Therapeutic Actions Music

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Naturalistic music and dance: Cortical phase synchrony in musicians and dancers.

Related Articles Naturalistic music and dance: Cortical phase synchrony in musicians and dancers. PLoS One. 2018;13(4):e0196065 Authors: Poikonen H, Toiviainen P, Tervaniemi M Abstract Expertise in music has been investigated for decades and the results have been applied not only in composition, performance and music education, but also in understanding brain plasticity in a larger context. Several studies have revealed a strong connection between auditory and motor processes and listening to and performing music, and music imagination. Recently, as a logical next step in music and movement, the cognitive and affective neurosciences have been directed towards expertise in dance. To understand the versatile and overlapping processes during artistic stimuli, such as music and dance, it is necessary to study them with continuous naturalistic stimuli. Thus, we used long excerpts from the contemporary dance piece Carmen presented with and without music to professional dancers, musicians, and laymen in an EEG laboratory. We were interested in the cortical phase synchrony within each participant group over several frequency bands during uni- and multimodal processing. Dancers had strengthened theta and gamma synchrony during music relative to silence and silent dance, whereas the presence of music decreased systematically the alpha and beta synchrony in musicians. Laymen were the only group of participants with significant results related to dance. Future studies are required to understand whether these results are related to some other factor (such as familiarity to the stimuli), or if our results reveal a new point of view to dance observation and expertise. PMID: 29672597 [PubMed - in process]

Are Atypical Things More Popular?

Related Articles Are Atypical Things More Popular? Psychol Sci. 2018 Apr 01;:956797618759465 Authors: Berger J, Packard G Abstract Why do some cultural items become popular? Although some researchers have argued that success is random, we suggest that how similar items are to each other plays an important role. Using natural language processing of thousands of songs, we examined the relationship between lyrical differentiation (i.e., atypicality) and song popularity. Results indicated that the more different a song's lyrics are from its genre, the more popular it becomes. This relationship is weaker in genres where lyrics matter less (e.g., dance) or where differentiation matters less (e.g., pop) and occurs for lyrical topics but not style. The results shed light on cultural dynamics, why things become popular, and the psychological foundations of culture more broadly. PMID: 29671695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: working memory and inhibitory control.

Related Articles Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: working memory and inhibitory control. Cogn Res Princ Implic. 2018;3(1):11 Authors: D'Souza AA, Moradzadeh L, Wiseheart M Abstract The current study investigated whether long-term experience in music or a second language is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning. Early studies suggested the possibility of a cognitive advantage from musical training and bilingualism but have failed to be replicated by recent findings. Further, each form of expertise has been independently investigated leaving it unclear whether any benefits are specifically caused by each skill or are a result of skill learning in general. To assess whether cognitive benefits from training exist, and how unique they are to each training domain, the current study compared musicians and bilinguals to each other, plus to individuals who had expertise in both skills, or neither. Young adults (n = 153) were categorized into one of four groups: monolingual musician; bilingual musician; bilingual non-musician; and monolingual non-musician. Multiple tasks per cognitive ability were used to examine the coherency of any training effects. Results revealed that musically trained individuals, but not bilinguals, had enhanced working memory. Neither skill had enhanced inhibitory control. The findings confirm previous associations between musicians and improved cognition and extend existing evidence to show that benefits are narrower than expected but can be uniquely attributed to music compared to another specialized auditory skill domain. The null bilingual effect despite a music effect in the same group of individuals challenges the proposition that young adults are at a performance ceiling and adds to increasing evidence on the lack of a bilingual advantage on cognition. PMID: 29670934 [PubMed]

Computational Approach to Musical Consonance and Dissonance.

Related Articles Computational Approach to Musical Consonance and Dissonance. Front Psychol. 2018;9:381 Authors: Trulla LL, Di Stefano N, Giuliani A Abstract In sixth century BC, Pythagoras discovered the mathematical foundation of musical consonance and dissonance. When auditory frequencies in small-integer ratios are combined, the result is a harmonious perception. In contrast, most frequency combinations result in audible, off-centered by-products labeled "beating" or "roughness;" these are reported by most listeners to sound dissonant. In this paper, we consider second-order beats, a kind of beating recognized as a product of neural processing, and demonstrate that the data-driven approach of Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) allows for the reconstruction of the order in which interval ratios are ranked in music theory and harmony. We take advantage of computer-generated sounds containing all intervals over the span of an octave. To visualize second-order beats, we use a glissando from the unison to the octave. This procedure produces a profile of recurrence values that correspond to subsequent epochs along the original signal. We find that the higher recurrence peaks exactly match the epochs corresponding to just intonation frequency ratios. This result indicates a link between consonance and the dynamical features of the signal. Our findings integrate a new element into the existing theoretical models of consonance, thus providing a computational account of consonance in terms of dynamical systems theory. Finally, as it considers general features of acoustic signals, the present approach demonstrates a universal aspect of consonance and dissonance perception and provides a simple mathematical tool that could serve as a common framework for further neuro-psychological and music theory research. PMID: 29670552 [PubMed]

"The Two Brothers": Reconciling Perceptual-Cognitive and Statistical Models of Musical Evolution.

Related Articles "The Two Brothers": Reconciling Perceptual-Cognitive and Statistical Models of Musical Evolution. Front Psychol. 2018;9:344 Authors: Jan S Abstract While the "units, events and dynamics" of memetic evolution have been abstractly theorized (Lynch, 1998), they have not been applied systematically to real corpora in music. Some researchers, convinced of the validity of cultural evolution in more than the metaphorical sense adopted by much musicology, but perhaps skeptical of some or all of the claims of memetics, have attempted statistically based corpus-analysis techniques of music drawn from molecular biology, and these have offered strong evidence in favor of system-level change over time (Savage, 2017). This article argues that such statistical approaches, while illuminating, ignore the psychological realities of music-information grouping, the transmission of such groups with varying degrees of fidelity, their selection according to relative perceptual-cognitive salience, and the power of this Darwinian process to drive the systemic changes (such as the development over time of systems of tonal organization in music) that statistical methodologies measure. It asserts that a synthesis between such statistical approaches to the study of music-cultural change and the theory of memetics as applied to music (Jan, 2007), in particular the latter's perceptual-cognitive elements, would harness the strengths of each approach and deepen understanding of cultural evolution in music. PMID: 29670551 [PubMed]

Overcoming Bias: Cognitive Control Reduces Susceptibility to Framing Effects in Evaluating Musical Performance.

Related Articles Overcoming Bias: Cognitive Control Reduces Susceptibility to Framing Effects in Evaluating Musical Performance. Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 18;8(1):6229 Authors: Aydogan G, Flaig N, Ravi SN, Large EW, McClure SM, Margulis EH Abstract Prior expectations can bias evaluative judgments of sensory information. We show that information about a performer's status can bias the evaluation of musical stimuli, reflected by differential activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Moreover, we demonstrate that decreased susceptibility to this confirmation bias is (a) accompanied by the recruitment of and (b) correlated with the white-matter structure of the executive control network, particularly related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). By using long-duration musical stimuli, we were able to track the initial biasing, subsequent perception, and ultimate evaluation of the stimuli, examining the full evolution of these biases over time. Our findings confirm the persistence of confirmation bias effects even when ample opportunity exists to gather information about true stimulus quality, and underline the importance of executive control in reducing bias. PMID: 29670143 [PubMed - in process]

Intentional music use to reduce psychological distress in adolescents accessing primary mental health care.

Related Articles Intentional music use to reduce psychological distress in adolescents accessing primary mental health care. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018 Apr 01;:1359104518767231 Authors: McFerran KS, Hense C, Koike A, Rickwood D Abstract RATIONALE: Many young people turn to music as a way of exploring and managing their moods and emotions. The literature is replete with studies that correlate music preferences and mental health, as well as a small but increasing interest in uses of music to promote well-being. Recent studies have shown that music use is often unconscious, thus difficult to influence without therapeutic conversations. No study has yet tested whether it is feasible to increase awareness of music use in young people who tend to ruminate with music, and test whether increased awareness can reduce distress. DESIGN: This feasibility study aimed to determine whether involvement in a brief music-based intervention was engaging and acceptable to a small sample of young people, and whether their levels of distress decreased and insight into music uses increased. A mixed methods approach was adopted, merging scores of distress and self-reported experience of the intervention to foster interpretation. RESULTS: Convergent analysis of the different data forms suggests that at least some of the measurable decreases in distress captured for all of the participants were related to participation in the sessions, according to the self-report of a number of the young people in interviews. This is demonstrated through descriptive data compiled under two key themes (Agency and Changed Uses) and illustrated through three case examples that were drawn largely from the words of the young people. CONCLUSION: This feasibility study suggests that young people's relationship with music provides a powerful platform for leveraging engagement in services and improvements in distress, when well timed and carefully scaffolded. PMID: 29669441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Reducing Opioid Use for Patients With Chronic Pain: An Evidence-Based Perspective.

Related Articles Reducing Opioid Use for Patients With Chronic Pain: An Evidence-Based Perspective. Phys Ther. 2018 May 01;98(5):424-433 Authors: Wenger S, Drott J, Fillipo R, Findlay A, Genung A, Heiden J, Bradt J Abstract The implementation of recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations to move away from opioids and toward nonpharmacological therapies for the treatment of chronic pain could involve a difficult transition period for patients and practitioners. The focus of treatment should shift from eliminating pain completely to minimizing the impact of pain on quality of life. Many patients with chronic pain take opioids either because opioids were previously prescribed as a first-line treatment for chronic pain, on the basis of old standards of care, or because opioids were initially prescribed for acute pain. Patients currently taking opioids will need a tapering period during which they transition their pain management to interdisciplinary care and nonpharmacological treatments. To provide useful treatment options, physical therapists need to have a good understanding of the neuroscientific mechanisms of chronic pain, biopsychosocial components of chronic pain management, issues related to opioid use, and pain management strategies used by other health care professionals. Armed with knowledge and good communication skills, physical therapists can work within an interdisciplinary team to adapt care to each patient's needs and abilities. This perspective article provides guidance for physical therapists to effectively treat patients with chronic pain during the opioid tapering process. A framework has been created to help health care providers structure their reasoning as they collaborate to develop a unique approach for each patient. PMID: 29669085 [PubMed - in process]

The effects of mothers' musical background on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and exercise adherence in their 5-6-years-old children using movement-to-music video program.

Related Articles The effects of mothers' musical background on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and exercise adherence in their 5-6-years-old children using movement-to-music video program. PLoS One. 2018;13(4):e0195837 Authors: Tuominen PPA, Raitanen J, Husu P, Kujala UM, Luoto RM Abstract OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether mothers' musical background has an effect on their own and their children's sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA). The aim was also to assess children's and their mothers' exercise adherence when using movement-to-music video program. DESIGN: Sub-group analysis of an intervention group in a randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN33885819). METHOD: Seventy-one mother-child-pairs were divided into two categories based on mothers' musical background. Each pair performed 8 weeks exercise intervention using movement-to-music video program. SB and PA were assessed objectively by accelerometer, and exercise activity, fidelity, and enjoyment were assessed via exercise diaries and questionnaires. Logistic regression model was used to analyze associations in the main outcomes between the groups. RESULTS: Those children whose mothers had musical background (MB) had greater probability to increase their light PA during the intervention, but not moderate-to-vigorous PA compared to those children whose mothers did not have musical background (NMB). SB increased in both groups. Mothers in the NMB group had greater probability to increase their light and moderate-to-vigorous PA and decrease their SB than mothers in the MB group. However, exercise adherence decreased considerably in all groups. Completeness, fidelity, and enjoyment were higher among the NMB group compared to the MB group. CONCLUSIONS: The present results showed that mothers without musical background were more interested in movement-to-music exercises, as well as their children. For further studies it would be important to evaluate an effect of children's own music-based activities on their SB and PA. PMID: 29668726 [PubMed - in process]

The Temporal Prediction of Stress in Speech and Its Relation to Musical Beat Perception.

Related Articles The Temporal Prediction of Stress in Speech and Its Relation to Musical Beat Perception. Front Psychol. 2018;9:431 Authors: Beier EJ, Ferreira F Abstract While rhythmic expectancies are thought to be at the base of beat perception in music, the extent to which stress patterns in speech are similarly represented and predicted during on-line language comprehension is debated. The temporal prediction of stress may be advantageous to speech processing, as stress patterns aid segmentation and mark new information in utterances. However, while linguistic stress patterns may be organized into hierarchical metrical structures similarly to musical meter, they do not typically present the same degree of periodicity. We review the theoretical background for the idea that stress patterns are predicted and address the following questions: First, what is the evidence that listeners can predict the temporal location of stress based on preceding rhythm? If they can, is it thanks to neural entrainment mechanisms similar to those utilized for musical beat perception? And lastly, what linguistic factors other than rhythm may account for the prediction of stress in natural speech? We conclude that while expectancies based on the periodic presentation of stresses are at play in some of the current literature, other processes are likely to affect the prediction of stress in more naturalistic, less isochronous speech. Specifically, aspects of prosody other than amplitude changes (e.g., intonation) as well as lexical, syntactic and information structural constraints on the realization of stress may all contribute to the probabilistic expectation of stress in speech. PMID: 29666600 [PubMed]

Extensive T cell cross-reactivity between diverse seasonal influenza strains in the ferret model.

Related Articles Extensive T cell cross-reactivity between diverse seasonal influenza strains in the ferret model. Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 17;8(1):6112 Authors: Reber AJ, Music N, Kim JH, Gansebom S, Chen J, York I Abstract Influenza virus causes widespread, yearly epidemics by accumulating surface protein mutations to escape neutralizing antibodies established from prior exposure. In contrast to antibody epitopes, T cell mediated immunity targets influenza epitopes that are more highly conserved and have potential for cross-protection. The extent of T cell cross-reactivity between a diverse array of contemporary and historical influenza strains was investigated in ferrets challenged with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza or the seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Perth/16/2009. Post-challenge cell-mediated immune responses demonstrated extensive cross-reactivity with a wide variety of contemporary and historical influenza A strains as well as influenza B. Responses in peripheral blood were undetectable by 36d post-challenge, but cross-reactivity persisted in spleen. The strongest responses targeted peptides from the NP protein and demonstrated cross-reactivity in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations. Cross-reactive CD4+ T cells also targeted HA and NA epitopes, while cross-reactive CD8+ T cells targeted internal M1, NS2, and PA. T cell epitopes demonstrated extensive cross-reactivity between diverse influenza strains in outbred animals, with NP implicated as a significant antigenic target demonstrating extensive cross-reactivity for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. PMID: 29666412 [PubMed - in process]

Meta-analysis evaluating music interventions for anxiety and pain in surgery.

Related Articles Meta-analysis evaluating music interventions for anxiety and pain in surgery. Br J Surg. 2018 Apr 17;: Authors: Kühlmann AYR, de Rooij A, Kroese LF, van Dijk M, Hunink MGM, Jeekel J Abstract BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate anxiety and pain following perioperative music interventions compared with control conditions in adult patients. METHODS: Eleven electronic databases were searched for full-text publications of RCTs investigating the effect of music interventions on anxiety and pain during invasive surgery published between 1 January 1980 and 20 October 2016. Results and data were double-screened and extracted independently. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate effect sizes as standardized mean differences (MDs). Heterogeneity was investigated in subgroup analyses and metaregression analyses. The review was registered in the PROSPERO database as CRD42016024921. RESULTS: Ninety-two RCTs (7385 patients) were included in the systematic review, of which 81 were included in the meta-analysis. Music interventions significantly decreased anxiety (MD -0·69, 95 per cent c.i. -0·88 to -0·50; P < ·001) and pain (MD -0·50, -0·66 to -0·34; P < ·001) compared with controls, equivalent to a decrease of 21 mm for anxiety and 10 mm for pain on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Changes in outcome corrected for baseline were even larger: MD -1·41 (-1·89 to -0·94; P < ·001) for anxiety and -0·54 (-0·93 to -0·15; P = ·006) for pain. Music interventions provided during general anaesthesia significantly decreased pain compared with that in controls (MD -0·41, -0·64 to -0·18; P < ·001). Metaregression analysis found no significant association between the effect of music interventions and age, sex, choice and timing of music, and type of anaesthesia. Risk of bias in the studies was moderate to high. CONCLUSION: Music interventions significantly reduce anxiety and pain in adult surgical patients. PMID: 29665028 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Signaling Games and the Evolution of Structure in Language and Music: A Reply to Ravignani and Verhoef (2018) ‡.

Related Articles Signaling Games and the Evolution of Structure in Language and Music: A Reply to Ravignani and Verhoef (2018) ‡. Artif Life. 2018 Apr 17;:154-156 Authors: Lumaca M, Baggio G Abstract In their commentary on our work, Ravignani and Verhoef (2018) raise concerns about two methodological aspects of our experimental paradigm (the signaling game): (1) the use of melodic signals of fixed length and duration, and (2) the fact that signals are endowed with meaning. They argue that music is hardly a semantic system and that our methodological choices may limit the capacity of our paradigm to shed light on the emergence and evolution of a number of putative musical universals. We reply that musical systems are semantic systems and that the aim of our research is not to study musical universals as such, but to compare more closely the kinds of principles that organize meaning and structure in linguistic and musical systems. PMID: 29664349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Which Melodic Universals Emerge from Repeated Signaling Games? A Note on Lumaca and Baggio (2017) ‡.

Related Articles Which Melodic Universals Emerge from Repeated Signaling Games? A Note on Lumaca and Baggio (2017) ‡. Artif Life. 2018 Apr 17;:149-153 Authors: Ravignani A, Verhoef T Abstract Music is a peculiar human behavior. While very common in our species, we still know very little as to why and how music emerged. For centuries, the study of music has been the sole prerogative of the humanities. Lately, however, music is being increasingly investigated by psychologists, neuroscientists, biologists, and computer scientists. One possible approach to study the origins of music is to hypothesize and empirically test the mechanisms behind this structured behavior. Recent experiments in the lab have shown how musical rhythm and melody can emerge via the process of cultural transmission. In particular, recent work published in Artificial Life, tested the emergence of a sound system at the boundary between music and language. In this study, participants were given random pairs of signal-meanings; when participants negotiated their meaning and played a 'game of telephone' with them, these pairs became more structured and systematic. Over time, the small biases introduced in each artificial transmission step accumulated, displaying quantitative trends. In particular, the authors found the emergence, over the course of artificial human generations, of features resembling some properties of language and music. In this Note, we highlight the importance of this recent experiment. We also place it in the broader literature on the evolution of language and music, suggesting refinements for future experiments. We conclude that, while psychological evidence for the emergence of proto-musical features is accumulating, complementary work is needed: Mathematical modeling and computer simulations should be used to test the internal consistency of experimentally generated hypotheses and to make new predictions. PMID: 29664347 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Linguistic validation, validity and reliability of the British English versions of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and QuickDASH in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

Related Articles Linguistic validation, validity and reliability of the British English versions of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and QuickDASH in people with rheumatoid arthritis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018 Apr 16;19(1):118 Authors: Hammond A, Prior Y, Tyson S Abstract BACKGROUND: Although the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is widely used in the UK, no British English version is available. The aim of this study was to linguistically validate the DASH into British English and then test the reliability and validity of the British English DASH, (including the Work and Sport/Music DASH) and QuickDASH, in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The DASH was forward translated, reviewed by an expert panel and cognitive debriefing interviews undertaken with 31 people with RA. Content validity was evaluated using the ICF Core Set for RA. Participants with RA (n = 340) then completed the DASH, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Short Form Health Survey v2 (SF36v2) and Measure of Activity Performance of the Hand (MAPHAND). We examined internal consistency and concurrent validity for the DASH, Work and Sport/Music DASH modules and QuickDASH. Participants repeated the DASH to assess test-retest reliability. RESULTS: Minor wording changes were made as required. The DASH addresses a quarter of Body Function and half of Activities and Participation codes in the ICF RA Core Set. Internal consistency for DASH scales were consistent with individual use (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94-0.98). Concurrent validity was strong with the HAQ (rs = 0.69-0.91), SF36v2 Physical Function (rs = - 0.71 - - 0.85), Bodily Pain (rs = - 0.71 - - 0.74) scales and MAPHAND (rs = 0.71-0.93). Test-retest reliability was good (rs = 0.74-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: British English versions of the DASH, QuickDASH and Work and Sport/Music modules are now available to evaluate upper limb disabilities in the UK. The DASH, QuickDASH, Work and Sport/Music modules are reliable and valid to use in clinical practice and research with British people with RA. PMID: 29661183 [PubMed - in process]

Personality Modulates the Efficacy of Art Intervention on Chronic Pain in a Population of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

Related Articles Personality Modulates the Efficacy of Art Intervention on Chronic Pain in a Population of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018 Apr 11;: Authors: Rouch I, Pongan E, Leveque Y, Tillmann B, Trombert B, Getenet JC, Auguste N, Krolak-Salmon P, LACMé group, Laurent B, Dorey JM Abstract BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) mainly occurs in elderly individuals. Comorbidities and chronic pain are frequent in this population. Previous studies revealed that personality modulates both chronic pain (CP) andADoccurrence and evolution. Moreover, as pain treatments can induce side-effects, non-drugs treatments, such as art interventions, are interesting alternative therapies for decreasing CP in these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the potential role of personality traits on art intervention efficacy for reducing CP in a population of patients with mild AD. METHODS: Design: multicenter randomized controlled trial. Fifty mild AD patients underwent a 12-week art intervention including singing and painting groups. Personality was assessed with the Big Five Inventory before the sessions. CP was measured with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) [Usual pain (NRS-U) and most Intense pain (NRS-I)], Simple Visual Scale [Usual pain (SVS-U) and most Intense pain (SVS-I)] and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) before and after the sessions. The influence of personality traits on CP evolution before and after art intervention was assessed with multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: A positive association was observed between neuroticism and the evolution of three CP measures including NRS-U (B = 0.34, p = 0.01), SVS-U (B = 0.20, p = 0.04), and BPI-U (B = 0.46, p = 0.02) evolution. No significant relationship was observed between neuroticism and NRS-I, SVS-I and BPI-R evolution. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that neuroticism can decrease the efficacy of group art intervention on pain in patients with mild AD. Individual therapies could be more appropriate for these patients. These results emphasize the interest of taking into account patients' personality before proposing them to participate to a group therapy. PMID: 29660937 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

Related Articles Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2018 Mar 30;: Authors: Cokorilo N, Mikalacki M, Satara G, Cvetkovic M, Marinkovic D, Zvekic-Svorcan J, Obradovic B Abstract BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. METHODS: A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. RESULTS: A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. CONCLUSION: The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health. PMID: 29660897 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Feasibility and relevance of compound strain imaging in non-stenotic arteries: comparison between individuals with cardiovascular diseases and healthy controls.

Related Articles Feasibility and relevance of compound strain imaging in non-stenotic arteries: comparison between individuals with cardiovascular diseases and healthy controls. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2017 May 18;15(1):13 Authors: Maessen MFH, Eijsvogels TMH, Grotens A, Hopman MTE, Thijssen DHJ, Hansen HHG Abstract BACKGROUND: Compound strain imaging is a novel method to noninvasively evaluate arterial wall deformation which has recently shown to enable differentiation between fibrous and (fibro-)atheromatous plaques in patients with severe stenosis. We tested the hypothesis that compound strain imaging is feasible in non-stenotic arteries and provides incremental discriminative power to traditional measures of vascular health (i.e., distensibility coefficient (DC), central pulse wave velocity [cPWV], and intima-media thickness [IMT]) for differentiating between participants with and without a history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). METHODS: Seventy two participants (60 ± 7 years) with non-stenotic arteries (IMT < 1.1 mm) were categorized in healthy participants (CON, n = 36) and CVD patients (n = 36) based on CVD history. Participants underwent standardised ultrasound-based assessment (DC, cPWV, and IMT) and compound strain imaging (radial [RS] and circumferential [CS] strain) in left common carotid artery. Area under receiver operating characteristics (AROC)-curve was used to determine the discriminatory power between CVD and CON of the various measures. RESULTS: CON had a significantly (P < 0.05) smaller carotid IMT (0.68 [0.58 to 0.76] mm) than CVD patients (0.76 [0.68 to 0.80] mm). DC, cPWV, RS, and CS did not significantly differ between groups (P > 0.05). A higher CS or RS was associated with a higher DC (CS: r = -0.32;p < 0.05 and RS: r = 0.24;p < 0.05) and lower cPWV (CS: r = 0.24;p < 0.05 and RS: r = -0.25;p < 0.05). IMT could identify CVD (AROC: 0.66, 95%-CI: 0.53 to 0.79), whilst the other measurements, alone or in combination, did not significantly increase the discriminatory power compared to IMT. CONCLUSIONS: In non-stenotic arteries, compound strain imaging is feasible, but does not seem to provide incremental discriminative power to traditional measures of vascular health for differentiation between individuals with and without a history of CVD. PMID: 28521772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Challenges of Using Self-Report Measures with People with Severe Mental Illness: Four Participants' Experiences of the Research Process.

Related Articles The Challenges of Using Self-Report Measures with People with Severe Mental Illness: Four Participants' Experiences of the Research Process. Community Ment Health J. 2017 08;53(6):747-754 Authors: Bibb J, McFerran KS Abstract This study aimed to explore four mental health consumers' experiences of completing self-report outcome measures in a research project. Participants were recruited from a community mental health organisation in Melbourne and were interviewed upon completion of a mixed methods research study where they were asked to complete a series of self-report outcome measures. Descriptive phenomenological micro-analysis was used to analyse interview data and is presented along with the researchers' observations during the data collection process. Results revealed that participants found the outcome measures cognitively challenging and the language used in the measures did not support the empowering intentions of mental health recovery. The authors suggest that the value of completing surveys for people with severe mental illness needs to be carefully considered so that the research process does not diminish other benefits of participation. PMID: 28293800 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]