Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Ph Modulation - Acidification

Acid pH in tumors and its potential for therapeutic exploitation. 📎

Abstract Title: Acid pH in tumors and its potential for therapeutic exploitation. Abstract Source: Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2009 Jul;29(7):639-41. PMID: 2545340 Abstract Author(s): I F Tannock, D Rotin Article Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Canada. Abstract: Measurement of pH in tissue has shown that the microenvironment in tumors is generally more acidic than in normal tissues. Major mechanisms which lead to tumor acidity probably include the production of lactic acid and hydrolysis of ATP in hypoxic regions of tumors. Further reduction in pH may be achieved in some tumors by administration of glucose (+/- insulin) and by drugs such as hydralazine which modify the relative blood flow to tumors and normal tissues. Cells have evolved mechanisms for regulating their intracellular pH. The amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiport and the DIDS-sensitive Na+-dependent HCO3-/Cl- exchanger appear to be the major mechanisms for regulating pHi under conditions of acid loading, although additional mechanisms may contribute to acid extrusion. Mitogen-induced initiation of proliferation in some cells is preceded by cytoplasmic alkalinization, usually triggered by stimulation of Na+/H+ exchange; proliferation of other cells can be induced without prior alkalinization. Mutant cells which lack Na+/H+ exchange activity have reduced or absent ability to generate solid tumors; a plausible explanation is the failure of such mutant cells to withstand acidic conditions that are generated during tumor growth. Studies in tissue culture have demonstrated that the combination of hypoxia and acid pHe is toxic to mammalian cells, whereas short exposures to either factor alone are not very toxic. This interaction may contribute to cell death and necrosis in solid tumors. Acidic pH may influence the outcome of tumor therapy. There are rather small effects of pHe on the response of cells to ionizing radiation but acute exposure to acid pHe causes a marked increase in response to hyperthermia; this effect is decreased in cells that are adapted to low pHe. Acidity may have varying effects on the response of cells to conventional anticancer drugs. Ionophores such as nigericin or CCCP cause acid loading of cells in culture and are toxic only at low pHc; this toxicity is enhanced by agents such as amiloride or DIDS which impair mechanisms involved in regulation of pHi. It is suggested that acid conditions in tumors might allow the development of new and relatively specific types of therapy which are directed against mechanisms which regulate pHi under acid conditions. Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2009
Therapeutic Actions Ph Modulation - Acidification

NCBI pubmed

Impacts of the combined exposure to seawater acidification and arsenic on the proteome of Crassostrea angulata and Crassostrea gigas.

Related Articles Impacts of the combined exposure to seawater acidification and arsenic on the proteome of Crassostrea angulata and Crassostrea gigas. Aquat Toxicol. 2018 Jul 30;203:117-129 Authors: Moreira A, Figueira E, Mestre NC, Schrama D, Soares AMVM, Freitas R, Bebianno MJ Abstract Proteomic analysis was performed to compare the effects of Arsenic (As), seawater acidification (Low pH) and the combination of both stressors (Low pH + As) on Crassostrea angulata and Crassostrea gigas juveniles in the context of global environmental change. This study aimed to elucidate if two closely related Crassostrea species respond similarly to these environmental stressors, considering both single and combined exposures, to infer if the simultaneous exposure to both stressors induced a differentiated response. Identification of the most important differentially expressed proteins between conditions revealed marked differences in the response of each species towards single and combined exposures, evidencing species-related differences towards each experimental condition. Moreover, protein alterations observed in the combined exposure (Low pH + As) were substantially different from those observed in single exposures. Identified proteins and their putative biological functions revealed an array of modes of action in each condition. Among the most important, those involved in cellular structure (Actin, Atlastin, Severin, Gelsolin, Coronin) and extracellular matrix modulation (Ependymin, Tight junction ZO-1, Neprilysin) were strongly regulated, although in different exposure conditions and species. Data also revealed differences regarding metabolic modulation capacity (ATP β, Enolase, Aconitate hydratase) and oxidative stress response (Aldehyde dehydrogenase, Lactoylglutathione, Retinal dehydrogenase) of each species, which also depended on single or combined exposures, illustrating a different response capacity of both oyster species to the presence of multiple stressors. Interestingly, alterations of piRNA abundance in C. angulata suggested genome reconfiguration in response to multiple stressors, likely an important mode of action related to adaptive evolution mechanisms previously unknown to oyster species, which requires further investigation. The present findings provide a deeper insight into the complexity of C. angulata and C. gigas responses to environmental stress at the proteome level, evidencing different capacities to endure abiotic changes, with relevance regarding the ecophysiological fitness of each species and competitive advantages in a changing environment. PMID: 30119036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]