Sulfated dehydropolymer of caffeic acid: In vitro anti-lung cell death activity and in vivo intervention in emphysema induced by VEGF receptor blockade.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Aug;45:181-190
Authors: Truong TM, Li H, Dhapare S, Desai UR, Voelkel NF, Sakagami M
Induced lung cell death and impaired hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling are proposed as a pathobiologic mechanism for alveolar structural destruction and loss in emphysema. We hypothesized that our sulfated dehydropolymer of caffeic acid, CDSO3, exerts anti-cell death activities and therapeutic interventions in emphysema by virtue of Fe2+ chelation-based HIF-1α/VEGF stabilization and elevation. The Fe2+ chelating activity was determined in the chromogenic ferrozine-Fe2+ chelation inhibitory assay. The in vitro anti-cell death activities and their Fe2+ and HIF-1α dependence were assessed against a range of emphysematous insults in the lung endothelial (HMVEC-L) and epithelial (A549) cells. CDSO3 was spray-dosed to the lung for three weeks (day 1-21) in an in vivo rat model of apoptotic emphysema induced with a VEGF receptor antagonist SU5416. Post-treatment treadmill exercise endurance
, airspace enlargement, and several lung biomarkers/proteins were measured. CDSO3 was a potent Fe2+ chelating molecule. At 10 μM, CDSO3 inhibited HMVEC-L and A549 cell death induced by histone deacetylase inhibition with trichostatin A, VEGF receptor blockade with SU5416, and cigarette smoke extract by 65-99%, which were all significantly opposed by addition of excess Fe2+ or HIF-1α inhibitors. As a potent elastase inhibitor and antioxidant, CDSO3 also inhibited elastase- and H2O2-induced cell death by 92 and 95%, respectively. In the rat model of SU5416-induced apoptotic emphysema, CDSO3 treatment at 60 μg/kg 1) produced 61-77% interventions against exercise endurance
impairment, airspace enlargement [mean linear intercept] and oxidative lung damage [malondialdehyde activity]; 2) normalized the apoptotic marker [cleaved caspase-3]; 3) stimulated the VEGF signaling [VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation] by 1.4-fold; and 4) elevated the HIF-1α and VEGF expression by 1.8- and 1.5-fold, respectively. All of these were consistent with CDSO3's Fe2+ chelation-based HIF-1α/VEGF stabilization and elevation against their pathobiologic deficiency, inhibiting lung cell death and development of apoptotic emphysema.
PMID: 28648907 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]