Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Mantra

Prevalence and patterns of use of mantra, mindfulness and spiritual meditation among adults in the United States. 📎

Abstract Title: Prevalence and patterns of use of mantra, mindfulness and spiritual meditation among adults in the United States. Abstract Source: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Jun 15 ;17(1):316. Epub 2017 Jun 15. PMID: 28619092 Abstract Author(s): Adam Burke, Chun Nok Lam, Barbara Stussman, Hui Yang Article Affiliation: Adam Burke Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite a growing body of scientific literature exploring the nature of meditation there is limited information on the characteristics of individuals who use it. This is particularly true of comparative studies examining prevalence and predictors of use of various forms of meditation. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (n = 34,525). Three popular forms of meditation were compared-mantra, mindfulness, and spiritual-to determine lifetime and 12-month use related to key sociodemographic, health behavior, health status, and healthcare access variables. RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence for meditation practice was 3.1% for spiritual meditation, 1.9% for mindfulness meditation, and 1.6% for mantra meditation. This represents approximately 7.0, 4.3, and 3.6 million adults respectively. A comparison across the three meditation practices found many similarities in user characteristics, suggesting interest in meditation may be more related to the type of person meditating than to the type of practice selected. Across meditation styles use was more prevalent among respondents who were female, non-Hispanic White, college educated, physically active; who used other complementary health practices; and who reported depression. Higher utilization of conventional healthcare services was one of the strongest predictors of use of all three styles. In addition to similarities, important distinctions were observed. For example, spiritual meditation practice was more prevalent among former drinkers. This may reflect use of spiritual meditation practices in support of alcohol treatment and sobriety. Reasons for use of meditation were examined using the sample of respondents who practiced mindfulness meditation. Wellness and prevention (74%) was a more common reason than use to treat a specific health condition (30%). Common reasons for use included stress management (92%) and emotional well-being (91%), and to support other health behaviors. Meditation was viewed positively because it was self-care oriented (81%) and focused on the whole person (79%). CONCLUSION: Meditation appears to provide an accessible, self-care resource that has potential value for mental health, behavioral self-regulation, and integrative medical care. Considering consumer preference for distinct types of meditation practices, understanding the underlying mechanisms, benefits, and applications of practice variations is important. Article Published Date : Jun 14, 2017

Blood Pressure Response to Meditation and Yoga: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Abstract Title: Blood Pressure Response to Meditation and Yoga: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6. PMID: 28384004 Abstract Author(s): Seong-Hi Park, Kuem Sun Han Article Affiliation: Seong-Hi Park Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To introduce research that presents scientific evidence regarding the effects of mantra and mindfulness meditation techniques and yoga on decreasing blood pressure (BP) in patients who have hypertension. METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify all studies published between 1946 and 2014 from periodicals indexed in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, KoreaMed, and NDSL by using the following keywords:"hypertension,""blood pressure,""psychotherapy,""relaxation therapy,""meditation,""yoga,"and"mind-body therapy."The Cochrane's Risk of Bias was applied to assess the internal validity of the randomized controlled trial studies. Thirteen studies were analyzed in this meta-analysis by using Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Among 510 possible studies, 13 met the selection criteria. Seven examined meditation, and six examined yoga. The meta-analysis indicated that meditation and yoga appeared to decrease both systolic and diastolic BP, which were within similar baseline ranges, and the reduction was statistically significant; however, some results showed little difference. After an in-depth analysis of those results, BP range and patient age were revealed as the factors that affected the different results in some reports. In particular, meditation played a noticeable role in decreasing the BP of subjects older than 60 years of age, whereas yoga seemed to contribute to the decrease of subjects aged less than 60 years. CONCLUSIONS: While acknowledging the limitations of this research due to the differences in BP and the participants' ages, meditation and yoga are demonstrated to be effective alternatives to pharmacotherapy. Given that BP decreased with the use of meditation and yoga, and this effect varied in different age groups, scientifically measured outcomes indicate that these practices are safe alternatives in some cases. Article Published Date : Apr 05, 2017

Mantras Help the General Psychological Well-Being of College Students: A Pilot Study.

Abstract Title: Mantras Help the General Psychological Well-Being of College Students: A Pilot Study. Abstract Source: J Relig Health. 2017 Mar 7. Epub 2017 Mar 7. PMID: 28271341 Abstract Author(s): Aruna Lolla Article Affiliation: Aruna Lolla Abstract: The mind receives deep effect of harmonizing from incantatory spiritual verse known as"mantra."This ancient Indian spiritual science of sound vibrations had been used to help the mind, body and life. Students in top-ranking colleges often feel pressurized and complain of depression. Mantras could help ease their stress. This work attempts to study the impact of mantra on the psychological well-being of college students. Volunteers selected and listened to the mantra of their choice in the test period. Psychological tests were conducted before and after the test period. Data collected were analyzed by psychologists. The findings reveal a clear improvement in the general cheerfulness and clarity of mind of the subjects. Article Published Date : Mar 06, 2017

Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting.

Abstract Title: Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting. Abstract Source: Int Rev Psychiatry. 2016 Jun ;28(3):288-98. Epub 2016 Jun 7. PMID: 27266893 Abstract Author(s): Hemant Bhargav, Manjunath N K, Shivarama Varambally, A Mooventhan, Suman Bista, Deepeshwar Singh, Harleen Chhabra, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Srinivasan T M, Nagendra H R Article Affiliation: Hemant Bhargav Abstract: Mobile phone induced electromagnetic field (MPEMF) as well as chanting of Vedic mantra 'OM' has been shown to affect cognition and brain haemodynamics, but findings are still inconclusive. Twenty right-handed healthy teenagers (eight males and 12 females) in the age range of 18.25 ± 0.44 years were randomly divided into four groups: (1) MPONOM (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'OM' chanting); (2) MPOFOM (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'OM' chanting); (3) MPONSS (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'SS' chanting); and (4) MPOFSS (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'SS' chanting). Brain haemodynamics during Stroop task were recorded using a 64-channel fNIRS device at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after 30 min of MPON/OF exposure, and (3) after 5 min of OM/SS chanting. RM-ANOVA was applied to perform within- and between-group comparisons, respectively. Between-groupanalysis revealed that total scores on incongruent Stroop task were significantly better after OM as compared to SS chanting (MPOFOM vs MPOFSS), pre-frontal activation was significantly lesser after OM as compared to SS chanting in channel 13. There was no significant difference between MPON and MPOF conditions for Stroop performance, as well as brain haemodynamics. These findings need confirmation through a larger trial in future. Article Published Date : May 31, 2016

Repetitive Religious Chanting Modulates the Late-Stage Brain Response to Fear- and Stress-Provoking Pictures. 📎

Abstract Title: Repetitive Religious Chanting Modulates the Late-Stage Brain Response to Fear- and Stress-Provoking Pictures. Abstract Source: Front Psychol. 2016 ;7:2055. Epub 2017 Jan 10. PMID: 28119651 Abstract Author(s): Junling Gao, Jicong Fan, Bonnie W Wu, Georgios T Halkias, Maggie Chau, Peter C Fung, Chunqi Chang, Zhiguo Zhang, Yeung-Sam Hung, Hinhung Sik Article Affiliation: Junling Gao Abstract: Chanting and praying are among the most popular religious activities, which are said to be able to alleviate people's negative emotions. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this mental exercise and its temporal course have hardly been investigated. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the effects of chanting the name of a Buddha (Amitābha) on the brain's response to viewing negative pictures that were fear- and stress-provoking. We recorded and analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) data from 21 Buddhists with chanting experience as they viewed negative and neutral pictures. Participants were instructed to chant the names of Amitābha or Santa Claus silently to themselves or simply remain silent (no-chanting condition) during picture viewing. To measure the physiological changes corresponding to negative emotions, electrocardiogram and galvanic skin response data were also collected. Results showed that viewing negative pictures (vs. neutral pictures) increased the amplitude of the N1 component in all the chanting conditions. The amplitude of late positive potential (LPP) also increased when the negative pictures were viewed under the no-chanting and the Santa Claus condition. However, increased LPP was not observedwhen chanting Amitābha. The ERP source analysis confirmed this finding and showed that increased LPP mainly originated from the central-parietal regions of the brain. In addition, the participants' heart rates decreased significantly when viewing negative pictures in the Santa Claus condition. Theno-chanting condition had a similar decreasing trend although not significant. However, while chanting Amitābha and viewing negative pictures participants' heart rate did not differ significantly from that observed during neutral picture viewing. It is possible that the chanting of Amitābha mighthave helped the participants to develop a religious schema and neutralized the effect of the negative stimuli. These findings echo similar research findings on Christian religious practices and brain responses to negative stimuli. Hence, prayer/religious practices may have cross-cultural universality in emotion regulation. This study shows for the first time that Buddhist chanting, or in a broader sense, repetition of religious prayers will not modulate brain responses to negative stimuli during the early perceptual stage, but only during the late-stage emotional/cognitive processing. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Effect of Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals: A prospective randomized control trial. 📎

Abstract Title: Effect of Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals: A prospective randomized control trial. Abstract Source: Int J Yoga. 2014 Jul ;7(2):104-10. PMID: 25035619 Abstract Author(s): A Mooventhan, Vitthal Khode Article Affiliation: A Mooventhan Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIM: Yoga is an ancient Indian science as well as the way of life. Pranayama is a part of yoga, which improves pulmonary function in combination of many pranayama, but the aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of only Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 82 subjects were randomized into the study group (SG) (n = 41) and control group (CG) (n = 41). Baseline assessment was performed before intervention for both groups. SG practiced Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting for the duration of 10 min (5 min for each practice)/day for the period of 6 days/week for 2 weeks and CG did not practice so. After intervention post-assessment was performed for SG (n = 40) and CG (n = 39). Statistical analysis was performed by Independent samples t-test and Student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (2007, USA). RESULTS: The result showed a significant improvement in peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow (FEF)25% and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) along with a significant reduction in weight in SG compared with CG in independent samples t-test. Significant improvement in slow vital capacity (SVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1) along with PEF, FEF25% and MVV; Significant reduction in weight and body mass index were observed in SG unlike in CG in Student's paired t-test. No significant changes were found in forced vital capacity, FEV1 /SVC and FEF50% , between and within the group analysis of SG and CG. CONCLUSION: Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting are effective in improving pulmonary function in healthy individuals. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2014

Gayatri Mantra and Poem Chanting Improves A Digit Letter Substitution Task. 📎

Abstract Title: Gayatri Mantra and Poem Chanting Improves A Digit Letter Substitution Task. Abstract Source: Anc Sci Life. 2012 Oct ;32(2):89-92. PMID: 24167333 Abstract Author(s): Balaram Pradhan, Seema Godse Derle Article Affiliation: Balaram Pradhan Abstract: CONTEXT: Attention is one of the components to enhance academic excellence. Traditional techniques were included in Indian schools to develop mental faculties with a view to add value to the latter. AIM: The aim was to evaluate the effects of Gayatri mantra (GM) chanting on attention as measured by digit-letter substitution task (DLST). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: School setting and self as control study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects consisted of 60 school students included (boys = 30 and girls = 30) in the age range of 12-14 years, who were trained for chanting GM for 5 days. They were assessed on DLST immediately before and after two sessions (i) GM chanting (10 min) and (ii) Poem line (PL) chanting with an equal duration (10 min). Fifty percent of participants performed GM chanting and remaining on the PL recitation on day 6. The orders of the sessions were reversed on day 7. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Repeated measure analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustment used. RESULTS: Both sessions showed significant improvement in the total and net score of DLST. The magnitude of net score improvement was greater after GM (21.67%) compared to PL (4.85%). Female group had found better performance following GM compared to PL chanting. CONCLUSIONS: Both GM and PL led to improvement in performance, as assessed by DLST. But the influence of GM had significantly higher than PL in net score of female group. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2012

Neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study. 📎

Abstract Title: Neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Abstract Source: Int J Yoga. 2011 Jan ;4(1):3-6. PMID: 21654968 Abstract Author(s): Bangalore G Kalyani, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Rashmi Arasappa, Naren P Rao, Sunil V Kalmady, Rishikesh V Behere, Hariprasad Rao, Mandapati K Vasudev, Bangalore N Gangadhar Article Affiliation: Bangalore G Kalyani Abstract: BACKGROUND: A sensation of vibration is experienced during audible 'OM' chanting. This has the potential for vagus nerve stimulation through its auricular branches and the effects on the brain thereof. The neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting are yet to be explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), the neurohemodynamic correlates of audible 'OM' chanting were examined in right-handed healthy volunteers (n=12; nine men). The 'OM' chanting condition was compared with pronunciation of"ssss"as well as a rest state. fMRI analysis was done using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5). RESULTS: In this study, significant deactivation was observed bilaterally during 'OM' chanting in comparison to the resting brain state in bilateral orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyri, thalami and hippocampi. The right amygdala too demonstrated significant deactivation. No significant activation was observed during 'OM' chanting. In contrast, neither activation nor deactivation occurred in these brain regions during the comparative task - namely the 'ssss' pronunciation condition. CONCLUSION: The neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting indicate limbic deactivation. As similar observations have been recorded with vagus nerve stimulation treatment used in depression and epilepsy, the study findings argue for a potential role of this 'OM' chanting in clinical practice. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2010

Cerebral blood flow changes during chanting meditation.

Abstract Title: Cerebral blood flow changes during chanting meditation. Abstract Source: Nucl Med Commun. 2009 Dec ;30(12):956-61. PMID: 19773673 Abstract Author(s): Dharma Singh Khalsa, Daniel Amen, Chris Hanks, Nisha Money, Andrew Newberg Article Affiliation: Dharma Singh Khalsa Abstract: PURPOSE: To examine changes in brain physiology during a chanting meditation practice using cerebral blood flow single-photon emission computed tomography. METHODS: Single-photon emission computed tomography scans were acquired in 11 healthy individuals during either a resting state or meditation practice randomly performed on two separate days. Statistical parametric mapping analyses were conducted to identify significant changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between the two conditions. RESULTS: When the meditation state was compared with the baseline condition, significant rCBF increases were observed in the right temporal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus, and significant rCBF decreases were observed in the left parietotemporal and occipital gyri. CONCLUSION: The results offer evidence that this form of meditation practice is associated with changes in brain function in a way that is consistent with earlier studies of related types of meditation as well as with the positive clinical outcomes anecdotally reported by its users. Article Published Date : Nov 30, 2009

Autonomic changes during"OM"meditation.

Abstract Title: Autonomic changes during"OM"meditation. Abstract Source: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995 Oct ;39(4):418-20. PMID: 8582759 Abstract Author(s): S Telles, R Nagarathna, H R Nagendra Article Affiliation: S Telles Abstract: The autonomic and respiratory variables were studied in seven experienced meditators (with experience ranging from 5 to 20 years). Each subject was studied in two types of sessions--meditation (with a period of mental chanting of"OM") and control (with a period of non-targetted thinking). The meditators showed a statistically significant reduction in heart rate during meditation compared to the control period (paired 't' test). During both types of sessions there was a comparable increase in the cutaneous peripheral vascular resistance. Keeping in mind similar results of other authors, this was interpreted as a sign of increased mental alertness, even while being physiologically relaxed (as shown by the reduced heart rate). Article Published Date : Sep 30, 1995
Therapeutic Actions Mantra

NCBI pubmed

"Breaking the silence through MANTRA: Empowering Tamil MAN survivors of torture and rape.

"Breaking the silence through MANTRA: Empowering Tamil MAN survivors of torture and rape. Torture. 2018;28(3):14-29 Authors: Fernandes P, Yvette Aiello Y Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of sexual torture, including rape as a form of torture against men in the context of war and persecution, has been widespread throughout history and across cultures. Despite this, literature examining this highly complex and pervasive problem has only recently begun to emerge. This is partly a reflection of the taboo nature of the topic, which results in lack of disclosure, a poor understanding of the issue, and leads to gaps in effective therapeutic interventions. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to provide a reflective narrative on an intervention trialled at the NSW Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors (STARTTS). It outlines the therapeutic strategies that were integrated in culturally sensitive ways and the phases and themes that emerged as the men overcame their resistance to speak about their experiences of torture. RESULTS: The combination of group and individual therapy that integrates exposure therapy in a culturally appropriate way can assist clients to revisit their traumatic experiences and 'break their silence' as they heal and recover. CONCLUSIONS: When male survivors of sexual torture share and verbalise their past horrors it assists them to make meaning and develop a new, broader perspective, on their experiences. Accompanied by a diminishing sense of shame, and "therapeutic activism," it instils hope and the motivation to assist others in crisis, particularly regarding the issue of male rape. PMID: 30649839 [PubMed - in process]
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