Therapeutic Actions Music

NCBI pubmed

White-matter structural connectivity predicts short-term melody and rhythm learning in non-musicians.

White-matter structural connectivity predicts short-term melody and rhythm learning in non-musicians. Neuroimage. 2018 Jun 18;: Authors: Vaquero L, Ramos-Escobar N, François C, Penhune V, Rodríguez-Fornells A Abstract Music learning has received increasing attention in the last decades due to the variety of functions and brain plasticity effects involved during its practice. Most previous reports interpreted the differences between music experts and laymen as the result of training. However, recent investigations suggest that these differences are due to a combination of genetic predispositions with the effect of music training. Here, we tested the relationship of the dorsal auditory-motor pathway with individual behavioural differences in short-term music learning. We gathered structural neuroimaging data from 44 healthy non-musicians (28 females) before they performed a rhythm- and a melody-learning task during a single behavioural session, and manually dissected the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in both hemispheres. The macro- and microstructural organization of the AF (i.e., volume and FA) predicted the learning rate and learning speed in the musical tasks, but only in the right hemisphere. Specifically, the volume of the right anterior segment predicted the synchronization improvement during the rhythm task, the FA in the right long segment was correlated with the learning rate in the melody task, and the volume and FA of the right whole AF predicted the learning speed during the melody task. This is the first study finding a specific relation between different branches within the AF and rhythmic and melodic materials. Our results support the relevant function of the AF as the structural correlate of both auditory-motor transformations and the feedback-feedforward loop, and suggest a crucial involvement of the anterior segment in error-monitoring processes related to auditory-motor learning. These findings have implications for both the neuroscience of music field and second-language learning investigations. PMID: 29929006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Influence of Moving with Music on Motor Cortical Activity.

The Influence of Moving with Music on Motor Cortical Activity. Neurosci Lett. 2018 Jun 18;: Authors: Stegemöller EL, Izbicki P, Hibbing P Abstract Although there is a growing interest in using music to improve movement performance in various populations, there remains a need to better understand how music influences motor cortical activity. Listening to music is tightly linked to neural processes within the motor cortex and can modulate motor cortical activity in healthy young adult (HYAs). There is limited evidence regarding how moving to music modulates motor cortical activity. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of moving to music on motor cortical activity in HYAs. Electroencephalography was collected while 32 HYAs tapped their index finger in time with a tone and with two contrasting music styles. Two movement rates were presented for each condition. Power spectra were obtained from data collected over the primary sensorimotor region and supplemental motor area and were compared between conditions. Results revealed a significant difference between both music conditions and the tone only condition for both the regions. For both music styles, power was increased in the beta band for low movement rates and increased in the alpha band for high movement rates. A secondary analysis determining the effect of music experience on motor cortical activity revealed a significant difference between musicians and non-musicians. Power in the beta band was increased across all conditions. The results of this study provide the initial step towards a more complete understanding of the neurophysiological underpinnings of music on movement performance which may inform future studies and therapeutic strategies. PMID: 29928952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evaluation of Electroencephalogram Signals of the Professional Pianists during Iconic Memory and Working Memory Tests Using Spectral Coherence.

Evaluation of Electroencephalogram Signals of the Professional Pianists during Iconic Memory and Working Memory Tests Using Spectral Coherence. J Med Signals Sens. 2018 Apr-Jun;8(2):87-94 Authors: Boutorabi SY, Sheikhani A Abstract Background: Today, the neuroscience has growth in many aspects, and the effects of different factors on memory obtained many achievements. Several scientific and experimental studies evaluated effects of music on style and behavior of people; in this study, we evaluated memory between two groups of people, the professional pianists and normal people, through processing their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals using the coherence measure. Methods: In this study, EEG signals from 17 subjects during two memory tasks were recorded. After that, these signals were preprocessed, and spectral coherence connectivity measure between pair of electrodes was computed and then compared in the five frequency bands using independent t-test. Results: This statistical analysis for working memory task showed significant differences in the temporal, central, and parietal lobes, especially in P7, P3, Pz, T8, C3, and C4 electrodes. As we know, these differences are related to learned skills and activities, words and sounds perception, and memory. Furthermore, for iconic memory task, significant differences were observed in the right hemisphere of these two groups. Conclusions: From this task, we can say professional pianists are different from normal people in the perception of images and creativity. Results of this study show the effects of music on human brain and memory. PMID: 29928633 [PubMed]

Does the Electrodermal System "Take Sides" When It Comes to Emotions?

Related Articles Does the Electrodermal System "Take Sides" When It Comes to Emotions? Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2018 Jun 20;: Authors: Kasos K, Zimonyi S, Kasos E, Lifshitz A, Varga K, Szekely A Abstract Traditionally, electrodermal research measurements were taken from the non-dominant hand. This was considered a valid measurement of arousal for the whole body. Some, however argue for a complex and asynchronous electrodermal system in terms of lateral and dermatome differences in emotional responding. The present study measured skin conductance responses to emotionally laden musical stimuli from the left and right index and middle fingers, as well as the left and right plantar surface of right handed participants (N = 39). The 7-s musical segments conveyed four emotional categories: fear, sadness, happiness and peacefulness. Our results suggest, that the electrodermal system responds to emotional musical stimuli in a lateralized manner on the palmar surfaces. Fear, sadness and peacefulness prompted right hand dominance while happiness elicited left hand dominant response. Lateralization of the palmar and plantar surfaces differed significantly. Moreover, an association between lateralization of the electrodermal system in response to fear and state anxiety was found. Results of the present study suggest that the electrodermal system displays lateral preferences, reacting with varying degree of intensity to different emotions. Apart from lateral differences, music induced emotions show dermatome differences as well. These findings fit well with Multiple Arousal Theory, and prompt for revaluating the notion of uniform electrodermal arousal. PMID: 29926237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Perceived driving safety and estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) the morning after drinking amongst young Australians attending a music festival: a cross-sectional survey.

Related Articles Perceived driving safety and estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) the morning after drinking amongst young Australians attending a music festival: a cross-sectional survey. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2018 Jun 20;13(1):25 Authors: Fernando M, Buckland J, Melwani P, Tent V, Preston P, Pit SW Abstract BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes remain a significant and costly public health issue globally. Particularly young people are over-represented in these incidents. This study set out to explore the factors that influence individuals' perceptions of their safety to drive, and the factors related to a change in intention to drive. METHODS: Four hundred nine young people aged 18-40 attending an Australian multi-day music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, alcohol use, amount of sleep obtained the previous night, intention to drive, number of passengers, perceived safety to drive, estimated BAC (measured in g/210 L) and change in intention to drive following a BAC measurement via breathalysers. Statistical analyses involved univariate tests of association and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Only one in five participants felt they were completely safe to drive. Males self-rated as less safe to drive than females. Multivariate analyses showed that licence class, sleep hours, units of alcohol consumed in the past 24 h and estimated BAC had statistically significant associations with driving safety perception. Participants who slept for greater than seven hours the previous night were three times more likely to feel safe to drive than those who had less than five hours of sleep (OR 3.05 (95% CI 1.25, 7.45)). Forty-one percent of participants changed their intended time of driving after having their BAC measured with a breathalyser. There was a statistically significant association between changing the intention to drive to a later time with an increase in each extra passenger in a participant's vehicle (OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.02, 2.30)). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst concerning behaviours relating to high-risk alcohol consumption were found, the study uncovered promising findings about young peoples' perceptions of their safety to drive, and their propensity to change their driving intention. The strong correlation between hours of sleep, estimated BAC, units of alcohol consumed and license class with perception of driving safety suggests an increased awareness among young people and promotion of these factors may potentially improve actual driver safety. The influence of number of passengers on intention to drive later is another important consideration for future road safety research or promotion. PMID: 29925403 [PubMed - in process]

Facing the Unfaceable.

Related Articles Facing the Unfaceable. Clin Nurse Spec. 2018 May/Jun;32(3):163-164 Authors: Young-Mason J PMID: 29621111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Of violins, values, and the clinical vascular surgeon.

Related Articles Of violins, values, and the clinical vascular surgeon. J Vasc Surg. 2017 10;66(4):971-981 Authors: Bower TC PMID: 28942865 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]