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Is Perceived Growth Associated with Momentary Indicators of Health and Well-Being in People with Asthma or Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Related Articles Is Perceived Growth Associated with Momentary Indicators of Health and Well-Being in People with Asthma or Rheumatoid Arthritis? Appl Psychol Health Well Being. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: Jones DR, Johnson JA, Graham-Engeland JE, Park CL, Smyth JM Abstract BACKGROUND: Perceived growth (PG) refers to perceptions of positive changes that unfold over time after experiencing trauma. Higher PG is often associated with positive long-term health, but the processes through which PG may influence health are unclear. The present study examines two potential pathways among individuals living with asthma or RA: (1) by promoting momentary indicators of health and well-being in everyday life, and (2) by buffering against stress. METHOD: In a micro-longitudinal design, 128 participants with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) reported perceived growth using the Post-Traumatic Growth (PTG) Inventory and subsequently completed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) for one week. Participants were signaled five times a day to report on health-related indicators, including affect, disease interference, social interactions, and stress. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling revealed that higher PTG was associated with significantly less negative affect and greater positive affect in everyday life. There were no significant associations between PTG and momentary disease interference, pleasantness of social interactions, or stress, nor evidence that PTG buffered against effects of stress on health-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This research highlights the utility of examining PG in everyday life. Results suggest that closer examination of momentary affect as a process by which PG may facilitate positive health outcomes is warranted. PMID: 29673088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

"Precipitation on Nanoparticles": Attractive Intermolecular Interactions Stabilize Specific Ligand Ratios on the Surfaces of Nanoparticles.

Related Articles "Precipitation on Nanoparticles": Attractive Intermolecular Interactions Stabilize Specific Ligand Ratios on the Surfaces of Nanoparticles. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: Chu Z, Han Y, Kral P, Klajn R Abstract Confining organic molecules to the surfaces of inorganic nanoparticles can induce intermolecular interactions between them, which can affect the composition of the mixed self-assembled monolayers obtained by co-adsorption from solution of two different molecules. Here, we study co-adsorption of two thiolated ligands-a dialkylviologen and a zwitterionic sulfobetaine-that can interact with each other electrostatically, onto gold nanoparticles. Consequently, the nanoparticles favor a narrow range of ratios of these two molecules that is largely independent of the molar ratio in solution. We show that changing the solution molar ratio of two ligands by a factor of ~5,000 affects the on-nanoparticle ratio of these ligands by only 3 times. This behavior is reminiscent of the formation of insoluble inorganic salts (e.g., AgCl), which similarly compensate positive and negative charges upon crystallizing. Our results pave the way towards developing well-defined hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructures. PMID: 29673022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Postoperative Monitoring of Free DIEP Flap in Breast Reconstruction with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Variables Affecting the Regional Oxygen Saturation.

Related Articles Postoperative Monitoring of Free DIEP Flap in Breast Reconstruction with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Variables Affecting the Regional Oxygen Saturation. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: Salgarello M, Pagliara D, Rossi M, Visconti G, Barone-Adesi L Abstract BACKGROUND:  The timing of surgical reexploration in microanastomotic thrombosis is directly related to the salvage rate of free flap. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technique, which allows a continuous bedside monitoring of flap oxygenation. The current literature is lacking in the assessment of variables able to modify the NIRS monitoring. The aim of this study is to identify patient and flap-related variables that can affect regional oxygen saturation (rSO2). METHODS:  We retrospectively analyzed the data obtained from 45 consecutive patients undergoing breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap. The monitoring device used is the Somanetics INVOS 5100C Cerebral/Somatic Oximeter (Covidien). Baseline measures of demographic-anthropometric variables (age, weight, height, body mass index [BMI]) and flap factors (flap size in grams, skin flap area in square centimeters, perforator number, and perforator size in millimeters) were collected from preoperative and intraoperative assessment. We investigated the linear correlation between mean rSO2 and BMI, flap size, skin flap area, perforator number, and perforator size. RESULTS:  A positive linear correlation between rSO2 values and skin flap area, perforator number, and perforator size was found. A negative linear correlation between rSO2 values and BMI and flap size was found. All correlations are statistically significant. Despite the overall negative linear correlation between rSO2 values and flap size, we observed a bimodal trend: a positive relation up to 800 g, which is inverted above 800 g. CONCLUSION:  The NIRS is a reliable additional tool in free flap monitoring. A careful evaluation should be given to patient and surgery factors that can change the oximetry data. PMID: 29672776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Influences of Mental Illness, Current Psychological State, and Concussion History on Baseline Concussion Assessment Performance.

Related Articles Influences of Mental Illness, Current Psychological State, and Concussion History on Baseline Concussion Assessment Performance. Am J Sports Med. 2018 Apr 01;:363546518765145 Authors: Weber ML, Dean JL, Hoffman NL, Broglio SP, McCrea M, McAllister TW, Schmidt JD, CARE Consortium Investigators, Hoy AR, Hazzard JB, Kelly LA, Ortega JD, Port N, Putukian M, Langford TD, Tierney R, Campbell DE, McGinty G, O'Donnell P, Svoboda SJ, DiFiori JP, Giza CC, Benjamin HJ, Buckley T, Kaminski TW, Clugston JR, Feigenbaum LA, Eckner JT, Guskiewicz K, Mihalik JP, Miles JD, Anderson S, Master CL, Collins M, Kontos AP, Bazarian JJ, Chrisman SPD, Brooks A, Duma S, Bullers CT, Miles CM, Dykhuizen BH Abstract BACKGROUND: A student-athlete's mental state, including history of trait anxiety and depression, or current psychological state may affect baseline concussion assessment performance. PURPOSE: (1) To determine if mental illness (anxiety, depression, anxiety with depression) influences baseline scores, (2) to determine if psychological state correlates with baseline performance, and (3) to determine if history of concussion affects Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) subscores of state anxiety, depression, and somatization. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: A sample of 8652 collegiate student-athletes (54.5% males, 45.5% females) participated in the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. Baseline assessments included a demographic form, a symptom evaluation, Standardized Assessment of Concussion, Balance Error Scoring System, a psychological state assessment (BSI-18), and Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test. Baseline scores were compared between individuals with a history of anxiety (n = 59), depression (n = 283), and anxiety with depression (n = 68) and individuals without a history of those conditions (n = 8242). Spearman's rho correlations were conducted to assess the relationship between baseline and psychological state subscores (anxiety, depression, somatization) (α = .05). Psychological state subscores were compared between individuals with a self-reported history of concussions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4+) using Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = .05). RESULTS: Student-athletes with anxiety, depression, and anxiety with depression demonstrated higher scores in number of symptoms reported (anxiety, 4.3 ± 4.2; depression, 5.2 ± 4.8; anxiety with depression, 5.4 ± 3.9; no anxiety/depression, 2.5 ± 3.4), symptom severity (anxiety, 8.1 ± 9.8; depression, 10.4 ± 12.4; anxiety with depression, 12.4 ± 10.7; no anxiety/depression, 4.1 ± 6.9), and psychological distress in state anxiety (anxiety, 3.7 ± 4.7; depression, 2.5 ± 3.6; anxiety with depression, 3.8 ± 4.2; no anxiety/depression, 0.8 ± 1.8), depression (anxiety, 2.4 ± 4.0; depression, 3.2 ± 4.5; anxiety with depression, 3.8 ± 4.8; no anxiety/depression, 0.8 ± 1.8), and somatization (anxiety, 2.3 ± 2.9; depression, 1.8 ± 2.8; anxiety with depression, 2.2 ± 2.4; no anxiety/depression, 0.9 ± 1.7). A moderate positive relationship existed between all BSI-18 subscores and total symptom number (n = 8377; anxiety: rs = 0.43, P < .001; depression: rs = 0.42, P < .001; somatization: rs = 0.45, P < .001), as well as total symptom severity (anxiety: rs = 0.43, P < .001; depression: rs = 0.41, P < .001; somatization: rs = 0.45, P < .001). Anxiety, depression, and somatization subscores were greater among student-athletes that self-reported more concussions. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be cognizant that student-athletes with a history of trait anxiety, depression, and anxiety with depression may report higher symptom score and severity at baseline. Individuals with extensive concussion history may experience greater state anxiety, depression, and somatization. PMID: 29672135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cognitive and affective mechanisms of pain and fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

Related Articles Cognitive and affective mechanisms of pain and fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Health Psychol. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: Arewasikporn A, Turner AP, Alschuler KN, Hughes AJ, Ehde DM Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which pain catastrophizing, fatigue catastrophizing, positive affect, and negative affect simultaneously mediated the associations between common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS; i.e., pain, fatigue) and impact on daily life, depressive symptoms, and resilience. METHOD: Participants were community-dwelling adults with MS (N = 163) reporting chronic pain, fatigue, and/or moderate depressive symptoms. Multiple mediation path analysis was used to model potential mediators of pain and fatigue separately, using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial comparing two symptom self-management interventions. RESULTS: In the pain model, pain catastrophizing was a mediator of pain intensity with pain interference and depression. Negative affect was a mediator of pain intensity with depression and resilience. In the fatigue model, fatigue catastrophizing was a mediator of fatigue intensity with fatigue impact and depression. Positive affect was a mediator of fatigue intensity with depression and resilience. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide preliminary support for the presence of differential effects of cognitive-affective mediators and suggest potential targets for psychological interventions based on an individual's clinical presentation. The differential mediating effects also support the inclusion of both positive and negative aspects of psychological health in models of pain and fatigue, which would not be otherwise apparent if negative constructs were examined in isolation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to utilize a multivariate path analysis approach to examine cognitive-affective mediators of pain and fatigue in MS, while also examining positive and negative constructs concurrently. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 29672097 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Self-compassion matters: The relationships between perceived social support, self-compassion, and subjective well-being among LGB individuals in Turkey.

Related Articles Self-compassion matters: The relationships between perceived social support, self-compassion, and subjective well-being among LGB individuals in Turkey. J Couns Psychol. 2018 Apr;65(3):372-382 Authors: Toplu-Demirtaş E, Kemer G, Pope AL, Moe JL Abstract Research on the well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people has predominately focused on Western (-ized) societies where individualism, and not collectivism, is emphasized. In the present study, we utilized a mediator model via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness), perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others), and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) in a sample of LGB-identified individuals living in Turkey, a traditionally collectivistic culture (Hofstede, 2001). A sample of 291 LGB individuals (67 lesbian, 128 gay, and 96 bisexual) completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale, and Self-kindness, Common Humanity, and Mindfulness subscales of the Self-Compassion Scale. The results of SEM for the hypothesized mediator model revealed that self-compassion mediated the relationships between perceived social support from family and significant others and subjective well-being, explaining the 77% of the variance in subjective well-being. Implications for the literature base on LGB well-being are discussed, with a focus on the cross-cultural applications. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 29672086 [PubMed - in process]

Reciprocal associations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life: Network analyses in anhedonic individuals and healthy controls.

Related Articles Reciprocal associations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life: Network analyses in anhedonic individuals and healthy controls. Emotion. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: van Roekel E, Heininga VE, Vrijen C, Snippe E, Oldehinkel AJ Abstract Anhedonia reflects a dysfunction in the reward system, which can be manifested in an inability to enjoy pleasurable situations (i.e., lack of positive emotions), but also by a lack of motivation to engage in pleasurable activities (i.e., lack of motivation). Little is known about the interrelations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life, and whether these associations are altered in anhedonic individuals. In the present study, we used a network approach to explore the reciprocal, lagged associations between positive emotions and motivation in anhedonic individuals (N = 66) and controls (N = 68). Participants (aged between 18 and 24 years) filled out momentary assessments of affect 3 times per day for 30 consecutive days. Our results showed that (a) anhedonic individuals and controls had similar moment-to-moment transfer of positive emotions; (b) in the anhedonic network feeling cheerful was the node with the highest outstrength, both within this group and compared with the control group; (c) feeling relaxed had the highest outstrength in the control network, and (d) anhedonic individuals had stronger pathways from positive emotions to motivation than controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that low levels of positive emotions lead to decreased motivation in the anhedonic group, which could instigate a negative spiral of low pleasure and low motivation. On a more positive note, we showed that cheerfulness had the highest outstrength in the network of anhedonic participants. Hence, interventions may focus on increasing cheerfulness in anhedonic individuals, as this will likely have the greatest impact on other positive emotions and motivations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 29672074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

P2Y12 antagonist ticagrelor inhibits the release of procoagulant extracellular vesicles from activated platelets: Preliminary results.

Related Articles P2Y12 antagonist ticagrelor inhibits the release of procoagulant extracellular vesicles from activated platelets: Preliminary results. Cardiol J. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: Gasecka A, Nieuwland R, van der Pol E, Hajji N, Ćwiek A, Pluta K, Konwerski M, Filipiak KJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Activated platelets release platelet extracellular vesicles (PEVs). Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12 both play a role in platelet activation, The present hypothesis herein is that the inhibition of these receptors may affect the release of PEVs. METHODS: Platelet-rich plasma from 10 healthy subjects was incubated with saline, P2Y1 antagonist MRS2179 (100 µM), P2Y12 antagonist ticagrelor (1 µM), and a combination of both antagonists. Platelets were activated by ADP (10 µM) under stirring conditions at 37°C. Platelet reactivity was assessed by impedance aggregometry. Concentrations of PEVs- (positive for CD61 but negative for P-selectin and phosphatidylserine) and PEVs+ (positive for all) were determined by a state-of-the-art flow cytometer. Procoagulant activity of PEVs was measured by a fibrin generation test. RESULTS: ADP-induced aggregation (57 ± 13 area under curve {AUC] units) was inhibited 73% by the P2Y1 antagonist, 86% by the P2Y12 antagonist, and 95% when combined (p < 0.001 for all). The release of PEVs- (2.9 E ± 0.8∙10⁸/mL) was inhibited 48% in the presence of both antagonists (p = 0.015), whereas antagonists alone were ineffective. The release of PEVs+ (2.4 ± 1.6∙10⁷/mL) was unaffected by the P2Y1 antagonist, but was 62% inhibited by the P2Y12 antagonist (p = 0.035), and 72% by both antagonists (p = 0.022). PEVs promoted coagulation in presence of tissue factor. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors reduces platelet aggregation and affects the release of distinct subpopulations of PEVs. Ticagrelor decreases the release of procoagulant PEVs from activated platelets, which may contribute to the observed clinical benefits in patients treated with ticagrelor. PMID: 29671861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Facial Disfigurement and Identity: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Facial Transplantation.

Related Articles Facial Disfigurement and Identity: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Facial Transplantation. AMA J Ethics. 2018 Apr 01;20(4):309-323 Authors: Rifkin WJ, Kantar RS, Ali-Khan S, Plana NM, Diaz-Siso JR, Tsakiris M, Rodriguez ED Abstract Facial disfigurement can significantly affect personal identity and access to social roles. Although conventional reconstruction can have positive effects with respect to identity, these procedures are often inadequate for more severe facial defects. In these cases, facial transplantation (FT) offers patients a viable reconstructive option. However, FT's effect on personal identity has been less well examined, and ethical questions remain regarding the psychosocial ramifications of the procedure. This article reviews the literature on the different roles of the face as well as psychological and social effects of facial disfigurement. The effects of facial reconstruction on personal identity are also reviewed with an emphasis on orthognathic, cleft, and head and neck surgery. Finally, FT is considered in this context, and future directions for research are explored. PMID: 29671724 [PubMed - in process]

Importance ratings on patient-reported outcome items for survivorship care: comparison between pediatric cancer survivors, parents, and clinicians.

Related Articles Importance ratings on patient-reported outcome items for survivorship care: comparison between pediatric cancer survivors, parents, and clinicians. Qual Life Res. 2018 Apr 18;: Authors: Jones CM, Baker JN, Keesey RM, Eliason RJ, Lanctot JQ, Clegg JL, Mandrell BN, Ness KK, Krull KR, Srivastava D, Forrest CB, Hudson MM, Robison LL, Huang IC Abstract PURPOSE: To compare importance ratings of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) items from the viewpoints of childhood cancer survivors, parents, and clinicians for further developing short-forms to use in survivorship care. METHODS: 101 cancer survivors, 101 their parents, and 36 clinicians were recruited from St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Participants were asked to select eight items that they deemed useful for clinical decision making from each of the four Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatric item banks. These item banks were pain interference (20 items), fatigue (23 items), psychological stress (19 items), and positive affect (37 items). RESULTS: Compared to survivors, clinicians rated more items across four domains that were statistically different than did parents (23 vs. 13 items). Clinicians rated five items in pain interference domain (ORs 2.33-6.01; p's < 0.05) and three items in fatigue domain (ORs 2.22-3.80; p's < .05) as more important but rated three items in psychological stress domain (ORs 0.14-0.42; p's < .05) and six items in positive affect domain (ORs 0.17-0.35; p's < .05) as less important than did survivors. In contrast, parents rated seven items in positive affect domain (ORs 0.25-0.47; p's < .05) as less important than did survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors, parents, and clinicians viewed importance of PRO items for survivorship care differently. These perspectives should be used to assist the development of PROs tools. PMID: 29671249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mood Detection in Ambiguous Messages: The Interaction Between Text and Emoticons.

Related Articles Mood Detection in Ambiguous Messages: The Interaction Between Text and Emoticons. Front Psychol. 2018;9:423 Authors: Aldunate N, Villena-González M, Rojas-Thomas F, López V, Bosman CA Abstract Face-to-face communication has several sources of contextual information that enables language comprehension. This information is used, for instance, to perceive mood of interlocutors, clarifying ambiguous messages. However, these contextual cues are absent in text-based communication. Emoticons have been proposed as cues used to stress the emotional intentions on this channel of communication. Most studies have suggested that their role is to contribute to a more accurate perception of emotions. Nevertheless, it is not clear if their influence on disambiguation is independent of their emotional valence and its interaction with text message valence. In the present study, we designed an emotional congruence paradigm, where participants read a set of messages composed by a positive or negative emotional situation sentence followed by a positive or negative emoticon. Participants were instructed to indicate if the sender was in a good or bad mood. With the aim of analyzing the disambiguation process and observing if the role of the emoticons in disambiguation is different according their valence, we measure the rate of responses of perceived mood and the reaction times (RTs) for each condition. Our results showed that the perceived mood in ambiguous messages tends to be more negative regardless of emotion valence. Nonetheless, we observed that this tendency was not the same for positive and negative emoticons. Specifically, negative mood perception was higher for incongruent positive emoticons. On the other hand, RTs for positive emoticons were faster than for the negative ones. Responses for incongruent messages were slower than for the congruent ones. However, the incongruent condition showed different RTs depending on the emoticons' valence. In the incongruent condition, responses for negative emoticons was the slowest. Results are discussed taking into account previous observations about the potential role of emoticons in mood perception and cognitive processing. We concluded that the role of emoticons in disambiguation and mood perception is due to the interaction of emoticon valence with the entire message. PMID: 29670554 [PubMed]

Social Identity in People with Multiple Sclerosis: An Examination of Family Identity and Mood.

Related Articles Social Identity in People with Multiple Sclerosis: An Examination of Family Identity and Mood. Int J MS Care. 2018 Mar-Apr;20(2):85-91 Authors: Barker AB, Lincoln NB, Hunt N, dasNair R Abstract Background: Mood disorders are highly prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). MS causes changes to a person's sense of self. The Social Identity Model of Identity Change posits that group membership can have a positive effect on mood during identity change. The family is a social group implicated in adjustment to MS. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether family identity can predict mood in people with MS and to test whether this prediction was mediated by social support and connectedness to others. Methods: This cross-sectional survey of 195 participants comprised measures of family identity, family social support, connectedness to others, and mood. Results: Family identity predicted mood both directly and indirectly through parallel mediators of family social support and connectedness to others. Conclusions: Family identity predicted mood as posited by the Social Identity Model of Identity Change. Involving the family in adjustment to MS could reduce low mood. PMID: 29670494 [PubMed]

Drug-induced alterations of mitochondrial DNA homeostasis in steatotic and non-steatotic HepaRG cells.

Related Articles Drug-induced alterations of mitochondrial DNA homeostasis in steatotic and non-steatotic HepaRG cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018 Apr 18;: Authors: Le Guillou D, Bucher S, Begriche K, Hoet D, Lombes A, Labbe G, Fromenty B Abstract Although mitochondriotoxicity plays a major role in drug-induced hepatotoxicity, alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) homeostasis has been described only with a few drugs. Because it requires long drug exposure, this mechanism of toxicity cannot be detected with investigations performed in isolated liver mitochondria or cultured cells exposed to drugs for several hours, or a few days. Thus, a first aim of this study was to determine whether a 2-week treatment with 9 hepatotoxic drugs could affect mtDNA homeostasis in HepaRG cells. Previous investigations with these drugs showed rapid toxicity on oxidative phosphorylation but did not address the possibility of delayed toxicity secondary to mtDNA homeostasis impairment. The maximal concentration used for each drug induced about 10% cytotoxicity. Two other drugs, zalcitabine and linezolid, were used as positive controls for their respective effects on mtDNA replication and translation. Another goal was to determine whether drug-induced mitochondriotoxicity could be modulated by lipid overload mimicking nonalcoholic fatty liver. Among the 9 drugs, imipramine and ritonavir induced mitochondrial effects suggesting alteration of mtDNA translation. Ritonavir toxicity was stronger in non-steatotic cells. None of the 9 drugs decreased mtDNA levels. However, increased mtDNA was observed with 5 drugs, especially in non-steatotic cells. mtDNA levels could not be correlated with the expression of key factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (e.g. PGC1α, PGC1β, AMPKα). Hence, drug-induced impairment of mtDNA translation might not be rare and increased mtDNA levels could be a frequent adaptive response to slight energy shortage. Nevertheless, this adaptation could be impaired by lipid overload. PMID: 29669730 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Incorporating a Static Versus Supportive Mobile Phone App Into a Partial Meal Replacement Program With Face-to-Face Support: Randomized Controlled Trial.

Related Articles Incorporating a Static Versus Supportive Mobile Phone App Into a Partial Meal Replacement Program With Face-to-Face Support: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2018 Apr 18;6(4):e41 Authors: Brindal E, Hendrie GA, Freyne J, Noakes M Abstract BACKGROUND: Mobile phone apps may be acceptable to users and could improve retention and adherence over more traditional methods, but there is mixed literature supporting their efficacy. In the weight management space, very little is known about how a mobile phone app integrating features beyond text messaging (short message service) can affect behavior, particularly when combined with face-to-face support. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a mobile phone app when combined with a partial meal replacement program including face-to-face support. This paper compares a static versus supportive app over a 6-month randomized trial for effects on weight loss, weight-related biomarkers, and psychological outcomes. METHODS: Overweight and obese adults (71.2% female, 104/146; mean 48.11, SD 11.75 years) were recruited to participate in the weight loss study, and they were randomized on a 1:1 basis using a computer algorithm. The supportive app (n=75) provided information, food intake recording, rewards, prompts for regular interaction through reminders, and the opportunity to review personal compliance with the dietary program. The static app (n=71) included only recipes and weight loss information. Both groups recieved equal amounts of face-to-face support in addition to app. RESULTS: The overall reduction in app usage over 24 weeks was lower for the supportive app in comparison with the static app; approximately 39.0% (57/146) of the users were still using the app at week 24. Despite the promising results for app usage, there were no differences in weight loss between groups (F1,128.12=0.83, P=.36). However, it should be noted that almost 60% (49/84) of all participants lost 5% or more of body weight during the trial. No weight-related biomarkers were significantly different between groups. Both groups experienced an increase in positive mood, but this was significantly higher for those who received the static app (F1,118.12=4.93, P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: Although the supportive app was well received by users, we found little evidence of the added benefit of this versus the static app in combination with face-to-face support in a community-delivered weight loss program. Future versions of the app may incorporate more unique behavioral techniques beyond those provided by the consultant to improve the potency of the app. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000547741; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=364187 (Archived by WebCite http://www.webcitation.org/6yivwfMI9). PMID: 29669704 [PubMed]

Do Coffee Farmers Benefit in Food Security From Participating in Coffee Cooperatives? Evidence From Southwest Ethiopia Coffee Cooperatives.

Related Articles Do Coffee Farmers Benefit in Food Security From Participating in Coffee Cooperatives? Evidence From Southwest Ethiopia Coffee Cooperatives. Food Nutr Bull. 2018 Jan 01;:379572118765341 Authors: Shumeta Z, D'Haese M Abstract BACKGROUND: Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used cross-sectional household data on income, expenditure on food, staple food production (maize and teff), and utilization of improved inputs (fertilizer and improved seed) collected from 256 randomly selected farm households (132 cooperative members and 124 nonmembers) and applied an inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to assess the impact of cooperative membership on food security. RESULTS: The result revealed that cooperative membership has a positive and significant effect on staple food production (maize and teff) and facilitated technological transformation via increased utilization of fertilizer and improved seeds. Nonetheless, the effect on food expenditure and income could not be confirmed. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest trade-off between coffee marketing and input supply functions of the cooperatives impairing their true food security impact from the pooled income and production effect. PMID: 29669426 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Validation of the Pain Resilience Scale in a Chronic Pain Sample.

Related Articles Validation of the Pain Resilience Scale in a Chronic Pain Sample. J Pain. 2017 Aug;18(8):984-993 Authors: Ankawi B, Slepian PM, Himawan LK, France CR Abstract Psychosocial factors that protect against negative outcomes for individuals with chronic pain have received increased attention in recent years. Pain resilience, or the ability to maintain behavioral engagement and regulate emotions as well as cognitions despite prolonged or intense pain, is one such factor. A measure of pain-specific resilience, the Pain Resilience Scale, was previously identified as a better predictor of acute pain tolerance than general resilience. The present study sought to validate this measure in a chronic pain sample, while also furthering understanding of the role of pain resilience compared with other protective factors. Participants with chronic pain completed online questionnaires to assess factors related to positive pain outcomes, pain vulnerability, pain intensity, and quality of life. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 2-factor structure of the Pain Resilience Scale previously observed among respondents without chronic pain, although one item from each subscale was dropped in the final version. For this chronic pain sample, structural equation modeling showed that pain resilience contributes unique variance to a model including pain acceptance and pain self-efficacy in predicting quality of life and pain intensity. Further, pain resilience was a better fit in this model than general resilience, strengthening the argument for assessing pain resilience over general resilience. PERSPECTIVE: A modified version of the Pain Resilience Scale retained the original factor structure when tested in a chronic pain sample. Construct validity was supported by expected relationships with pain-related protective and vulnerability measures. Further, a model including positive pain constructs showed that pain resilience accounts for unique variability when predicting quality of life and pain intensity. PMID: 28428092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fostering Emotion Expression and Affective Involvement with Communication Partners in People with Congenital Deafblindness and Intellectual Disabilities.

Related Articles Fostering Emotion Expression and Affective Involvement with Communication Partners in People with Congenital Deafblindness and Intellectual Disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2017 Sep;30(5):872-884 Authors: Martens MAW, Janssen MJ, Ruijssenaars WAJJM, Huisman M, Riksen-Walraven JM Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that it is possible to foster affective involvement between people with congenital deafblindness and their communication partners. Affective involvement is crucial for well-being, and it is important to know whether it can also be fostered with people who have congenital deafblindness and intellectual disabilities. METHODS: This study used a multiple-baseline design to examine whether an intervention based on the Intervention Model for Affective Involvement would (i) increase affective involvement between four participants with congenital deafblindness and intellectual disabilities and their 13 communication partners and (ii) increase the participants' positive emotions and decrease their negative emotions. RESULTS: In all cases, dyadic affective involvement increased, the participants' very positive emotions also increased and the participants' negative emotions decreased. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that communication partners of persons with congenital deafblindness and intellectual disabilities can be successfully trained to foster affective involvement. PMID: 27554599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]