacopa monnieri consumption upregulates calcium dependent kinases in the synapse and post-synaptic cell, crucial for strengthening and growing connections between neurons. These effects have been shown to occur in areas important for cognitive processes, such as the hippocampus. As Bacopa monnieri has shown neuro-molecular mechanisms that encourage synaptogenesis, while cognitive training enhances brain connectivity, Bacopa monnieri supplementation could theoretically enhance and strengthen synaptic changes acquired through cognitive training. Therefore, the current paper hypothesises that the combination of these two interventions could improve cognitive outcomes, over and above the effects of administrating these interventions independently, as an effective treatment to ameliorate age associated cognitive decline. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2016

Role of the Whole Body Vibration Machine in the Prevention and Management of Osteoporosis in Old Age: A Systematic Review. 📎

Abstract Title: Role of the Whole Body Vibration Machine in the Prevention and Management of Osteoporosis in Old Age: A Systematic Review. Abstract Source: Malays J Med Sci. 2016 Sep ;23(5):8-16. Epub 2016 Oct 5. PMID: 27904420 Abstract Author(s): Myint Swe, Biju Benjamin, Aye Aye Tun, Sandheep Sugathan Article Affiliation: Myint Swe Abstract: A literature search of related articles was carried out in electronic data sources. Initially, 276 randomised controlled trials related to the title were collected, after which 44 were selected using the keywords. Overlapping articles, articles with a study duration of less than six months, and studies involving young participants were removed from the list. The remaining 20 articles were checked for entitlement using the PEDro scale. A total of nine eligible articles with 1486 participants were analysed. Seven trials used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure bone mineral density (BMD). The six trials published from 2005 to 2013 found a significant increase in BMD. In the remaining one trial, there was no significant increase in BMD. One study published in 2013 reported a significant increase in BMD measured with peripheral qualitative computed tomography, whereas another trial published in 2014 stated that there was a reduction in calcaneal bone density measured by peripheral qualitative ultrasound. From these findings it can be concluded that the whole body vibration machine is a good adjunctive therapy for the prevention and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, further investigations are necessary before the same can be recommended for elderly men. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2016

Meditation for Posttraumatic Stress: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Abstract Title: Meditation for Posttraumatic Stress: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Abstract Source: Psychol Trauma. 2016 Aug 18. Epub 2016 Aug 18. PMID: 27537781 Abstract Author(s): Lara Hilton, Alicia Ruelaz Maher, Benjamin Colaiaco, Eric Apaydin, Melony E Sorbero, Marika Booth, Roberta M Shanman, Susanne Hempel Article Affiliation: Lara Hilton Abstract: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of meditation interventions to provide estimates of their efficacy and safety in treating adults diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review was based on an established protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42015025782) and is reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Outcomes of interest included PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, functional status, and adverse events. Meta-analyses were conducted using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 10 trials on meditation interventions for PTSD with 643 participants met inclusion criteria. Across interventions, adjunctive meditation interventions of mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, and the mantram repetition program improve PTSD and depression symptoms compared with control groups, but the findings are based on low and moderate quality of evidence. Effects were positive but not statistically significant for quality of life and anxiety, and no studies addressed functional status. The variety of meditation intervention types, the short follow-up times, and the quality of studies limited analyses. No adverse events were reported in the included studies; only half of the studies reported on safety. Meditation appears to be effective for PTSD and depression symptoms, but in order to increase confidence in findings, more high-quality studies are needed on meditation as adjunctive treatment with PTSD-diagnosed participant samples large enough to detect statistical differences in outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record Article Published Date : Aug 17, 2016

Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo. 📎

Abstract Title: Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo. Abstract Source: Braz J Med Biol Res. 2016 Jul 25 ;49(8). PMID: 27464024 Abstract Author(s): K H Mou, D Han, W L Liu, P Li Article Affiliation: K H Mou Abstract: Glycyrrhizin has been used clinically for several years due to its beneficial effect on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic diseases, alopecia areata and psoriasis. In this study, glycyrrhizin, ultraviolet B light (UVB) or a combination of both were used to treat active-stage generalized vitiligo. One hundred and forty-four patients between the ages of 3 and 48 years were divided into three groups: group A received oral compound glycyrrhizin (OCG); group B received UVB applications twice weekly, and group C received OCG+UVB. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 4, and 6 months after the treatment was initiated. The Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and the Vitiligo Disease Activity (VIDA) instrument were used to assess the affected body surface, at each follow-up. Results showed that 77.1, 75.0 and 87.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively, presented repigmentation of lesions. Responsiveness to therapy seemed to be associated with lesion location and patient compliance. Adverse events were limited and transient. This study showed that, although the three treatment protocols had positive results, OCG and UVB combination therapy was the most effective and led to improvement in disease stage from active to stable. Article Published Date : Jul 24, 2016

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Wholistic Hybrid Derived From Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Emotional Freedom Technique (WHEE) for Self-Treatment of Pain, Depression, and Anxiety in Chronic Pain Patients. 📎

Abstract Title: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Wholistic Hybrid Derived From Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Emotional Freedom Technique (WHEE) for Self-Treatment of Pain, Depression, and Anxiety in Chronic Pain Patients. Abstract Source: J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2016 Jul 18. Epub 2016 Jul 18. PMID: 27432773 Abstract Author(s): Daniel Benor, John Rossiter-Thornton, Loren Toussaint Article Affiliation: Daniel Benor Abstract: In this pilot study, a convenience sample of 24 chronic pain patients (17 with chronic fatigue syndrome/fibromyalgia) were randomized into WHEE treatment and wait-list control groups for 6 weeks. Assessments of depression, anxiety, and pain were completed before, during, and at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Wait-listed patients then received an identical course of WHEE and assessments. WHEE decreased anxiety (P<.5) and depression (P<.05) compared with the control group. The wait-list-turned-WHEE assessments demonstrated decreased pain severity (P<.05) and depression (P<.04) but not pain interference or anxiety. WHEE appears a promising method for pain, anxiety, and depression in patients with chronic pain, compared to standard medical care alone. Though a small pilot study, the present results suggest that further research appears warranted. An incidental finding was that a majority of patients with chronic pain had suffered psychological trauma in childhood and/or adulthood. Article Published Date : Jul 17, 2016

Photodynamic Therapy Potentiates the Effects of Curcumin on Pediatric Epithelial Liver Tumor Cells.

Abstract Title: Photodynamic Therapy Potentiates the Effects of Curcumin on Pediatric Epithelial Liver Tumor Cells. Abstract Source: Anticancer Res. 2016 Jul ;36(7):3363-72. PMID: 27354595 Abstract Author(s): Verena Ellerkamp, Nicola Bortel, Evi Schmid, Bettina Kirchner, Sorin Armeanu-Ebinger, Jörg Fuchs Article Affiliation: Verena Ellerkamp Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIM: Curcumin (CUM) is a promising agent in complementary oncology. The present study analyzed the photoactive properties of curcumin on pediatric epithelial liver tumor cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatoblastoma cell lines (HuH6, HepT1) and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2, HC-AFW1) were treated with curcumin and exposed to blue light (phototherapy, 480 nm, 300 W). Cell viability (MTT tests), cellular oxidative stress (production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and cellular uptake/degradation of curcumin were analyzed. RESULTS: Significant loss of viability resulted from 24-48 h incubation with curcumin. With photodynamic therapy (PDT), even short time incubation (1 h) with curcumin resulted in significantly lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) (p<0.001, two-way ANOVA). Significant ROS production was observed with PDT and curcumin. CONCLUSION: Phototherapy strongly enhances the anticancer properties of curcumin in pediatric solid liver tumors in vitro. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2016

Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study.

Abstract Title: Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study. Abstract Source: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Jun ;67(4):461-9. Epub 2016 Mar 17. PMID: 26983396 Abstract Author(s): Zahra Yari, Mehran Rahimlou, Tannaz Eslamparast, Naser Ebrahimi-Daryani, Hossein Poustchi, Azita Hekmatdoost Article Affiliation: Zahra Yari Abstract: A two-arm randomized open labeled controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were assigned to take either a lifestyle modification (LM), or LM +30 g/day brown milled flaxseed for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, body weight, liver enzymes, insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis decreased significantly in both groups (p< 0.05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in those who took flaxseed supplementation (p < 0.05). The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p< 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation plus lifestyle modification is more effective than lifestyle modification alone for NAFLD management. Article Published Date : May 31, 2016
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Therapeutic Actions Integrative Medicine

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When the meditating mind wanders.

Related Articles When the meditating mind wanders. Curr Opin Psychol. 2018 Dec 15;28:133-137 Authors: Delorme A, Brandmeyer T Abstract The capacity for thought and the ability to assemble and manipulate concepts are cognitive features unique to humans. Spontaneous thoughts often occur when we are engaged in attention-demanding tasks, with an increased frequency predicting negative affect. Meditation does not require thinking; however, thinking occurs naturally during meditation. We develop the hypothesis that chronic thinking associated with strong emotional arousal during meditation practice might be detrimental to meditation practice and well-being. One goal of meditation is to identify the arousal of emotions and thoughts, and remain equanimous with them. Over time, meditation may help dampen the attention-grabbing power of these thoughts both during practice and in daily life, which may consequently help deepen meditation practice. However, when meditators fail to remain equanimous, the effects of these thoughts may be deleterious. We discuss how this hypothesis may help guide future research on meditation. PMID: 30654311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Oculome panel test: next-generation sequencing to diagnose a diverse range of genetic developmental eye disorders.

Related Articles The Oculome panel test: next-generation sequencing to diagnose a diverse range of genetic developmental eye disorders. Ophthalmology. 2019 Jan 14;: Authors: Patel A, Hayward JD, Tailor V, Nyanhete R, Ahlfors H, Gabriel C, Jannini TB, Abbou-Rayyah Y, Henderson R, Nischal KK, Islam L, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Hurst J, Valdivia LE, Zanolli M, Moosajee M, Brookes J, Papadopoulos M, Khaw PT, Cullup T, Jenkins L, Dahlmann-Noor A, Sowden JC Abstract PURPOSE: To develop a comprehensive next-generation sequencing panel assay which screens genes known to cause developmental eye disorders and inherited eye disease (Oculome test) and to evaluate its diagnostic yield in a paediatric cohort with malformations of the globe, anterior segment anomalies and/or childhood glaucoma. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic test. PARTICIPANTS: 277 children age 0-16 years diagnosed with nonsyndromic or syndromic developmental eye defects without a genetic diagnosis. METHODS: We developed a new Oculome panel using a custom-designed Agilent SureSelect QXT target capture method to capture and perform parallel high through put sequencing analysis of 429 genes associated with eye disorders. We confirmed suspected pathogenic variants by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We collated clinical details and the oculome molecular genetic results. RESULTS: The Oculome design covers 429 known eye disease genes; these are subdivided into 5 overlapping virtual sub-panels for anterior segment developmental anomalies and glaucoma (ASDA; 59 genes), microphthalmia-anophthalmia-coloboma (MAC; 86 genes), congenital cataracts and lens-associated conditions (CAT; 70 genes), retinal dystrophies (RET; 235 genes), and albinism (15 genes), and as well as additional genes implicated in optic atrophy and complex strabismus (10 genes). Panel development and testing included analysing n = 277 clinical samples and 3 positive control samples using Illumina sequencing platforms; >30 X read-depth was achieved for 99.5% of the targeted 1.77 Mb region. Bioinformatics analysis performed using a pipeline based on Freebayes and ExomeDepth to identify coding sequence and copy number variants respectively, resulted in a definitive diagnosis in 68 / 277 cases with variability in diagnostic yield between phenotypic sub-groups; MAC: 8.2% (8 of 98 cases solved), ASDA: 24.8% (28 of 113 cases solved), other / syndromic 37.5% (3 of 8 cases solved); RET: 42.8% (21 of 49 cases solved); CAT: 88.9% (8 of 9 cases solved). CONCLUSION: The Oculome test diagnoses a comprehensive range of genetic conditions affecting the development of the eye, potentially replacing protracted and costly multidisciplinary assessments and allowing for faster targeted management. The Oculome enabled the molecular diagnosis of a significant number of cases in our sample cohort of varied ocular birth defects. PMID: 30653986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Bioenergetic dysfunction in a zebrafish model of acute hyperammonemic decompensation.

Related Articles Bioenergetic dysfunction in a zebrafish model of acute hyperammonemic decompensation. Exp Neurol. 2019 Jan 14;: Authors: Zielonka M, Probst J, Carl M, Hoffmann GF, Kölker S, Okun JG Abstract Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a life-threatening manifestation of individuals with urea cycle disorders, which is associated with high mortality rates and severe neurological sequelae in survivors. Cerebral bioenergetic failure has been proposed as one of the key mechanisms underlying hyperammonemia-induced brain damage, but data supporting this hypothesis remain inconclusive and partially contradictory. Using a previously established zebrafish model of acute hyperammonemic decompensation, we unraveled that acute hyperammonemia leads to a transamination-dependent withdrawal of alpha-ketoglutarate from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with consecutive TCA cycle dysfunction, ultimately causing impaired oxidative phosphorylation with ATP shortage, decreased ATP/ADP-ratio and elevated lactate concentrations. Thus, our study supports and extends the hypothesis that cerebral bioenergetic dysfunction is an important pathophysiological hallmark of hyperammonemia-induced neurotoxicity. PMID: 30653968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Open-source food: Nutrition, toxicology, and availability of wild edible greens in the East Bay.

Related Articles Open-source food: Nutrition, toxicology, and availability of wild edible greens in the East Bay. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0202450 Authors: Stark PB, Miller D, Carlson TJ, de Vasquez KR Abstract SIGNIFICANCE: Foraged leafy greens are consumed around the globe, including in urban areas, and may play a larger role when food is scarce or expensive. It is thus important to assess the safety and nutritional value of wild greens foraged in urban environments. METHODS: Field observations, soil tests, and nutritional and toxicology tests on plant tissue were conducted for three sites, each roughly 9 square blocks, in disadvantaged neighborhoods in the East San Francisco Bay Area in 2014-2015. The sites included mixed-use areas and areas with high vehicle traffic. RESULTS: Edible wild greens were abundant, even during record droughts. Soil at some survey sites had elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium, but tissue tests suggest that rinsed greens of the tested species are safe to eat. Daily consumption of standard servings comprise less than the EPA reference doses of lead, cadmium, and other heavy metals. Pesticides, glyphosate, and PCBs were below detection limits. The nutrient density of 6 abundant species compared favorably to that of the most nutritious domesticated leafy greens. CONCLUSIONS: Wild edible greens harvested in industrial, mixed-use, and high-traffic urban areas in the San Francisco East Bay area are abundant and highly nutritious. Even grown in soils with elevated levels of heavy metals, tested species were safe to eat after rinsing in tap water. This does not mean that all edible greens growing in contaminated soil are safe to eat-tests on more species, in more locations, and over a broader range of soil chemistry are needed to determine what is generally safe and what is not. But it does suggest that wild greens could contribute to nutrition, food security, and sustainability in urban ecosystems. Current laws, regulations, and public-health guidance that forbid or discourage foraging on public lands, including urban areas, should be revisited. PMID: 30653545 [PubMed - in process]

Reliability of Ayurvedic Diagnosis for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Nested Diagnostic Study Within a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Related Articles Reliability of Ayurvedic Diagnosis for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Nested Diagnostic Study Within a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2019 Jan 17;: Authors: Kessler CS, Morandi A, Kumar A, Dhiman KS, Gupta S, Icke K, Bühner C, Stapelfeldt E, Wischnewsky M, Kronpaß L, Murthy V, Michalsen A, Witt CM Abstract BACKGROUND: Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine. The customized Ayurvedic approach consists of a combination of several diagnostic procedures and subsequent individualized therapeutic interventions. Evaluation of inter-rater reliability (IRR) of Ayurvedic diagnoses has rarely been performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate IRR of Ayurvedic diagnosis for patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: A diagnostic reliability study of 30 patients and 4 Ayurvedic experts was nested in a randomized controlled trial. Patients were diagnosed in a sequential order by all experts utilizing a semistructured patient history form. A nominal group technique as consensus procedure was performed to reach agreement on the items to be diagnosed. An IRR analysis using Fleiss' and Cohen's kappa statistics was performed to determine a chance-corrected measure of agreement among raters. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty different ratings and 30 consensus ratings were performed and analyzed. While high percentages of agreement for main diagnostic entities and the final Ayurveda diagnosis (95% consensus agreement on main diagnosis) could be observed, this was not reflected in the corresponding kappa values, which largely yielded fair-to-poor inter-rater agreement kappas for central diagnostic aspects such as prakriti and agni (κ values between 0 and 0.4). Notably, agreement on disease-related entities was better than that on constitutional entities. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first diagnostic study embedded in a clinical trial on patients with knee osteoarthritis utilizing a multimodality whole systems approach. Results showed a contrast between the high agreement of the consented final diagnosis and disagreement on certain diagnostic details. Future diagnostic studies should have larger sample sizes and a methodology more tailored to the specificities of traditional whole systems of medicine. Equal emphasis will need to be placed on all core diagnostic components of Ayurveda, both constitutional and disease specific, using detailed structured history taking forms. PMID: 30653338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

β6 -Integrin serves as a novel serum tumor marker for colorectal carcinoma.

Related Articles β6 -Integrin serves as a novel serum tumor marker for colorectal carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2019 Jan 17;: Authors: Bengs S, Becker E, Busenhart P, Spalinger MR, Raselli T, Kasper S, Lang S, Atrott K, Mamie C, Vavricka SR, von Boehmer L, Knuth A, Tuomisto A, Mäkinen MJ, Hruz P, Turina M, Rickenbacher A, Petrowsky H, Weber A, Frei P, Halama M, Jenkins G, Sheppard D, Croner RS, Christoph J, Britzen-Laurent N, Naschberger E, Schellerer V, Stürzl M, Fried M, Rogler G, Scharl M Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide and the need for novel biomarkers and therapeutic strategies to improve diagnosis and surveillance is obvious. This study aims to identify β6-integrin (ITGB6) as a novel serum tumor marker for diagnosis, prognosis, and surveillance of CRC. ITGB6 serum levels were validated in retro- and prospective CRC patient cohorts. ITGB6 serum levels were analyzed by ELISA. Using an initial cohort of 60 CRC patients, we found that ITGB6 is present in the serum of CRC, but not in non-CRC control patients. A cut-off of ≥2ng /mL ITGB6 reveals 100% specificity for the presence of metastatic CRC. In an enlarged study cohort of 269 CRC patients, ITGB6 predicted the onset of metastatic disease and was associated with poor prognosis. Those data were confirmed in an independent, prospective cohort consisting of 40 CRC patients. To investigate whether ITGB6 can also be used for tumor surveillance, serum ITGB6-levels were assessed in 26 CRC patients, pre- and post-surgery, as well as during follow-up visits. After complete tumor resection, ITGB6 serum levels declined completely. During follow-up, a new rise in ITGB6 serum levels indicated tumor recurrence or the onset of new metastasis as confirmed by CT scan. ITGB6 was more accurate for prognosis of advanced CRC and for tumor surveillance as the established marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Our findings identify ITGB6 as a novel serum marker for diagnosis, prognosis, and surveillance of advanced CRC. This might essentially contribute to an optimized patient care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30653264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Molecular signatures of chronic periodontitis in gingiva: A genomic and proteomic analysis.

Related Articles Molecular signatures of chronic periodontitis in gingiva: A genomic and proteomic analysis. J Periodontol. 2019 Jan 17;: Authors: Guzeldemir-Akcakanat E, Alkan B, Sunnetci-Akkoyunlu D, Güral B, Balta VM, Kan B, Akgun E, Yilmaz EB, Baykal AT, Cine N, Olgac V, Gumuslu E, Savlı H Abstract BACKGROUND: To elucidate molecular signatures of chronic periodontitis (CP) using gingival tissue samples through omics-based whole-genome transcriptomic and whole protein profiling. METHODS: Gingival tissues from 18 CP and 25 controls were analysed using gene expression microarrays to identify gene expression patterns and the proteins isolated from these samples were subjected to comparative proteomic analysis by LC-MS/MS. The data from transcriptomics and proteomics were integrated to reveal common shared genes and proteins. RESULTS: The most upregulated genes in CP compared to controls were found as MZB1, BMS1P20, IGLL1/IGLL5, TNFRSF17, ALDH1A1, KIAA0125, MMP7, PRL, MGC16025, ADAM11, and the most upregulated proteins in CP compared to controls were BPI, ITGAM, CAP37, PCM1, MMP-9, MZB1, UGTT1, PLG, RAB1B, HSP90B1. Functions of the identified genes were involved cell death/survival, DNA replication, recombination/repair, gene expression, organismal development, cell-to-cell signalling/interaction, cellular development, cellular growth/proliferation, cellular assembly/organization, cellular function/maintenance, cellular movement, B-cell development and identified proteins were involved in protein folding, response to stress, single-organism catabolic process, regulation of peptidase activity, and negative regulation of cell death. The integration and validation analysis of the transcriptomics and proteomics data revealed two common shared genes and proteins, MZB1 and ECH1. CONCLUSIONS: Integrative data from transcriptomics and proteomics revealed MZB1 as a potent candidate for chronic periodontitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30653263 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Impact of midazolam vs. saline on effect size estimates in controlled trials of ketamine as a rapid-acting antidepressant.

Related Articles Impact of midazolam vs. saline on effect size estimates in controlled trials of ketamine as a rapid-acting antidepressant. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019 Jan 17;: Authors: Wilkinson ST, Farmer C, Ballard E, Mathew SJ, Grunebaum MF, Murrough JW, Sos P, Wang G, Gueorguieva R, Zarate CA Abstract The goal of this study was to infer the effectiveness of midazolam as a comparator in preserving the blind in ketamine studies for mood disorders through patient-level analyses of efficacy trial outcomes. In this integrative data analysis (k = 9, N = 367 patients with mood disorders), clinical outcomes were compared across four groups: ketamine (midazolam-controlled), ketamine (saline-controlled), midazolam, and saline. Ketamine doses ranged from 0.5 to 0.54 mg/kg and midazolam doses ranged from 0.02 to 0.045 mg/kg. The baseline-to-Day 1 effect size was d = 0.7 (95% CI: 0.4-0.9) for ketamine (midazolam) versus midazolam and d = 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.2) for ketamine (saline) versus saline. The effect of ketamine relative to control was larger in saline-controlled studies than in midazolam-controlled studies (t(276) = 2.32, p = 0.02). This was driven by a comparatively larger effect under midazolam than saline (t(111) = 5.40, p < 0.0001), whereas there was no difference between ketamine (midazolam) versus ketamine (saline) (t(177) = 0.65, p = 0.51). Model-estimated rates of response (with 95% CI) yielded similar results: ketamine (midazolam), 45% (34-56%); ketamine (saline), 46% (34-58%); midazolam, 18% (6-30%); saline, 1% (0-11%). The response rate for ketamine was higher than the control condition for both saline (t(353) = 7.41, p < 0.0001) and midazolam (t(353) = 4.59, p < 0.0001). Studies that used midazolam as a comparator yielded smaller effects of ketamine than those which used saline, which was accounted for by greater improvement following midazolam compared to saline. PMID: 30653192 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Ultrasound-guided placement of a midline catheter in a patient with extensive postburn contractures: A Case report.

Related Articles Ultrasound-guided placement of a midline catheter in a patient with extensive postburn contractures: A Case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jan;98(3):e14208 Authors: Yokota T, Tokumine J, Lefor AK, Hasegawa A, Yorozu T, Asao T Abstract RATIONALE: Obtaining venous access in a patient with extensive postburn scar contractures is a challenge. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old woman suffered a burn 2 years previously with a total body surface area burn of 93%, and a burn index of 85. Reconstructive surgery was previously performed 39 times. Split-thickness skin grafting to the neck was planned. She had no accessible peripheral veins. DIAGNOSIS: Difficult venous access due to excessive burn scar contractures. INTERVENTIONS: Central venous catheterization was considered impossible even with ultrasound guidance. We placed a midline catheter for intraoperative venous access in a patient with extensive burn scar contractures. The midline catheter is a peripheral venous catheter placed in an arm vein. OUTCOMES: We successfully placed a midline catheter in the right brachial vein. This catheter was used for 24 days without difficulty. LESSONS: The midline catheter is a viable choice in patients with difficult vascular access due to extensive postburn scar contractures. PMID: 30653177 [PubMed - in process]

Regulation of RNA editing by RNA-binding proteins in human cells.

Related Articles Regulation of RNA editing by RNA-binding proteins in human cells. Commun Biol. 2019;2:19 Authors: Quinones-Valdez G, Tran SS, Jun HI, Bahn JH, Yang EW, Zhan L, Brümmer A, Wei X, Van Nostrand EL, Pratt GA, Yeo GW, Graveley BR, Xiao X Abstract Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing, mediated by the ADAR enzymes, diversifies the transcriptome by altering RNA sequences. Recent studies reported global changes in RNA editing in disease and development. Such widespread editing variations necessitate an improved understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of RNA editing. Here, we study the roles of >200 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in mediating RNA editing in two human cell lines. Using RNA-sequencing and global protein-RNA binding data, we identify a number of RBPs as key regulators of A-to-I editing. These RBPs, such as TDP-43, DROSHA, NF45/90 and Ro60, mediate editing through various mechanisms including regulation of ADAR1 expression, interaction with ADAR1, and binding to Alu elements. We highlight that editing regulation by Ro60 is consistent with the global up-regulation of RNA editing in systemic lupus erythematosus. Additionally, most key editing regulators act in a cell type-specific manner. Together, our work provides insights for the regulatory mechanisms of RNA editing. PMID: 30652130 [PubMed]

Culicoides species community composition and infection status with parasites in an urban environment of east central Texas, USA.

Related Articles Culicoides species community composition and infection status with parasites in an urban environment of east central Texas, USA. Parasit Vectors. 2019 Jan 16;12(1):39 Authors: Martin E, Chu E, Shults P, Golnar A, Swanson DA, Benn J, Kim D, Schneider P, Pena S, Culver C, Medeiros MCI, Hamer SA, Hamer GL Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite their importance as vectors of zoonotic parasites that can impact human and animal health, Culicoides species distribution across different habitat types is largely unknown. Here we document the community composition of Culicoides found in an urban environment including developed and natural sites in east central Texas, a region of high vector diversity due to subtropical climates, and report their infection status with haemoparasites. RESULTS: A total of 251 individual Culicoides were collected from May to June 2016 representing ten Culicoides species, dominated by C. neopulicaris followed by C. crepuscularis. We deposited 63 sequences to GenBank among which 25 were the first deposition representative for six Culicoides species: C. arboricola (n = 1); C. nanus (n = 4); C. debilipalpis (n = 2); C. haematopotus (n = 14); C. edeni (n = 3); and C. hinmani (n = 1). We also record for the first time the presence of C. edeni in Texas, a species previously known to occur in the Bahamas, Florida and South Carolina. The urban environments with natural area (sites 2 and 4) had higher species richness than sites more densely populated or in a parking lot (sites 1 and 3) although a rarefaction analysis suggested at least two of these sites were not sampled sufficiently to characterize species richness. We detected a single C. crepuscularis positive for Onchocercidae gen. sp. DNA and another individual of the same species positive for Haemoproteus sacharovi DNA, yielding a 2.08% prevalence (n = 251) for both parasites in this species. CONCLUSIONS: We extend the knowledge of the Culicoides spp. community in an urban environment of Texas, USA, and contribute to novel sequence data for these species. Additionally, the presence of parasite DNA (Onchocercidae gen. sp. and H. sacharovi) from C. crepuscularis suggests the potential for this species to be a vector of these parasites. PMID: 30651144 [PubMed - in process]

Hyperspectral cell sociology reveals spatial tumor-immune cell interactions associated with lung cancer recurrence.

Related Articles Hyperspectral cell sociology reveals spatial tumor-immune cell interactions associated with lung cancer recurrence. J Immunother Cancer. 2019 Jan 16;7(1):13 Authors: Enfield KSS, Martin SD, Marshall EA, Kung SHY, Gallagher P, Milne K, Chen Z, Nelson BH, Lam S, English JC, MacAulay CE, Lam WL, Guillaud M Abstract BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex mixture of tumor epithelium, stroma and immune cells, and the immune component of the TME is highly prognostic for tumor progression and patient outcome. In lung cancer, anti-PD-1 therapy significantly improves patient survival through activation of T cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Direct contact between CD8+ T cells and target cells is necessary for CD8+ T cell activity, indicating that spatial organization of immune cells within the TME reflects a critical process in anti-tumor immunity. Current immunohistochemistry (IHC) imaging techniques identify immune cell numbers and densities, but lack assessment of cell-cell spatial relationships (or "cell sociology"). Immune functionality, however, is often dictated by cell-to-cell contact and cannot be resolved by simple metrics of cell density (for example, number of cells per mm2). To address this issue, we developed a Hyperspectral Cell Sociology technology platform for the analysis of cell-cell interactions in multi-channel IHC-stained tissue. METHODS: Tissue sections of primary tumors from lung adenocarcinoma patients with known clinical outcome were stained using multiplex IHC for CD3, CD8, and CD79a, and hyperspectral image analysis determined the phenotype of all cells. A Voronoi diagram for each cell was used to approximate cell boundaries, and the cell type of all neighboring cells was identified and quantified. Monte Carlo analysis was used to assess whether cell sociology patterns were likely due to random distributions of the cells. RESULTS: High density of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells was significantly associated with non-recurrence of tumors. A cell sociology pattern of CD8+ T cells surrounded by tumor cells was more significantly associated with non-recurrence compared to CD8+ T cell density alone. CD3+ CD8- T cells surrounded by tumor cells was also associated with non-recurrence, but at a similar significance as cell density alone. Cell sociology metrics improved recurrence classifications of 12 patients. Monte Carlo re-sampling analysis determined that these cell sociology patterns were non-random. CONCLUSION: Hyperspectral Cell Sociology expands our understanding of the complex interplay between tumor cells and immune infiltrate. This technology could improve predictions of responses to immunotherapy and lead to a deeper understanding of anti-tumor immunity. PMID: 30651131 [PubMed - in process]

Experience with AMS 700 LGX penile prostheses for preserving penile length in Korea.

Related Articles Experience with AMS 700 LGX penile prostheses for preserving penile length in Korea. BMC Urol. 2019 Jan 16;19(1):6 Authors: Kim KS, Bae WJ, Kim SW, Lee MY Abstract BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of patients who underwent penile implantation with AMS 700 LGX inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) in a single center by a single surgeon. METHODS: A total of 342 patients with erectile dysfunction who underwent AMS 700 LGX IPP implantation between October 2014 and April 2016 were included in this study. All patients were evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. We also investigated the mean stretched flaccid penile length before and after surgery as well as the complications related to and the mechanical reliability of the IPP. RESULTS: The questionnaire scores at 12 months were statistically significantly higher than the baseline scores. The mean stretched flaccid penile length was 11.1 ± 0.8 cm at baseline and was longer at 3 (11.9 ± 0.9 cm, P < 0.001), 6 (12.0 ± 0.9 cm, P < 0.001), and 12 (12.2 ± 0.7 cm, P < 0.001) postoperatively. There were no intraoperative or perioperative complications. However, one patient had infection and 10 patients developed mechanical failure during the follow-up duration. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that the AMS 700 LGX IPP could be used to prevent penile shortening in patients undergoing IPP implantation. Furthermore, erectile function and patient satisfaction were improved excellently. PMID: 30651104 [PubMed - in process]

Estimating the elimination feasibility in the 'end game' of control efforts for parasites subjected to regular mass drug administration: Methods and their application to schistosomiasis.

Related Articles Estimating the elimination feasibility in the 'end game' of control efforts for parasites subjected to regular mass drug administration: Methods and their application to schistosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 11;12(11):e0006794 Authors: Arakala A, Hoover CM, Marshall JM, Sokolow SH, De Leo GA, Rohr JR, Remais JV, Gambhir M Abstract Progress towards controlling and eliminating parasitic worms, including schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and lymphatic filariasis, is advancing rapidly as national governments, multinational NGOs, and pharmaceutical companies launch collaborative chemotherapeutic control campaigns. Critical questions remain regarding the potential for achieving elimination of these infections, and analytical methods can help to quickly estimate progress towards-and the probability of achieving-elimination over specific timeframes. Here, we propose the effective reproduction number, Reff, as a proxy of elimination potential for sexually reproducing worms that are subject to poor mating success at very low abundance (positive density dependence, or Allee effects). Reff is the number of parasites produced by a single reproductive parasite at a given stage in the transmission cycle, over the parasite's lifetime-it is the generalized form of the more familiar basic reproduction number, R0, which only applies at the beginning of an epidemic-and it can be estimated in a 'model-free' manner by an estimator ('ε'). We introduce ε, demonstrate its estimation using simulated data, and discuss how it may be used in planning and evaluation of ongoing elimination efforts for a range of parasitic diseases. PMID: 30418968 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Empathy in Chinese eight-year medical program students: differences by school year, educational stage, and future career preference.

Related Articles Empathy in Chinese eight-year medical program students: differences by school year, educational stage, and future career preference. BMC Med Educ. 2018 Oct 22;18(1):241 Authors: Li D, Xu H, Kang M, Ma S Abstract BACKGROUD: To examine the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Student-version, JSE-S), and to study differences in empathy scores among eight-year undergraduate medical students across gender, year of study, and future career preference. METHODS: The JSE-S was administered to 442 participants from December 2016 to July 2017, who were all first- to seventh-year students on an eight-year medical education course at Fudan University. Factor analysis was used to examine the underlying components of the Chinese version of the JSE-S. The data analyses comprised a t-test and analyses of variance. RESULTS: Factor analysis confirmed four components: perspective taking, compassionate care, ability to stand in patient's shoes, and difficulties in adopting patient's perspective. The lowest empathy score was found in the seventh-year students (99.5), while a decline was found across school years. Students in clinical training (sixth/seventh year) had lower empathy than students in premedical study (first/second year), basic medicine (third/fourth year), and clinical medicine (fifth year). Statistically significant differences in empathy mean scores were found in respect of future career preference but not gender. Students who preferred not to become doctors had lower empathy than students who preferred to become doctors, who were undecided, and who did not specify. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the construct validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the JSE-S for medical students. The study also revealed the features of empathy in eight-year program students, and provided a reliable reference to design interventions to cultivate empathy among Chinese medical students. PMID: 30348197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Coptidis Rhizoma-Contained Traditional Formulae for Insomnia: A Potential to Prevent Diabetes?

Related Articles Coptidis Rhizoma-Contained Traditional Formulae for Insomnia: A Potential to Prevent Diabetes? Chin J Integr Med. 2018 Oct;24(10):785-788 Authors: Huang WY, Dong H Abstract It has been well known that insomnia and sleep deprivation can lead to many metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabete mellitus (T2DM). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used to improve insomnia and showed many good therapeutic effects. Some Coptidis Rhizoma-contained traditional formulae have been found to exert obvious effects on insomnia, such as Jiaotai Pill (), Huanglian Ejiao Decoction (), Huanglian Wendan Decoction (), Niuhuang Qingxin Pill (), and Zhusha Anshen Pill (). Coptidis Rhizoma, a traditional herbal medicine which can purge Xin (Heart) fire, is the most important component of these formulas. Studies have found that these formulae could improve T2DM symptoms. We hypothesized that treating insomnia theoretically may help to prevent diabetes and organized many experimental studies in this review and concluded that Coptidis Rhizoma-contained traditional formulae for insomnia might be a potential to prevent diabetes. PMID: 30267370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dietary Supplement Use Differs by Socioeconomic and Health-Related Characteristics among U.S. Adults, NHANES 2011⁻2014.

Related Articles Dietary Supplement Use Differs by Socioeconomic and Health-Related Characteristics among U.S. Adults, NHANES 2011⁻2014. Nutrients. 2018 Aug 17;10(8): Authors: Cowan AE, Jun S, Gahche JJ, Tooze JA, Dwyer JT, Eicher-Miller HA, Bhadra A, Guenther PM, Potischman N, Dodd KW, Bailey RL Abstract The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of use and types of dietary supplements (DS) used by U.S. adults (≥19 years) by sociodemographic characteristics: family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR), food security status, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation using NHANES 2011⁻2014 data (n = 11,024). DS use was ascertained via a home inventory and a retrospective 30-day questionnaire. Demographic and socioeconomic differences related to DS use were evaluated using a univariate t statistic. Half of U.S. adults (52%) took at least one DS during a 30-day period; multivitamin-mineral (MVM) products were the most commonly used (31%). DS and MVM use was significantly higher among those with a household income of ≥ 350% of the poverty level, those who were food secure, and SNAP income-ineligible nonparticipants across all sex, age, and race/ethnic groups. Among women, prevalence of use significantly differed between SNAP participants (39%) and SNAP income-eligible nonparticipants (54%). Older adults (71+ years) remained the highest consumers of DS, specifically among the highest income group (82%), while younger adults (19⁻30 years), predominantly in the lowest income group (28%), were the lowest consumers. Among U.S. adults, DS use and the types of products consumed varied with income, food security, and SNAP participation. PMID: 30126136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

VEGFC/VEGFR3 axis mediates TGFβ1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

Related Articles VEGFC/VEGFR3 axis mediates TGFβ1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer cells. PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200452 Authors: Duan L, Ye L, Zhuang L, Zou X, Liu S, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Jin C, Huang Y Abstract In the tumor progression, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis as well as metastasis. It is known that high plasma level of TGFβ1 in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is correlated with poor prognostics. In addition, the generation of cancer stem-like cells is associated with metastasis, drug resistance, and tumor recurrence, which also lead to poor outcomes in NSCLC patients. However, it remains unclear how TGFβ1 promotes NSCLC cells to acquire stem-like properties and accelerate tumor metastasis. In our study, we found that short term TGFβ1 treatment resulted in a significant epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) morphological change in TGFβ1-sensitive NSCLC cells but not in insensitive cells. Western blotting confirmed increased Vimentin and reduced E-Cadherin protein expression after TGFβ1 treatment in A549, NCI-H1993, and NCI-H358 cells. TGFβ1 incubation dramatically decreased in vitro cell proliferation and increased cell invasion in TGFβ1-sensitive NSCLC cells but not in NCI-H1975, NCI-H1650, and HCC827 cells. Moreover, TGFβ1 was able to enhance the mRNA expression of Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 and drastically increased anchorage-independent colony formation in TGFβ1-sensitive NSCLC cells, suggesting the acquisition of cancer stem-like properties. Interestingly, we found that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) mRNA expression was significantly elevated in TGFβ1-sensitive NSCLC cells compared to insensitive cells. And TGFβ1 was capable of inducing VEGF-C gene expression. Pharmacological blocking TGFβ type I receptor kinase (ALK5) significantly inhibited TGFβ1-induced VEGF-C expression. Silencing of ALK5 by siRNA also dramatically reduced TGFβ1-induced VEGF-C expression in TGFβ1-sensitive NSCLC cells. Therefore, TGFβ1 contributes for NSCLC metastasis through promoting EMT, generation of high invasive cancer cells with stem-like properties, and increasing VEGF-C expression. Blocking TGFβ pathway is a potential therapeutic target in human non-small cell lung cancer. PMID: 29995950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Identification of novel diabetes impaired miRNA-transcription factor co-regulatory networks in bone marrow-derived Lin-/VEGF-R2+ endothelial progenitor cells.

Related Articles Identification of novel diabetes impaired miRNA-transcription factor co-regulatory networks in bone marrow-derived Lin-/VEGF-R2+ endothelial progenitor cells. PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200194 Authors: Irhimeh MR, Hamed M, Barthelmes D, Gladbach Y, Helms V, Shen W, Gillies MC Abstract Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a group of rare cells that play an important role in the repair of injured vascular endothelial cells and assist in reperfusion of ischemic tissue. Decreased production and/or loss of function of EPCs are associated with diabetic vasculopathy. The molecular mechanisms by which diabetes impairs EPCs remain unclear. We conducted microarray experiments followed by integrative regulatory analysis on cells isolated from Akita diabetic mice (18-weeks after onset of diabetes) and age-matched non-diabetic controls. Two types of cells were isolated from mice bone marrow; Lin+ cells and Lin-/VEGF-R2+ EPCs. RNA was hybridized to mouse WG-6 V2 beadchips followed by comprehensive gene network analysis and computational validation of the obtained results. In total, 80 genes were exclusively DE between non-diabetic Lin-/VEGF-R2+ EPCs and diabetic Lin-/VEGF-R2+ EPCs, of which the 3 genes Clcnka, Pik3c2a, and Ptf1a are known to be associated with diabetic complications. Further analysis led to the establishment of a TF-miRNA mediated regulatory network specific to diabetic Lin-/VEGF-R2+ EPCs and to identify 11 central-hub TFs (Tbp, Ahr, Trp53, Gata1, Foxo1, Foxo4, Yy1, Max, Pparg, Myc, Cebpa), and 2 miRNAs (mir-139-5p, mir-709) that might act as putative genomic drivers of diabetic pathogenesis in Lin-/VEGF-R2+ EPCs. Moreover, we identified multiple TF-miRNA co-regulatory network motifs for which we validated their contribution to diabetic Lin-/VEGF-R2+ EPCs in terms of statistical significance and relevance to biological evidence. Our findings suggest that diabetic Lin-/VEGF-R2+ EPCs have specifically altered signature genes and miRNAs that render their capacity to proliferate and differentiate. PMID: 29995913 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Development of the PEA-PODS (Perceptions of the Environment and Patterns of Diet at School) Survey for Students.

Related Articles Development of the PEA-PODS (Perceptions of the Environment and Patterns of Diet at School) Survey for Students. Prev Chronic Dis. 2018 06 28;15:E88 Authors: Lane HG, Driessen R, Campbell K, Deitch R, Turner L, Parker EA, Hager ER Abstract INTRODUCTION: Few instruments assess key outcomes of school-based obesity interventions, including student perceptions of school environments and school-specific dietary intake patterns. This study describes development of PEA-PODS (Perceptions of the Environment and Patterns of Diet at School), a 2-part survey to measure these outcomes. METHODS: Part 1 (PEA) assessed student perceptions of policies, physical environment, and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity at school. Part 2 (PODS) assessed usual intake (ie, frequency, location obtained, and foods consumed) of breakfast and lunch. Foods consumed were presented by MyPlate categories (eg, Fruits, Grains). Students in grades 3, 6, and 9 participated in 2 phases: cognitive pre-testing (n = 10) and reliability/validation testing (n = 58). Both surveys were administered 1 week apart to assess test-retest reliability and 5-day food records validated PODS. Analyses included percent agreement (70% = acceptable), Pearson correlations, and Cronbach α. RESULTS: Cognitive pre-testing provided feedback on content, length, and age-appropriateness. Percent agreements were acceptable for test-retest reliability of PEA (71%-96%). The final version included 34 items with Likert-type responses in 4 subscales (α ≥0.78). For PODS, agreement for breakfast and lunch location was ≥75% for both reliability and validation. For foods consumed at breakfast, reliability agreement ranged from 74% to 93%, and validation agreement from 68% to 91%. For foods consumed at lunch, agreement ranges were 76% to 95% and 73% to 88%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both parts of the instrument demonstrate acceptable reliability, and PODS demonstrates acceptable validity. This demonstrates appropriateness for assessing perceptions of the environment and usual dietary intake patterns for school-based obesity prevention initiatives. PMID: 29969093 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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