Four principles of bio-musicology.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Mar 19 ;370(1664):20140091. PMID: 25646514
W Tecumseh Fitch
W Tecumseh Fitch
As a species-typical trait of Homo sapiens, musicality represents a cognitively complex and biologically grounded capacity worthy of intensive empirical investigation. Four principles are suggested here as prerequisites for a successful future discipline of bio-musicology. These involve adopting: (i) a multicomponent approach which recognizes that musicality is built upon a suite of interconnected capacities, of which none is primary; (ii) a pluralistic Tinbergian perspective that addresses and places equal weight on questions of mechanism, ontogeny, phylogeny and function; (iii) a comparative approach, which seeks and investigates animal homologues or analogues of specific components of musicality, wherever they can be found; and (iv) an ecologically motivated perspective, which recognizes the need to study widespread musical behaviours across a range of human cultures (and not focus solely on Western art music or skilled musicians). Given their pervasiveness, dance and music created for dancing should be considered central subcomponents of music, as should folk tunes, work songs, lullabies and children's songs. Although the precise breakdown of capacities required by the multicomponent approach remains open to debate, and different breakdowns may be appropriate to different purposes, I highlight four core components of human musicality--song, drumming, social synchronization and dance--as widespread and pervasive human abilities spanning across cultures, ages and levels of expertise. Each of these has interesting parallels in the animal kingdom (often analogies but in some cases apparent homologies also). Finally, I suggest that the search for universal capacities underlying human musicality, neglected for many years, should be renewed. The broad framework presented here illustrates the potential for a future discipline of bio-musicology as a rich field for interdisciplinary and comparative research.
Article Published Date : Mar 18, 2015
The effects of mothers' singing on full-term and preterm infants and maternal emotional responses.
J Music Ther. 2008;45(3):273-306. PMID: 18959452
Andrea M Cevasco
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of mothers' singing on their adjustment to and bonding with their new infants as well as use of music in the home environment in the first 2 weeks after their infants' birth. Preterm mothers were assessed for coping with their infants' NICU stay, and premature infants' length of hospitalization was evaluated. Fifty-four full-term infants and mothers and 20 premature infants and 16 mothers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Mothers in both experimental groups were recorded singing songs of their choice for use at home. Recordings of each preterm mother's voice were played 20 minutes per day, 3 to 5 times per week, at a time when she was not able to visit her infant in the NICU. All full-term and preterm mothers in experimental and control groups completed a posttest survey 2 weeks after infants were discharged. Comparisons revealed that experimental preterm and full-term mothers indicated less adjustment to their baby and lifestyle changes and less bonding compared to control mothers, though this difference was not significant. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers reported the greatest number of postpartum medical complications, which might explain their poor adjustment and bonding scores. There was a significant difference between mothers' value of music, with preterm experimental valuing music more. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers used music with and sang to infants more compared to preterm and full-term control mothers, but not to a significant degree. Preterm mothers reported a mean score of 4.75 (with a 5 indicating that they strongly agreed) for the following item: knowing my infant listened to my singing helped me to cope with my infant's stay in the NICU. Furthermore, preterm infants who listened to the CD recording of their mothers' singing left the hospital an average of 2 days sooner than those in the control group, though this difference was not significant.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2008
The Genetics of Mating Song Evolution Underlying Speciation: Linking Quantitative Variation to Candidate Genes for Behavioral Isolation.
Genetics. 2019 Jan 15;:
Authors: Xu M, Shaw KL
Differences in mating behaviors evolve early during speciation, eventually contributing to reproductive barriers between species. Knowledge of the genetic and genomic bases of these behaviors is therefore integral to a causal understanding of speciation. Acoustic behaviors are often part of the mating ritual in animal species. The temporal rhythms of mating songs are notably species-specific in many vertebrates and arthropods and often underlie assortative mating. Despite discoveries of mutations that disrupt the temporal rhythm of these songs, we know surprisingly little about genes affecting naturally occurring variation in the temporal pattern of singing behavior. In the rapidly speciating Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala, the striking species variation in song rhythms constitutes a behavioral barrier to reproduction between species. Here, we mapped the largest-effect locus underlying interspecific variation in song rhythm between two Laupala species to a narrow genomic region, wherein we find no known candidate genes affecting song temporal rhythm in Drosophila Whole genome sequencing, gene prediction and functional annotation of this region reveal an exciting and promising candidate gene, the putative cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel-like gene, for natural variation in mating behavior. Identification and molecular characterization of the candidate gene reveals a non-synonymous mutation in a conserved binding domain, suggesting the hypothesis that ion channels are important targets of selection of rhythmic signaling during establishment of behavioral isolation and rapid speciation.
PMID: 30647070 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
[Jose Ingenieros and the amusias: the beginning of the neuropsychology in Argentina].
Rev Neurol. 2018 May 16;66(10):353-356
Authors: Allegri RF, Roman FN
The Argentine neuropsychological school is born of the hand of the European school and is part of the beginning of the Experimental Psychology. In 1896 Horacio Pinero creates the first Department of Psychology at the University of Buenos Aires and in 1898 the first laboratory of Experimental Psychology is annexed. Jose Ingeniero, psychiatrist, neurologist, politician and above all sociologist publishes in France his work about the musical aphasia, the first neuropsychological work with international significance. In the same redeems to Charcot instead of to Knoblauch like the first one to describe the amusias, it speaks of an intelligence instead of a musical language and proposes a new classification and a methodology of assessment with a neurological-psychiatric integrative perspective. This article gave rise to this book in French on the musical language and its hysterical alterations awarded by the Academy of Medicine of Paris.
PMID: 29749596 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]