Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality.
J Food Sci. 2012 Jan ;77(1):M80-5. Epub 2011 Dec 2. PMID: 22132793
Sung Phil Kim, Mi Young Kang, Jun Cheol Park, Seok Hyun Nam, Mendel Friedman
Department of Molecular Science&Technology, Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
A previously characterized rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of RHSE was 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial activity of RHSE (1.0%, v/v) was also examined in a Salmonella-infected Balb/c mouse model. Mice infected with a sublethal dose of the pathogens were administered intraperitoneally a 1.0% solution of RHSE at four 12-h intervals during the 48-h experimental period. The results showed that RHSE inhibited bacterial growth by 59.4%, 51.4%, 39.6%, and 28.3% compared to 78.7%, 64.6%, 59.2%, and 43.2% inhibition with the medicinal antibiotic vancomycin (20 mg/mL). By contrast, 4 consecutive administrations at 12-h intervals elicited the most effective antibacterial effect of 75.0% and 85.5% growth reduction of the bacteria by RHSE and vancomycin, respectively. The combination of RHSE and vancomycin acted synergistically against the pathogen. The inclusion of RHSE (1.0% v/w) as part of a standard mouse diet fed for 2 wk decreased mortality of 10 mice infected with lethal doses of the Salmonella. Photomicrographs of histological changes in liver tissues show that RHSE also protected the liver against Salmonella-induced pathological necrosis lesions. These beneficial results suggest that the RHSE has the potential to complement wood-derived smokes as antimicrobial flavor formulations for application to human foods and animal feeds. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The new antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory rice hull derived liquid smoke has the potential to complement widely used wood-derived liquid smokes as an antimicrobial flavor and health-promoting formulation for application to foods.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2012
Validation of smoke inhalation therapy to treat microbial infections.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Oct 28;119(3):501-6. Epub 2008 Aug 19. PMID: 18778765
M Braithwaite, S F Van Vuuren, A M Viljoen
AIM OF THE STUDY: In traditional healing, the burning of selected indigenous medicinal plants and the inhalation of the liberated smoke are widely accepted and a practiced route of administration. This study elucidated the rationale behind this commonly practiced treatment by examining the antimicrobial activity for five indigenous South African medicinal plants commonly administered through inhalation (Artemisia afra, Heteropyxis natalensis, Myrothamnus flabellifolius, Pellaea calomelanos and Tarchonanthus camphoratus). MATERIAL AND METHODS: An apparatus was designed to simulate the burning process that occurs in a traditional setting and the smoke fraction was captured for analysis and bioassay. Methanol and acetone extracts as well as the essential oil (for the aromatic species) were prepared and assayed in parallel with the smoke fraction. RESULTS: Antimicrobial data revealed that in most cases, the 'smoke-extract' obtained after burning had lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values than the corresponding solvent extracts and essential oils. The combustion, acetone and methanol extracts produced different chromatographic profiles as demonstrated for Pellaea calomelanos where several compounds noted in the smoke fraction were not present in the other extracts. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the combustion process produces an 'extract' with superior antimicrobial activity and provides in vitro evidence for inhalation of medicinal smoke as an efficient mode of administration in traditional healing.
Article Published Date : Oct 28, 2008
Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Dec 3;114(3):446-51. Epub 2007 Aug 28. PMID: 17913417
Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Yeshwant Laxman Nene
This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space.
Article Published Date : Dec 03, 2007
J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 24;108(2):161-84. Epub 2006 Sep 9. PMID: 17030480
Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh, Pouya Faridi, Mohammadreza Shams-Ardakani, Younes Ghasemi
All through time, humans have used smoke of medicinal plants to cure illness. To the best of our knowledge, the ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care have not been studied. Mono- and multi-ingredient herbal and non-herbal remedies administered as smoke from 50 countries across the 5 continents are reviewed. Most of the 265 plant species of mono-ingredient remedies studied belong to Asteraceae (10.6%), followed by Solanaceae (10.2%), Fabaceae (9.8%) and Apiaceae (5.3%). The most frequent medical indications for medicinal smoke are pulmonary (23.5%), neurological (21.8%) and dermatological (8.1%). Other uses of smoke are not exactly medical but beneficial to health, and include smoke as a preservative or a repellent and the social use of smoke. The three main methods for administering smoke are inhalation, which accounts for 71.5% of the indications; smoke directed at a specific organ or body part, which accounts for 24.5%; ambient smoke (passive smoking), which makes up the remaining 4.0%. Whereas inhalation is typically used in the treatment of pulmonary and neurological disorders and directed smoke in localized situations, such as dermatological and genito-urinary disorders, ambient smoke is not directed at the body at all but used as an air purifier. The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about medicinal smoke and that a lot of natural products have potential for use as medicine in the smoke form. Furthermore, this review argues in favor of medicinal smoke extended use in modern medicine as a form of drug delivery and as a promising source of new active natural ingredients.
Article Published Date : Nov 24, 2006
Effects of Antioxidant Tempol on Systematic Inflammation and Endothelial Apoptosis in Emphysematous Rats Exposed to Intermittent Hypoxia.
Yonsei Med J. 2018 Nov;59(9):1079-1087
Authors: Zhao H, Zhao Y, Li X, Xu L, Jiang F, Hou W, Dong L, Cao J
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and their coexistence is known as overlap syndrome (OS). Endothelial dysfunction is the initial stage of CVD; however, underlying mechanisms linking OS and CVD are not well understood. The aim of this study was to explore whether OS can lead to more severe inflammation and endothelial apoptosis by promoting endothelial dysfunction, and to assess the intervention effects of antioxidant tempol.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=66) were exposed to normal oxygen [normal control (NC) group], intermittent hypoxia (IH group), cigarette smoke (CH group), as well as cigarette smoke and IH (OS group). Tempol intervention was assessed in OS group treated with tempol (OST group) or NaCl (OSN group). After an 8-week challenge, lung tissues, serum, and fresh blood were harvested for analysis of endothelial markers and apoptosis.
RESULTS: The levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and apoptosis in circulating epithelial cells were the highest in OS group and the lowest in NC group. These levels were all greater in IH group than in CH group, and were lower in OST group than in OS and OSN groups (all p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Synergistic effects of IH with cigarette smoke-induced emphysema produce a greater inflammatory status and endothelial apoptosis. OS-related inflammation and endothelial cell apoptosis may play important roles in promoting cardiovascular dysfunction, and antioxidant tempol could achieve a partial protective effect.
PMID: 30328323 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]