Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006 Apr;31(3):288-94. Epub 2005 Nov 10. PMID: 16289361
Enzo Emanuele, Pierluigi Politi, Marika Bianchi, Piercarlo Minoretti, Marco Bertona, Diego Geroldi
Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of a loving relationship could be associated with alterations in circulating levels of neurotrophins (NTs). Plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 were measured in a total of 58 subjects who had recently fallen in love and compared with those of two control groups, consisting of subjects who were either single or were already engaged in a long-lasting relationship. NGF level was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the subjects in love [mean (SEM): 227 (14) pg/ml] than in either the subjects with a long-lasting relationship [123 (10) pg/ml] or the subjects with no relationship [149 (12) pg/ml]. Notably, there was also a significant positive correlation between levels of NGF and the intensity of romantic love as assessed with the passionate love scale (r = 0.34; p = 0.007). No differences in the concentrations of other NTs were detected. In 39 subjects in love who-after 12-24 months-maintained the same relationship but were no longer in the same mental state to which they had referred during the initial evaluation, plasma NGF levels decreased and became indistinguishable from those of the control groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that some behavioural and/or psychological features associated with falling in love could be related to raised NGF levels in the bloodstream.
Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2006
"..that warm feeling that [alcohol] gave me was what I interpreted love would feel like.." Lived experience of excessive alcohol use and care proceedings by mothers in the family justice system in the UK.
Addict Behav. 2018 Dec 26;92:186-193
Authors: Boreham M, Marlow S, Gilchrist G
BACKGROUND: When mothers who have been identified as using alcohol excessively appear in child care proceedings seeking to retain care of, or be reunited with, their children, family courts primarily focus on whether those mothers can make lasting changes to their use of alcohol, very often requiring them to achieve abstinence. The aim of this study was to advance the evidence base around how such mothers make sense of their alcohol use, and their position as mothers, in the systems and processes around care proceedings.
METHODS: Qualitative, face-to-face interviews were carried out at various children and families' services locations across the UK. These yielded in-depth accounts, to which Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was applied.
RESULTS: Six mothers were recruited from collaborations with 31 local authorities. Themes relating to alcohol use included relationships in childhood, repeated traumatic events, and the use of alcohol to self-manage these. In response to extreme fear arising from violence in their relationships with older men, alcohol provided the means to function. Escalation of alcohol use in participants' lives was accompanied by greater isolation, alongside shameful feelings about being a "drunk", which were barriers to help-seeking. Themes relating to motherhood in the context of care proceedings included wanting to change behaviour for themselves and their children, being excluded from their children's lives, and experiencing a continual requirement to prove their parenting and their abstinence from alcohol. Language used by social services, the courts and alcohol treatment services, placed mothers in conflicting positions of being in recovery, but having to present as recovered.
CONCLUSION: Despite excessive alcohol misuse in mothers being closely enmeshed with other issues, awareness and understanding of factors such as complex trauma, and how to support mothers with these factors, is limited, and should be considered in terms of improving research and best practice.
PMID: 30654324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
"Figure Out What It Is You Love to Do and Live the Life You Love": The Experiences of Young Adults Returning to Work After Primary Cancer Treatment.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol. 2019 Jan 17;:
Authors: Drake EK, Urquhart R
This study explored young adult (YA; 18-39 years of age) cancer survivors' perspectives on and experiences with return to work (RTW) following primary cancer treatment. A prospective qualitative longitudinal method was employed, using in-depth telephone interviews at three time points. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Five people (ages 25-40) participated and four themes were identified: YAs face uncertainty about RTW; cancer may be a catalyst for career change; employment benefits are important; and YA-specific resources are needed to support RTW.
PMID: 30653384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In love and war: The morphometric and phylogenetic basis of ornamentation, and the evolution of male display behavior, in the livebearer genus Poecilia.
Evolution. 2019 Jan 17;:
Authors: Goldberg DL, Landy JA, Travis J, Springer MS, Reznick DN
Exaggerated male traits under sexual selection are often used for both competition and courtship, raising the question of whether ornaments evolved simultaneously for both functions, or if use in one context preceded use in another. Here, we apply a phylogenetic approach to study the evolution of ornamental dorsal fins in male poeciliid fish of the subgenera Mollienesia and Limia, which exhibit convergent development of an enlarged dorsal fin, and often direct erect-fin displays to male and female conspecifics. Unlike prior categorical assessments of poeciliid adornments, we measure dorsal fin exaggeration with a continuous index of ornamentation. Phylogenetic logistic and generalized least squares regression analyses indicate that high index values are significantly associated with the use of two component postures of courtship and aggressive displays, dorsal fin erection and body curvature, but not with the presence of sexual dichromatism. Male displays initially evolved for male-male aggression in the common ancestor of Mollienesia and Limia, suggesting that this signal originated for competition, then became co-opted for courtship. These results support the armament-ornament hypothesis for evolution of exaggerated male traits, and are consistent with an evolutionary shift in the predominant mechanisms of sexual selection from intra- to intersexual.
PMID: 30652306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Phenotypical resistance correlation networks for 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella subpopulations in an active antimicrobial surveillance programme.
Epidemiol Infect. 2018 06;146(8):991-1002
Authors: Love WJ, Zawack KA, Booth JG, Gröhn YT, Lanzas C
Antimicrobials play a critical role in treating cases of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis (iNTS) and other diseases, but efficacy is hindered by resistant pathogens. Selection for phenotypical resistance may occur via several mechanisms. The current study aims to identify correlations that would allow indirect selection of increased resistance to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin to improve antimicrobial stewardship. These are medically important antibiotics for treating iNTS, but these resistances persist in non-Typhi Salmonella serotypes even though they are not licensed for use in US food animals. A set of 2875 Salmonella enterica isolates collected from animal sources by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System were stratified in to 10 subpopulations based on serotype and host species. Collateral resistances in each subpopulation were estimated as network models of minimum inhibitory concentration partial correlations. Ceftriaxone sensitivity was correlated with other β-lactam resistances, and less commonly resistances to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or kanamycin. Azithromycin resistance was frequently correlated with chloramphenicol resistance. Indirect selection for ciprofloxacin resistance via collateral selection appears unlikely. Density of the ACSSuT subgraph resistance aligned well with the phenotypical frequency. The current study identifies several important resistances in iNTS serotypes and further research is needed to identify the causative genetic correlations.
PMID: 29708083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
"Gay Guys are Shit-Lovers" and "Lesbians are Obsessed With Fingers": The (Mis)Representation of LGBTIQ People in Thai News Media.
J Homosex. 2019;66(2):260-273
Authors: Fongkaew K, Khruataeng A, Unsathit S, Khamphiirathasana M, Jongwisan N, Arlunaek O, Byrne J
This article presents an analysis of news reports containing information or opinions about lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer (LGBTIQ) people taken from six Thai media outlets over a period of one year. The aim was to explore how LGBTIQ people are portrayed in news media narratives. LGBTIQ identities were found to be vastly underrepresented and, when represented, were often represented inaccurately, stereotypically, harmfully, or without a clear understanding of the diversity of sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expressions. (Hetero-)sexist narratives, negative portrayals, harmful stereotypes, and discriminatory speech were also widely found, fueling a climate of stigmatization and discrimination of LGBTIQ people in Thai society. This article suggests that key stakeholders in Thai news media should be sensitized on the human rights of LGBTIQ people and on basic professional ethics in journalism.
PMID: 29072557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]