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Four principles of bio-musicology. 📎

Abstract Title: Four principles of bio-musicology. Abstract Source: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Mar 19 ;370(1664):20140091. PMID: 25646514 Abstract Author(s): W Tecumseh Fitch Article Affiliation: W Tecumseh Fitch Abstract: As a species-typical trait of Homo sapiens, musicality represents a cognitively complex and biologically grounded capacity worthy of intensive empirical investigation. Four principles are suggested here as prerequisites for a successful future discipline of bio-musicology. These involve adopting: (i) a multicomponent approach which recognizes that musicality is built upon a suite of interconnected capacities, of which none is primary; (ii) a pluralistic Tinbergian perspective that addresses and places equal weight on questions of mechanism, ontogeny, phylogeny and function; (iii) a comparative approach, which seeks and investigates animal homologues or analogues of specific components of musicality, wherever they can be found; and (iv) an ecologically motivated perspective, which recognizes the need to study widespread musical behaviours across a range of human cultures (and not focus solely on Western art music or skilled musicians). Given their pervasiveness, dance and music created for dancing should be considered central subcomponents of music, as should folk tunes, work songs, lullabies and children's songs. Although the precise breakdown of capacities required by the multicomponent approach remains open to debate, and different breakdowns may be appropriate to different purposes, I highlight four core components of human musicality--song, drumming, social synchronization and dance--as widespread and pervasive human abilities spanning across cultures, ages and levels of expertise. Each of these has interesting parallels in the animal kingdom (often analogies but in some cases apparent homologies also). Finally, I suggest that the search for universal capacities underlying human musicality, neglected for many years, should be renewed. The broad framework presented here illustrates the potential for a future discipline of bio-musicology as a rich field for interdisciplinary and comparative research. Article Published Date : Mar 18, 2015

The effects of mothers' singing on full-term and preterm infants and maternal emotional responses.

Abstract Title: The effects of mothers' singing on full-term and preterm infants and maternal emotional responses. Abstract Source: J Music Ther. 2008;45(3):273-306. PMID: 18959452 Abstract Author(s): Andrea M Cevasco Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of mothers' singing on their adjustment to and bonding with their new infants as well as use of music in the home environment in the first 2 weeks after their infants' birth. Preterm mothers were assessed for coping with their infants' NICU stay, and premature infants' length of hospitalization was evaluated. Fifty-four full-term infants and mothers and 20 premature infants and 16 mothers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Mothers in both experimental groups were recorded singing songs of their choice for use at home. Recordings of each preterm mother's voice were played 20 minutes per day, 3 to 5 times per week, at a time when she was not able to visit her infant in the NICU. All full-term and preterm mothers in experimental and control groups completed a posttest survey 2 weeks after infants were discharged. Comparisons revealed that experimental preterm and full-term mothers indicated less adjustment to their baby and lifestyle changes and less bonding compared to control mothers, though this difference was not significant. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers reported the greatest number of postpartum medical complications, which might explain their poor adjustment and bonding scores. There was a significant difference between mothers' value of music, with preterm experimental valuing music more. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers used music with and sang to infants more compared to preterm and full-term control mothers, but not to a significant degree. Preterm mothers reported a mean score of 4.75 (with a 5 indicating that they strongly agreed) for the following item: knowing my infant listened to my singing helped me to cope with my infant's stay in the NICU. Furthermore, preterm infants who listened to the CD recording of their mothers' singing left the hospital an average of 2 days sooner than those in the control group, though this difference was not significant. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2008
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Whistling Cough.

Related Articles Whistling Cough. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 09;379(6):e10 Authors: Sharma SC, Sakthivel P PMID: 30089074 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Variation in posture quality across musical instruments and its impact during performances.

Related Articles Variation in posture quality across musical instruments and its impact during performances. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2018 Jun;24(2):316-323 Authors: Blanco-Piñeiro P, Díaz-Pereira MP, Martínez Vidal A Abstract OBJECTIVE: Bad posture increases the risk that a musician may suffer from musculoskeletal disorders. This study compared posture quality required by different instruments or families of instruments. METHODS: Using an ad-hoc postural observation instrument embracing 11 postural variables, four experts evaluated the postures of 100 students attending a Spanish higher conservatory of music. RESULTS: The agreement of the experts' evaluations was statistically confirmed by a Cohen's κ value between 0.855 and 1.000 and a Kendall value between 0.709 and 1.000 (p < 0.001 in all cases). Moreover, χ2 tests revealed significant association between instrument families and seated posture with respect to pelvic attitude, dorsal curvature and head alignment in both sagittal and frontal planes. This analysis also showed an association between instrument families and standing posture with respect to the frontal plane of the axis of gravity, pelvic attitude, head alignment in the frontal plane, the sagittal plane of the shoulders and overall posture. CONCLUSIONS: While certain postural defects appear to be common to all families of instruments, others are more characteristic of some families than others. The instrument associated with the best posture quality was the bagpipe, followed by percussion and strings. PMID: 28278006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]