Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Spa Bathing

Effects of low-dose light-emitting-diode therapy in combination with water bath for atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

Abstract Title: Effects of low-dose light-emitting-diode therapy in combination with water bath for atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Abstract Source: Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2016 Jan ;32(1):34-43. Epub 2015 Nov 6. PMID: 26479265 Abstract Author(s): Chang-Hyun Kim, Kyung Ah Cheong, Won Suk Lim, Hyung-Moo Park, Ai-Young Lee Article Affiliation: Chang-Hyun Kim Abstract: BACKGROUND: Light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy and water bath therapy have beneficial effect on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin disease. However, not all current treatments work well and alternative therapies are need. The contribution of combination therapy with low-dose 850 nm LED and water bath was investigated on dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. METHODS: Low-dose LED (10, 15, and 20 J/cm(2) ) irradiation, water bath (36± 1°C) were administered separately and together to the Df-induced NC/Nga mice in acrylic jar once a day for 2 weeks. RESULTS: Combined therapy with low-dose LED therapy and water bath therapy significantly ameliorated the development of AD-like skin lesions. These effects were correlated with the suppression of total IgE, NO, histamine, and Th2-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, combination therapy significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the skin lesions. The beneficial therapeutic effects of this combination therapy might regulate by the inhibition of various immunological responses including Th2-mediated immune responses, inflammatory mediators such as IgE, histamine, and NO, as well as inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: The combination therapy of LED and water bath might be used as an efficacious, safe, and steroid-free alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Short- and long-term effects of mud-bath treatment on hand osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial.

Abstract Title: Short- and long-term effects of mud-bath treatment on hand osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. Abstract Source: Int J Biometeorol. 2014 Jan ;58(1):79-86. Epub 2013 Jan 14. PMID: 23314489 Abstract Author(s): Antonella Fioravanti, Sara Tenti, Chiara Giannitti, Nicola Angelo Fortunati, Mauro Galeazzi Article Affiliation: Antonella Fioravanti Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate both the short-term and the long-term effectiveness of spa therapy in patients with primary hand osteoarthritis (OA). This was a prospective randomized, single blind controlled trial. Sixty outpatients with primary bilateral hand OA were included in the study and randomized to one of two groups. One group (n = 30) was treated with 12 daily local mud packs and generalized thermal baths with a sulfate-calcium-magnesium-fluorides mineral water added to usual treatment. The control group (n = 30) continued regular outpatient care routine (exercise, NSAIDs and/or analgesics). Each patient was examined at baseline, after 2 weeks, and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Primary outcome measures were global spontaneous hand pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the functional index for hand osteoarthritis (FIHOA) score; secondary outcomes were health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), duration of morning stiffness, medical outcomes study 36-item short form (SF-36) and symptomatic drugs consumption. Our results demonstrated that the efficacy of spa therapy was significant in all the assessed parameters, both at the end of therapy and after 3 months; the values of FIHOA, HAQ and drugs consumption continued to be significantly better after 6 months in comparison with baseline. There were no significant modifications of the parameters throughout the follow-up in the control group. Differences between the two groups were significant for all parameters at the 15th day and at 3 months follow-up; regarding FIHOA, HAQ, and symptomatic drugs consumption, the difference between the two groups persisted and was significant at 6month follow-up. Tolerability of spa therapy seemed to be good. In conclusion, our results confirm that the beneficial effects of spa therapy in patients with hand OAlast over time. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2013

Effects of mild-stream bathing on recovery from mental fatigue. 📎

Abstract Title: Effects of mild-stream bathing on recovery from mental fatigue. Abstract Source: Med Sci Monit. 2010 Jan;16(1):CR8-14. PMID: 20037494 Abstract Author(s): Kei Mizuno, Masaaki Tanaka, Kanako Tajima, Naoki Okada, Kazumasa Rokushima, Yasuyoshi Watanabe Article Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bathing in hot water is very common in Japan; people bathe in order to clean their bodies and to recover from physical and mental fatigue. However, there have been few reports examining the effects of bathing on recovery from mental fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mild-stream bathing on recovery from mental fatigue. MATERIAL/METHODS: During mild-stream bathing, a mild stream continuously passes from the sole to the calf, thigh, waist and back, thus providing a massage function. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover experiment, 14 male healthy volunteers were randomized into normal bathing and mild-stream bathing experiments. After a fatigue-inducing mental task for 4 hours, subjects took a normal or mild-stream bath. RESULTS: Heart rate was higher, muscle stiffness in the waist was lower and plasma cortisol levels tended to be lower after mild-stream bathing when compared to normal bathing. In addition, after mild-stream bathing, mental task performance, as assessed by reaction times on an advanced trail making test, was better than that after normal bathing. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that improved working memory processing, diminished waist muscle tone, and attenuated mental stress are induced by mild-stream bathing. Therefore, mild-stream bathing appears to be more effective for alleviating mental fatigue than normal bathing. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010

Spa therapy in rheumatology. Indications based on the clinical guidelines of the French National Authority for health and the European League Against Rheumatism, and the results of 19 randomized clinical trials

Abstract Title: [Spa therapy in rheumatology. Indications based on the clinical guidelines of the French National Authority for health and the European League Against Rheumatism, and the results of 19 randomized clinical trials]. Abstract Source: Bull Acad Natl Med. 2009 Jun;193(6):1345-56; discussion 1356-8. PMID: 20120164 Abstract Author(s): Alain Françon, Romain Forestier Article Affiliation: Centre de recherches rhumatologiques et thermales, 73100 Aix les Bains. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: The objective of this work was to update the rheumatologic indications of spa therapy, based on clinical practice guidelines published by the French National Authority for Health (HAS) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), and on the results of randomized clinical trials (RCT) METHODOLOGY: We first examined the indications for which spa therapy is mentioned and/or recommended in HAS and EULAR guidelines. We then identified RCTs in spa therapy and rheumatology by using the key words spa therapy, balneology, balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, mud therapy and mineral water in the Pubmed, Pascal and Embase databases. Only RCTs including a statistical analysis of between-group outcomes were retained We also examined the possible contribution of RCTs not listed in the bibliography of the guidelines. RESULTS: RECOMMENDATIONS: spa therapy is recommended by HAS for chronic lower back pain, rank B and for stabilized rheumatoid arthritis, rank C. In ankylosing spondylitis, EULAR classifies spa therapy along with physiotherapy, rank A. In fibromyalgia, EULAR recommends hot-water balneology, an important component of spa therapy, rank B, based on five RCTs, of which three were carried out in thermal springs. Nineteen RCTs that comprised a statistical comparison of between-group outcomes were identified Sixteen studies indicated a persistent improvement (at least twelve weeks) in pain, analgesic and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug consumption, functional capacity and/or quality of life, in the following indications: chronic lower back pain, knee osteoarthritis, hand osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, ankylosing spondylitis andrheumatoidarthritis (PR). CONCLUSION: Spa therapy, or hot-water balneology, appears to be indicated for chronic low back pain, stabilized rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and fibromyalgia. RCT findings suggest that patients with knee and hand osteoarthritis might also benefit. Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2009

Change in salivary physiological stress markers by spa bathing. 📎

Abstract Title: Change in salivary physiological stress markers by spa bathing. Abstract Source: Biomed Res. 2006 Feb;27(1):11-4. PMID: 16543660 Abstract Author(s): Masahiro Toda, Kanehisa Morimoto, Shingo Nagasawa, Kazuyuki Kitamura Abstract: We assessed the stress relief effect of spa bathing by measuring sensitive salivary stress markers, cortisol and chromogranin A (CgA). From 12 healthy males, saliva samples were collected immediately before and after spa bathing, and 30 min after that. Salivary cortisol and CgA levels were determined by ELISA. Salivary cortisol levels decreased after spa bathing. This tendency was more pronounced in individuals with higher levels of stress. The high-stress group showed lower salivary CgA levels after spa bathing, while the low-stress group higher salivary CgA levels in the same condition. These findings suggest that the spa bathing has a moderate affect on the stress relief. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2006

Bathing in a magnesium-rich Dead Sea salt solution improves skin barrier function, enhances skin hydration, and reduces inflammation in atopic dry skin.

Abstract Title: Bathing in a magnesium-rich Dead Sea salt solution improves skin barrier function, enhances skin hydration, and reduces inflammation in atopic dry skin. Abstract Source: Int J Dermatol. 2005 Feb;44(2):151-7. PMID: 15689218 Abstract Author(s): Ehrhardt Proksch, Hans-Peter Nissen, Markus Bremgartner, Colin Urquhart Article Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Magnesium salts, the prevalent minerals in Dead Sea water, are known to exhibit favorable effects in inflammatory diseases. We examined the efficacy of bathing atopic subjects in a salt rich in magnesium chloride from deep layers of the Dead Sea (Mavena(R) Dermaline Mg(46) Dead Sea salt, Mavena AG, Belp, Switzerland). Volunteers with atopic dry skin submerged one forearm for 15 min in a bath solution containing 5% Dead Sea salt. The second arm was submerged in tap water as control. Before the study and at weeks 1-6, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, skin roughness, and skin redness were determined. We found one subgroup with a normal and one subgroup with an elevated TEWL before the study. Bathing in the Dead Sea salt solution significantly improved skin barrier function compared with the tap water-treated control forearm in the subgroup with elevated basal TEWL. Skin hydration was enhanced on the forearm treated with the Dead Sea salt in each group, which means the treatment moisturized the skin. Skin roughness and redness of the skin as a marker for inflammation were significantly reduced after bathing in the salt solution. This demonstrates that bathing in the salt solution was well tolerated, improved skin barrier function, enhanced stratum corneum hydration, and reduced skin roughness and inflammation. We suggest that the favorable effects of bathing in the Dead Sea salt solution are most likely related to the high magnesium content. Magnesium salts are known to bind water, influence epidermal proliferation and differentiation, and enhance permeability barrier repair. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2005

Effects of Spa therapy on serum leptin and adiponectin levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Abstract Title: Effects of Spa therapy on serum leptin and adiponectin levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Abstract Source: Am J Ind Med. 2003 Feb;43(2):212-20. PMID: 20237929 Abstract Author(s): Antonella Fioravanti, Luca Cantarini, Maria Romana Bacarelli, Arianna de Lalla, Linda Ceccatelli, Patrizia Blardi Article Affiliation: Rheumatology Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, University of Siena, Viale Bracci, 1, 53100, Siena, Italy, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Abstract: Adipocytokine, including leptin and adiponectin, may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether spa therapy modified plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin in thirty patients with knee OA treated with a cycle of a combination of daily locally applied mud-packs and bicarbonate-sulphate mineral bath water. Leptin and adiponectin plasma levels were assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks, upon completion of the spa treatment period. The concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were measured by ELISA. At basal time, plasma leptin levels were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) and gender, but no significant correlation was found with patient age, duration of disease, radiographic severity of knee OA, VAS score or Lequesne index. There was no correlation between plasma adiponectin level and BMI, gender and age, duration of the disease, radiographic severity of knee OA and VAS score. A significant correlation of plasma adiponectin levels was found only with the Lequesne index. At the end of the mud-bath therapy cycle, serum leptin levels showed a slight but not significant increase, while a significant decrease (P<0.05) in serum adiponectin levels was found. However, leptin and adiponectin concentrations after treatment were not correlated with other clinical parameters. In conclusion, our data show that spa therapy can modify plasma levels of the adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin, important mediators of cartilage metabolism. Whether this effect may play a potential role in OA needs further investigations. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2003

Spa therapy for gonarthrosis: a prospective study.

Abstract Title: Spa therapy for gonarthrosis: a prospective study. Abstract Source: Rheumatol Int. 1995;15(2):65-8. PMID: 7481482 Abstract Author(s): I Wigler, O Elkayam, D Paran, M Yaron Article Affiliation: Department of Rheumatology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Israel. Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spa therapy on clinical parameters of patients with gonarthrosis. Patients with gonarthrosis (n = 33) underwent a 2-week spa therapy using three treatment regimes and a 20-week follow-up as follows: group I (n = 11) had mineral water baths and hot native mineral mud packs, group II (n = 12) had mineral water baths and rinsed mineral-free mud packs and group III (n = 10) had tap water baths and mineral-free mud packs. The patients and the assessing rheumatologist were blinded to the difference in the treatment protocols. A significant improvement in the index of severity of the knee (ISK), as well as night pain scores, was achieved in group I. Improvement in physical findings and a reduction in pain ratings on a visual analogue scale (VAS) did not reach statistical significance. Analgesic consumption was significantly decreased in both groups I and III for up to 12 weeks. Global improvement assessed by patients and physician was observed in all three groups up to 16 weeks but persisted to the end of the follow-up period in group I only. Patients with gonarthrosis seemed to benefit from spa therapy under all three regimes. However, for two parameters (night pain and ISK) the combination of mineral water baths and mud packs (group I) appeared to be superior. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 1995

Atrial natriuretic factor: one of the mechanisms of action of the phlebology bath at Barbotan

Abstract Title: [Atrial natriuretic factor: one of the mechanisms of action of the phlebology bath at Barbotan]. Abstract Source: J Mal Vasc. 1991;16(2):99-104. PMID: 1830607 Abstract Author(s): J Suffran, F X Galen, G Habrioux, C Norelle, D Mas, N Barbelet, C Bianchi, M T Capdepont, D Gautier, J Lachèze Abstract: The effect of thermal baths on oedema of the lower limbs might be explained by physical mechanisms of hydrostatic pressure resulting from the use of a deep bath and a centripetal underwater jet, by which the veins and lymph ducts are drained every day. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the existence of hormonal mechanisms which would account for the diuretic effect of thermal baths. One of the effects observed with hydrotherapy is the physiological diuresis that follows each bath, this diuresis would appear to depend at least in part on the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). The criteria by which assessment can be made essentially biological: ANF level and its biological effects on blood and urine; aldosterone level; plasma renin activity (PRA); creatinine clearance; hematocrit; proteinemia; and blood and urine electrolyte balance. The inclusion criteria are: subjects selected at random and willing cooperate. The criteria for exclusion are disease states which modify ANF kinesis: congestive heart failure, cardiac rhythm disorders, decompensated cirrhosis of liver, obesity, treatment antihypertensive drugs. METHODS: Thirty patients were put through the same experimental sequence, as follows: emptying of the bladder and ingestion of 200 cc of water; seated rest fort 30 mn, after which (to): blood sample; urine sample; ingestion of 200 cc of water; deep bath for 20 mn, i.e. the basic hydro treatment in phlebology at Barbotan. The deep bath is specific to Barbotan and the patient is subjected to maximum immersion in water at a mesothermal temperature of 34.5 degrees C, followed by (t1): blood and urine sample; ingestion of 200 cc of water; supine rest for 90 mn, followed by (t2): blood and urine sample. RESULTS: Data from twenty-eight patients were usable. In this protocol, we use variance analysis with repeated measurements and a 95% confidence limit. The mean value of the principal parameters studies are set out in the following table; these value are accompanied by the degree of significance of the modification at (t1) and (t2). Our experimentation with thirty patients showed that the big thermal bath at Barbotan produces a highly significant increase in ANF secretion, resulting in the diuresis observed after the use of the bath. The antagonist effect of AFN on the renin--angiotensin-aldosterone system was corroborated: we found decreased aldosterone, PRA and creatinine clearance, and increased diuresis and natriuresis. The renal and cardiovascular effects observed after extended immersion in the Barbotan bath (increased diuresis, tachycardia and hypotension, transitory venous vasoplegia and ephemeral vasodilatation of the surface capillaries) are the result of increased ANF secretion. [formula: see text] Supine rest immediately after the bath is essential. This sustains the enhanced ANF and thus reinforces its renal effects, while reducing adverse cardiovascular effects such as the orthostatic hypotension and venous vasoplegia that are normally observed after use of the bath. Moreover, by reducing venular and lymphatic pressure, clinostatism facilitate interstitial to intravascular tissue fluid exchanges and thus helps to drain oedema from the legs. It is striking to note that the hydrotherapy prescribed at Barbotan les Thermes has always included the three most potent factors for ANF release: deep immersion in the big bath, immediate supine rest, and walking. Physiological diuresis has thus been induced empirically as an essential part of the treatment of lower limb phlebopathies. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 1991
Therapeutic Actions Spa Bathing

NCBI pubmed

Legionellosis Associated with Recreational Waters: A Systematic Review of Cases and Outbreaks in Swimming Pools, Spa Pools, and Similar Environments.

Related Articles Legionellosis Associated with Recreational Waters: A Systematic Review of Cases and Outbreaks in Swimming Pools, Spa Pools, and Similar Environments. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Jul 30;15(8): Authors: Leoni E, Catalani F, Marini S, Dallolio L Abstract Legionella spp. is widespread in many natural and artificial water systems, such as hot water distribution networks, cooling towers, and spas. A particular risk factor has been identified in the use of whirlpools and hot tubs in spa facilities and public baths. However, there has been no systematic synthesis of the published literature reporting legionellosis cases or outbreaks related to swimming/spa pools or similar environments used for recreational purposes (hot springs, hot tubs, whirlpools, natural spas). This study presents the results of a systematic review of the literature on cases and outbreaks associated with these environments. Data were extracted from 47 articles, including 42 events (17 sporadic cases and 25 outbreaks) and 1079 cases, 57.5% of which were diagnosed as Pontiac fever, without any deaths, and 42.5% were of Legionnaires' disease, with a fatality rate of 6.3%. The results are presented in relation to the distribution of Legionella species involved in the events, clinical manifestations and diagnosis, predisposing conditions in the patients, favourable environmental factors, and quality of the epidemiological investigation, as well as in relation to the different types of recreational water sources involved. Based on the epidemiological and microbiological criteria, the strength of evidence linking a case/outbreak of legionellosis with a recreational water system was classified as strong, probable, and possible; in more than half of the events the resulting association was strong. PMID: 30061526 [PubMed - in process]