Social isolation affects the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice.
Endocrinology. 2007 Oct;148(10):4658-66. Epub 2007 Jul 19. PMID: 17640995
Katsunori Nonogaki, Kana Nozue, Yoshitomo Oka
Social isolation is associated with increased risks of mortality and morbidity. In this study, we show that chronic individual housing accelerated body weight gain and adiposity in KK mice but not C57BL6J mice, and fully developed diabetes in KKA(y) mice. Individually housed KK and KKA(y) mice increased body weight gain over the initial 2 wk without increased daily average food consumption compared with group-housed animals. The individually housed KK and KKA(y) mice then gradually increased food consumption for the next 1 wk. The chronic social isolation-induced obesity (SIO) was associated with hyperleptinemia and lower plasma corticosterone and active ghrelin levels but not hyperinsulinemia. Elevated plasma leptin in the SIO suppressed expression of 5-HT2C receptor in white adipose tissue. The SIO was also associated with decreased expression of beta3-adrenergic receptors in white adipose tissue and hypothalamic leptin receptor, which might be secondary to the enhanced adiposity. Interestingly, social isolation acutely reduced food consumption and body weight gain compared with group-housed obese db/db mice with leptin receptor deficiency. Social isolation-induced hyperglycemia in KKA(y) mice was associated with increased expression of hepatic gluconeogenetic genes independent of insulin. These findings suggest that social isolation promotes obesity due to primary decreased energy expenditure and secondary increased food consumption, which are independent of the disturbed leptin signaling, in KK mice, and develops into insulin-independent diabetes associated with increased expression of hepatic gluconeogenetic genes in KKA(y) mice. Thus, social isolation can be included in the environmental factors that contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Article Published Date : Oct 01, 2007
Incorporating animal-assisted therapy in mental health treatments for adolescents: A systematic review of canine assisted psychotherapy.
PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0210761
Authors: Jones MG, Rice SM, Cotton SM
INTRODUCTION: As interest in Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAI) grows, there is increasing need to differentiate informal activities from formal and professionally directed therapies, including mental health focussed Canine-Assisted Psychotherapy (CAP). There have been no reviews focusing exclusively on CAP and the distinct developmental period of adolescence. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristics of CAP interventions, their impacts and their acceptability, tolerability and feasibility for adolescents with mental health disorders.
METHOD: A systematic review identified studies incorporating canines into mental health treatments for adolescents aged 10-19 years. Studies reporting qualitative or quantitative psychological or psychosocial outcomes were included.
RESULTS: Seven studies were scrutinised. Intervention characteristics varied, including a range of formats, settings, locations, doses, and facilitators. Information on the role of the canines in sessions was sparse. CAP had a positive impact on primary diagnoses and symptomatology, conferring additional benefits to standard treatments for internalising disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and equivalent effects for anxiety, anger and externalising disorders. CAP was associated with positive impacts on secondary factors including increased engagement and socialisation behaviours, and reductions in disruptive behaviours within treatment sessions. Global functioning also improved. There was insufficient evidence that CAP improved factors associated with self-esteem, subjective wellbeing, or coping. Good attendance and retention rates indicated high levels of acceptability. Moderate to high tolerability was also indicated. Feasibility may be limited by additional training and logistical requirements.
RECOMMENDATIONS: We recommend the development of theoretically informed, standardised (manualised) intervention protocols that may subsequently form the basis of efficacy and effectiveness testing. Such protocols should clearly describe canine-participant-facilitator interactions via a formalised nomenclature; spontaneous (animal-led), adjunctive (facilitator-led), and experiential (participant-led).
CONCLUSIONS: There is emerging evidence to suggest that CAP improves the efficacy of mental health treatments in self-selected adolescent populations via reductions in primary symptomatology, and via secondary factors that improve therapeutic processes and quality, such as engagement and retention.
PMID: 30653587 [PubMed - in process]
RECASTing racial stress and trauma: Theorizing the healing potential of racial socialization in families.
Am Psychol. 2019 Jan;74(1):63-75
Authors: Anderson RE, Stevenson HC
For youth and adults of color, prolonged exposure to racial discrimination may result in debilitating psychological, behavioral, and health outcomes. Research has suggested that race-based traumatic stress can manifest from direct and vicarious discriminatory racial encounters (DREs) that impact individuals during and after an event. To help their children prepare for and prevent the deleterious consequences of DREs, many parents of color utilize racial socialization (RS), or communication about racialized experiences. Although RS research has illuminated associations between RS and youth well-being indicators (i.e., psychosocial, physiological, academic, and identity-related), findings have mainly focused on RS frequency and endorsement in retrospective accounts and not on how RS is transmitted and received, used during in-the-moment encounters, or applied to reduce racial stress and trauma through clinical processes. This article explores how systemic and interpersonal DREs require literate, active, and bidirectional RS to repair from race-based traumatic stress often overlooked by traditional stress and coping models and clinical services. A novel theory (Racial Encounter Coping Appraisal and Socialization Theory [RECAST]), wherein RS moderates the relationship between racial stress and self-efficacy in a path to coping and well-being, is advanced. Greater RS competency is proposed as achievable through intentional and mindful practice. Given heightened awareness to DREs plaguing youth, better understanding of how RS processes and skills development can help youth and parents heal from the effects of past, current, and future racial trauma is important. A description of proposed measures and RECAST's use within trauma-focused clinical practices and interventions for family led healing is also provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 30652900 [PubMed - in process]
Longitudinal relations of cultural orientation and emotional expressivity in Chinese American immigrant parents: Sociocultural influences on emotional development in adulthood.
Dev Psychol. 2019 Jan 17;:
Authors: Chen SH, Zhou Q
Research in developmental psychology has traditionally focused on parents' roles as agents of emotion socialization in their children's socioemotional development. By contrast, little longitudinal research has examined sociocultural mechanisms shaping parents' own emotional development. Immigrant parents are an ideal population in which to examine these processes and advance conceptual models of culture and continuing emotional development in adulthood. Using developmental functionalism and bioecological models of development as theoretical frameworks, the present study examined how immigrant parents' and children's cultural orientations were prospectively related to parents' self-reported emotional expressivity in the family context. Chinese American immigrant parents (n = 210) with elementary-aged children were assessed at two time points approximately 2 years apart. Path analyses using longitudinal panel models indicated that immigrant parents' cultural orientation in various cultural domains (language, social relationships, media) prospectively predicted their emotional expressivity in the family context. Parents' emotional expressivity was also predicted by children's cultural orientation and by discrepancies between their own and their children's cultural orientations. Our results underscore pathways through which immigrants' interactions with the family and broader sociocultural context can contribute to continued emotional development in adulthood. We discuss implications of our findings for developmentally informed approaches to the study of culture and emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 30652886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Toward greater involvement of youth with complex communication needs in the selection of augmentative and alternative communication devices.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2019 Jan 17;:1-9
Authors: Swett C, Surins H, Welton C, Shepherd TA, Renzoni AM, Ryan SE
PURPOSE: The study aim was to examine the measurement properties of the Youth Evaluation of Products Scale for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (YEP-AAC) as a means to understand the product attitudes of youth toward their AAC devices.
METHODS: In study 1, four males and two females between the ages of 8 and 17 years (median age = 14 years) participated in face-to-face interviews. A researcher administered the YEP-AAC and then asked youths to explain the rationale for their item ratings. Two researchers analyzed masked transcripts of the interviews to predict the valence of item ratings assigned by youths. In study 2, 18 families participated in a mailed survey to examine the reliability and validity of the scale domains. Seventeen mothers/one father and their children (9 male/9 female) between the ages of 10 and 20 years participated (median age = 16 years).
RESULTS: The level of chance-corrected agreement between valences converted from youth ratings on the YEP-AAC and those assigned by researchers was fair (weighted kappa = 0.38). Internal consistencies of the scale domains were acceptable. Youths who rated their AAC devices more favourably had higher functional communication as hypothesized.
CONCLUSION: The two studies provide support for the face validity, internal consistency and convergent validity of the YEP-AAC as a measure of the product attitudes of youth with complex communication needs. Implications for rehabilitation Developing reliable ways to understand the product needs, preferences and values of youth with complex communication needs will help to support the selection, acquisition and use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices. Consumer socialization helps to explain how youth may acquire the skills, knowledge and experience relevant to their role as AAC consumers. Reliable youth-report questionnaires that are grounded in consumer socialization provide an expedient way to understand the product attitudes of young consumers with complex communication needs.
PMID: 30652627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The Conscripted Curriculum and the Reproduction of Racial Inequalities in Contemporary U.S. Medical Education.
J Health Soc Behav. 2019 Jan 17;:22146518821388
Authors: Olsen LD
In their attempt to address racial disparities in the provision of health care, the U.S. medical profession has reproduced racial inequalities of their own. In this article, I draw upon interview data with medical educators and students to detail how medical educators routinely offload the instruction on the social underpinnings and consequences of race onto students, particularly students of color. I develop the concept of the conscripted curriculum to capture how students' social identities are utilized by educators in the professionalization process. While there are exceptions in curricular approaches, most educators create the conscripted curriculum by eliciting students to share their social experiences with race in the small group setting while only providing students with didactic material on biological understandings of race. As a result, students of color report experiencing more emotionally exhausting and unrewarded labor than their white peers, and educators further devalue the social implications of race for health care.
PMID: 30650990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Outdoor physical activity bears multiple benefits to health and society.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2019 Jan 16;:
Authors: Manferdelli G, La Torre A, Codella R
INTRODUCTION: Cutting-edge technologies and the rapid urbanization have led to several advantages for mankind and society. However such benefits have been accompanied with the alarming diffusion of sedentary lifestyle disorders, metabolic diseases, major depression and socialization problems, affecting global economy dramatically. The pandemic expansion of chronic diseases is associated with physical inactivity. During the last decade, numerous cities and organizations worldwide have started to adopt strategies aimed at improving outdoor physical activity levels in city residents.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review focusing on the effects of regular outdoors sports and - physical activities across all ages was conducted through multiple databases, according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) standards.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Performing outdoor sports and -physical activities may bear social, psychological and physiological benefits. Preventive effects are similarly documented in youth and seniors towards several morbid conditions: vitamin D deficiency, multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis and myopia.
CONCLUSIONS: Giving the beneficial effects of outdoor sports and -physical activities, promotion strategies should be strongly advocated and developed nationally and globally. Likewise, dedicated research areas should inspire guidelines for the promotion of various outdoor activities - a good practice for the social scenario and the healthcare system.
PMID: 30650943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Emotional socialisation and burnout in medicine and the role of medical educators.
Med Educ. 2019 Jan 15;:
Authors: Laws E, Samuriwo R, Webb K, Bullock A
PMID: 30644119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Caught in a vicious cycle? Explaining bidirectional spillover between parent-child relationships and peer victimization.
Dev Psychopathol. 2019 Jan 15;:1-10
Authors: Kaufman TML, Kretschmer T, Huitsing G, Veenstra R
Relationships with parents and peers are crucial for children's socialization, but how parent-child and peer relationships mutually affect each other is not well understood. Guided by spillover theory, we zoomed in on the bidirectional interplay between parental rejection and warmth on the one hand and peer victimization on the other, and examined whether children's maladjustment symptoms mediated hypothesized cross-domain spillover effects. Data stem from five waves of the longitudinal KiVa study among 9,770 children (50% boys; mean age = 9.16, standard deviation = 1.29). Results from random intercept cross-lagged panel models showed that higher parental rejection and lower parental warmth predicted increases in peer victimization and vice versa across waves, thus supporting the bidirectional model. Moreover, spillover from parent-child rejection and warmth to peer victimization was partially driven by children's depressive symptoms and bullying perpetration. Vice versa, spillover from peer victimization to parent-child rejection and warmth was partially driven by children's social anxiety, depressive symptoms, conduct problems, and bullying perpetration. Thus, children might get caught in persistent problems in two important social domains, and these two domains influence each other through children's maladjustment. Family and school interventions should be integrated to prevent a downwards spiral.
PMID: 30642413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Researching Parental Socialization Styles across Three Cultural Contexts: Scale ESPA29 Bi-Dimensional Validity in Spain, Portugal, and Brazil.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 11;16(2):
Authors: Martínez I, Garcia F, Fuentes MC, Veiga F, Garcia OF, Rodrigues Y, Cruise E, Serra E
Recent research that relates parenting with adolescent adjustment has shown the importance of considering the cultural context of the relationship. New results are emerging when considering the classical four-typologies model of parental socialization in some European and South-American countries. Among the instruments used in this emergent research is the Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29. This scale is a bi-dimensional parenting instrument that was specifically developed to measure the four parenting typologies, through the dimensions of acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition. This study examines the good fit of the orthogonal bi-factor model based on the ESPA29 versus one-dimensional and bi-dimensional oblique alternative models, with three adolescent samples from 12 to 17 years old (53.4% girls), from Spain (N = 826), Portugal (N = 752), and Brazil (N = 628). We applied structural equation models (SEMs) to analyze the fit of the models to the data. The results confirm a better fit to the data for the orthogonal bi-factor model versus one-dimensional and bi-dimensional oblique alternative models across country, adolescent sex, and the three age groups. Additionally, the convergent validity of the scale was proved by showing the relation of the two parenting dimensions with self-concept. The results guarantee the adequacy of the ESPA29 to measure parenting styles.
PMID: 30641982 [PubMed - in process]