Transition support for new graduate and novice nurses in critical care settings: An integrative review of the literature.
Nurse Educ Pract. 2018 Mar 05;30:62-72
Authors: Cunnington T, Calleja P
Transition into critical care areas for new graduate nurses may be more difficult than transitioning into other areas due to the specialised knowledge needed. It is unknown which aspects of transition programs best support new graduate nurses improve competence and confidence to transition into critical care nursing specialties. Identifying these aspects would assist to design and implement best practice transition programs for new graduates in critical care areas. Themes identified in the literature include; having a designated resource person, workplace culture, socialisation, knowledge and skill acquisition, orientation, and rotation. Allocation of a quality resource person/s, supportive workplace culture, positive socialisation experiences, knowledge and skill acquisition and structured orientation based on new graduates' learning needs all positively supported increased confidence, competence and transition into nursing practice. Rotations between areas within graduate programs can potentially have both positive and negative impacts on the transition process. Negative impacts of including a rotation component in a transition program should be carefully considered alongside perceived benefits when designing new graduate nurse transition programs.
PMID: 29571106 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Influence of Occupational Socialization on the Perspectives and Practices of Adapted Physical Education Teachers.
Adapt Phys Activ Q. 2018 Mar 23;:1-19
Authors: Park CW, Curtner-Smith MD
The purpose of this study was to describe and examine the occupational socialization of nine adapted physical educators (APEs). The questions we attempted to answer were (a) What were the perspectives and practices of the APEs? and (b) What factors influenced these perspectives and practices? Data were collected through six qualitative techniques and analyzed by using analytic induction and constant comparison. At the time the study was conducted, the APEs possessed traditional or progressive teaching orientations. They had been attracted to a career as an APE through their participation in sport and physical activity and interactions with persons with disabilities. The quality of adapted physical education teacher education the APEs received varied, but high-quality adapted physical education teacher education appeared to exert a powerful influence on their values and pedagogies. The school cultures and conditions in which the APEs worked on entry into the workforce either served to support or negate their programs. We conclude the paper by providing several hypotheses regarding the influences of occupational socialization on in-service APEs' teaching.
PMID: 29569461 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A Study of the Correlation between VEP and Clinical Severity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Autism Res Treat. 2018;2018:5093016
Authors: Sayorwan W, Phianchana N, Permpoonputtana K, Siripornpanich V
Visual evoked potential (VEP) is a technique used to assess the brain's electrical response to visual stimuli. The aims of this study were to examine neural transmission within the visual pathway through VEP testing in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compare it to age-matched controls, as well as search for a correlation between the VEP parameters and the symptoms of ASD. Participants were composed of ASD children (9 males) and typically developing children (8 males and 4 females), aged between 3 and 5 years. Checkerboards were chosen as the pattern-reversal VEP. The clinical severity of ASD was assessed using the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales 2nd edition (VABS-II). Our findings demonstrated that children with ASD had significantly longer N145 latency compared to the controls. A longer N145 latency correlated with a higher score of ATEC within the sensory/cognitive awareness subdomain. In addition, a slower N145 response was also associated with a lower VABS-II score within the socialization domain. The correlation between longer VEP latency and abnormal behaviors in children with ASD suggests a delayed neural communication within other neural circuits, apart from the visual pathway. These lines of evidence support the possibility of using VEP, along with clinical parameters, for the assessment of ASD severity.
PMID: 29568651 [PubMed]
Interpersonal touch enhances cognitive control: A neurophysiological investigation.
J Exp Psychol Gen. 2018 Mar 22;:
Authors: Saunders B, Riesel A, Klawohn J, Inzlicht M
Touch is central to mammalian communication, socialization, and wellbeing. Despite this prominence, interpersonal touch is relatively understudied. In this preregistered investigation, we assessed the influence of interpersonal touch on the subjective, neural, and behavioral correlates of cognitive control. Forty-five romantic couples were recruited (N = 90; dating >6 months), and one partner performed an inhibitory control task while electroencephalography was recorded to assess neural performance monitoring. Interpersonal touch was provided by the second partner and was manipulated between experimental blocks. A within-subject repeated-measures design was used to maximize statistical power, with our sample size providing 80% power for even small effect sizes (ds > .25). Results indicated that participants were not only happier when receiving touch, but also showed increased neural processing of mistakes. Further exploratory cognitive modeling using indirect effects tests and drift diffusion models of decision making revealed that touch was indirectly associated with both improved inhibitory control and increased rates of evidence accumulation (drift rate) through its influence on neural monitoring. Thus, beyond regulating emotion and stress, interpersonal touch appears to enhance the neurocognitive processes underling flexible goal-directed behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record
PMID: 29565607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
[The Policy and Practice of Preventive Care for the Elderly].
Hu Li Za Zhi. 2018 Apr;65(2):13-19
Authors: Tsay SF, Chen SC, Lu SJ, Liu LT
Taiwan is projected to become an aged society in 2018. In addition to establishing a comprehensive, long-term care system that is able to deal with the expected impacts of population aging, it is imperative that the government focus on improving the prevention of aging-related conditions. This article introduces the innovative preventive care policy promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare and its preliminary results. Furthermore, the foundational ideas behind this policy and how it is being executed are explained. Medical and related professional groups participated in the research and development of the associated care plan and in the training of community-based trainers. Local governments integrate local resources in order to establish contracted community service bases and to provide professionally reviewed preventive care plans. A network of 850 contracted communities was established in 2017, and 17,117 participants have received services through this network to date. The Kihon checklist (KCL, the basic assessment tool for frailty used by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) was used before and after the intervention. Participants showed noticeably improved scores on the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and in the motor function, nutrition, oral function, socialization, dementia, depression, and lifestyle domains, with scores on the emotional happiness index showing especially strong improvement.
PMID: 29564852 [PubMed - in process]
The Role of Religious Socialization and Religiosity in African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Sexual Initiation.
J Relig Health. 2018 Mar 21;:
Authors: Taggart T, Gottfredson N, Powell W, Ennett S, Chatters LM, Carter-Edwards L, Eng E
This study determined the nature of the associations between religious socialization, religiosity, and adolescent sexual initiation. Data originated from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent (n = 1170), a nationally representative study of black adolescents. Factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and logistic regression were used to evaluate hypotheses. Results indicated that as black adolescents received more messages about religious beliefs and practices, their religiosity was greater and, in turn, they were less likely to report sexual initiation; findings varied by ethnicity, gender, and age. Findings contribute to understanding religious socialization and its association with sexual initiation.
PMID: 29564617 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
What's Left of the Left-Right Dimension? Why the Economic Policy Positions of Europeans Do Not Fit the Left-Right Dimension.
Soc Indic Res. 2018;136(2):645-662
Authors: Otjes S
In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension. There is also a role for the legacy of communist dictatorship: citizens who were socialised in democratic countries have views that fit the left-right dimension better than those socialised during communism.
PMID: 29563659 [PubMed - in process]
The Professional Culture of Community Pharmacy and the Provision of MTM Services.
Pharmacy (Basel). 2018 Mar 21;6(2):
Authors: Rosenthal MM, Holmes ER
The integration of advanced pharmacy services into community pharmacy practice is not complete. According to implementation research understanding professional culture, as a part of context, may provide insights for accelerating this process. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective of this study was to validate an adapted version of an organizational culture measure in a sample of United States' (US) community pharmacists. The second objective was to examine potential relationships between the cultural factors identified using the validated instrument and a number of socialization and education variables. The third objective was to examine any relationships between the scores on the identified cultural factors and the provision of MTM services. This study was a cross-sectional online survey for community pharmacists in the southeastern US. The survey contained questions on socialization/education, respondents' self-reported provision of medication therapy management (MTM) services, and the organizational culture profile (OCP). Analyses included descriptive statistics, a principle components analysis (PCA), independent samples t-test, and multivariate ordinal regression. A total of 303 surveys were completed. The PCA revealed a six-factor structure: social responsibility, innovation, people orientation, competitiveness, attention to detail, and reward orientation. Further analysis revealed significant relationships between social responsibility and years in practice, and people orientation and attention to detail and pharmacists' training and practice setting. Significant positive relationships were observed between social responsibility, innovation, and competitiveness and the increased provision of MTM services. The significant relationships identified between the OCP factors and community pharmacist respondents' provision of MTM services provides an important starting point for developing interventions to improve the uptake of practice change opportunities.
PMID: 29561823 [PubMed]
Gender Differences in Resistance to Schooling: The Role of Dynamic Peer-Influence and Selection Processes.
J Youth Adolesc. 2017 Dec;46(12):2421-2445
Authors: Geven S, O Jonsson J, van Tubergen F
Boys engage in notably higher levels of resistance to schooling than girls. While scholars argue that peer processes contribute to this gender gap, this claim has not been tested with longitudinal quantitative data. This study fills this lacuna by examining the role of dynamic peer-selection and influence processes in the gender gap in resistance to schooling (i.e., arguing with teachers, skipping class, not putting effort into school, receiving punishments at school, and coming late to class) with two-wave panel data. We expect that, compared to girls, boys are more exposed and more responsive to peers who exhibit resistant behavior. We estimate hybrid models on 5448 students from 251 school classes in Sweden (14-15 years, 49% boys), and stochastic actor-based models (SIENA) on a subsample of these data (2480 students in 98 classes; 49% boys). We find that boys are more exposed to resistant friends than girls, and that adolescents are influenced by the resistant behavior of friends. These peer processes do not contribute to a widening of the gender gap in resistance to schooling, yet they contribute somewhat to the persistence of the initial gender gap. Boys are not more responsive to the resistant behavior of friends than girls. Instead, girls are influenced more by the resistant behavior of lower status friends than boys. This explains to some extent why boys increase their resistance to schooling more over time. All in all, peer-influence and selection processes seem to play a minor role in gender differences in resistance to schooling. These findings nuance under investigated claims that have been made in the literature.
PMID: 28560547 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]