Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Sunlight exposure

Preharvest Ultraviolet C Irradiation Increased the Level of Polyphenol Accumulation and Flavonoid Pathway Gene Expression in Strawberry Fruit.

Abstract Title: Preharvest Ultraviolet C Irradiation Increased the Level of Polyphenol Accumulation and Flavonoid Pathway Gene Expression in Strawberry Fruit. Abstract Source: J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Nov 22 ;65(46):9970-9979. Epub 2017 Nov 8. PMID: 29091440 Abstract Author(s): Yanqun Xu, Marie Thérèse Charles, Zisheng Luo, Benjamin Mimee, Pierre-Yves Veronneau, Daniel Rolland, Dominique Roussel Article Affiliation: Yanqun Xu Abstract: Preharvest ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation is an innovative approach for increasing the bioactive phytochemical content of strawberries to increase the disease resistance and nutritional value. This study investigated the changes in individual flavonoids in strawberry developed with three different cumulative doses of preharvest UV-C treatment (low, 9.6 kJ m; middle, 15 kJ m; and high , 29.4 kJ m). Significant accumulation (p<0.05) of phenolics (25-75% increase), namely, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside/rutinoside, glucoside and glucuronide of quercetin and kaempferol, and ellagic acid, was found in the fruit subjected to low and middle supplemental doses of UV-C radiation. The expression of the flavonoid pathway structural genes, i.e., FaCHS1, FaCHI, FaFHT, FaDFR, FaFLS, and FaFGT, was upregulated in the low- and middle-dose groups, while the early stage genes were not affected by the high dose. FaMYB1 was also relatively enhanced in the low- and middle-dose groups, while FaASR was upregulated in only the low-dose group. Hormetic preharvest UV-C dose ranges for enhancing the polyphenol content of strawberries were established for the first time. Article Published Date : Nov 21, 2017

Prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease with pathogen-reduced platelets with amotosalen and ultraviolet A light: a review.

Abstract Title: Prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease with pathogen-reduced platelets with amotosalen and ultraviolet A light: a review. Abstract Source: Vox Sang. 2017 Oct ;112(7):607-613. Epub 2017 Aug 18. PMID: 28833219 Abstract Author(s): J Cid Article Affiliation: J Cid Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a serious complication of blood component transfusion therapy, caused by donor T lymphocytes.γ-Irradiation or pathogen inactivation methods, capable of inactivating proliferating T cells in blood components, should be selected to prevent TA-GVHD. This review summarizes the published evidence to support the use of pathogen-reduced platelets with amotosalen (150 μm) and ultraviolet A light(UVA, 320-400 nm, 3 J/cm) for preventing TA-GVHD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Available literature on the use of pathogen-reduced platelets to prevent TA-GVHD was reviewed. RESULTS: Observational studies, animal models, in vitro studies and mechanistic studies of pathogen-reduced platelets with amotosalen and UVA light showed that inactivation of T cells are equal or even superior toγ-irradiation. CONCLUSION: Pathogen-reduced platelets with amotosalen and UVA light can be used as a measure to prevent TA-GVHD. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2017

Ultraviolet-A1 irradiation therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus. 📎

Abstract Title: Ultraviolet-A1 irradiation therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus. Abstract Source: Lupus. 2017 Oct ;26(12):1239-1251. Epub 2017 May 8. PMID: 28480786 Abstract Author(s): H McGrath Article Affiliation: H McGrath Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus, SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which bind to antigens and are deposited within tissues to fix complement, resulting in widespread systemic inflammation. The studies presented herein are consistent with hyperpolarized, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-deficient mitochondria being central to the disease process. These hyperpolarized mitochondria resist the depolarization required for activation-induced apoptosis. The mitochondrial ATP deficits add to this resistance to apoptosis and also reduce the macrophage energy that is needed to clear apoptotic bodies. In both cases, necrosis, the alternative pathway of cell death, results. Intracellular constituents spill into the blood and tissues, eliciting inflammatory responses directed at their removal. What results is"autoimmunity."Ultraviolet (UV)-A1 photons have the capacity to remediate this aberrancy. Exogenous exposure to low-dose, full-body, UV-A1 radiation generates singlet oxygen. Singlet oxygen has two major palliative actions in patients with lupus and the UV-A1 photons themselves have several more. Singlet oxygen depolarizes the hyperpolarized mitochondrion, triggering non-ATP-dependent apoptosis that deters necrosis. Next, singlet oxygen activates the gene encoding heme oxygenase (HO-1), a major governor of systemic homeostasis. HO-1 catalyzes the degradation of the oxidant heme into biliverdin (converted to bilirubin), Fe, and carbon monoxide (CO), the first three of these exerting powerful antioxidant effects, and in conjunction with a fourth, CO, protecting against injury to the coronary arteries, the central nervous system, and the lungs. The UV-A1 photons themselves directly attenuate disease in lupus by reducing B cell activity, preventing the suppression of cell-mediated immunity, slowing an epigenetic progression toward SLE, and ameliorating discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus. Finally, a combination of these mechanisms reduces levels of anticardiolipin antibodies and protects during lupus pregnancy. Capping all of this is that UV-A1 irradiation is an essentially innocuous, highly manageable, and comfortable therapeutic agency. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2017

Demethoxycurcumin in combination with ultraviolet radiation B induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in A431 and HaCaT cells. 📎

Abstract Title: Demethoxycurcumin in combination with ultraviolet radiation B induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in A431 and HaCaT cells. Abstract Source: Tumour Biol. 2017 Jun ;39(6):1010428317706216. PMID: 28618944 Abstract Author(s): Yong Xin, Qian Huang, Pei Zhang, Wen Wen Guo, Long Zhen Zhang, Guan Jiang Article Affiliation: Yong Xin Abstract: Photodynamic therapy is widely used in the clinical treatment of tumors, especially skin cancers. It has been reported that the photosensitizer curcumin, in combination with ultraviolet radiation B, induces HaCaT cell apoptosis, and this effect may be due to the activation of caspase pathways. In this study, we examined the photodynamic effects of demethoxycurcumin, a more stable analogue of curcumin, to determine whether it could induce apoptosis in skin cancer cells. We investigated the effects of a combination of ultraviolet radiation B and demethoxycurcumin on apoptotic cell death in A431 and HaCaT cells and determined the molecular mechanism of action. Our results showed increased apoptosis with a combination of ultraviolet radiation B with demethoxycurcumin, as compared to ultraviolet radiation B or demethoxycurcumin alone. The combination of ultraviolet radiation B irradiation with demethoxycurcumin synergistically induced apoptotic cell death in A431 and HaCaT cells through activation of p53 and caspase pathways, as well as through upregulation of Bax and p-p65 expression and downregulation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and nuclear factor-κB expression. In addition, we found that reactive oxygen species significantly increased with treatment, and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization was remarkably enhanced. In conclusion, our data indicate that demethoxycurcumin may be a promising photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy to induce apoptosis in skin cancer cells. Article Published Date : May 31, 2017

Ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and the development of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes.

Abstract Title: Ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and the development of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes. Abstract Source: Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2017 Mar 16 ;16(3):362-373. PMID: 28009891 Abstract Author(s): Shelley Gorman, Robyn M Lucas, Aidan Allen-Hall, Naomi Fleury, Martin Feelisch Article Affiliation: Shelley Gorman Abstract: Obesity is increasing in prevalence in many countries around the world. Its causes have been traditionally ascribed to a model where energy intake exceeds energy consumption. Reduced energy output in the form of exercise is associated with less sun exposure as many of these activities occur outdoors. This review explores the potential for ultraviolet radiation (UVR), derived from sun exposure, to affect the development of obesity and two of its metabolic co-morbidities, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We here discuss the potential benefits (or otherwise) of exposure to UVR based on evidence from pre-clinical, human epidemiological and clinical studies and explore and compare the potential role of UVR-induced mediators, including vitamin D and nitric oxide. Overall, emerging findings suggest a protective role for UVR and sun exposure in reducing the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, but more epidemiological and clinical research is required that focuses on measuring the direct associations and effects of exposure to UVR in humans. Article Published Date : Mar 15, 2017

Exosomes are released by bystander cells exposed to radiation-induced biophoton signals: Reconciling the mechanisms mediating the bystander effect. 📎

Abstract Title: Exosomes are released by bystander cells exposed to radiation-induced biophoton signals: Reconciling the mechanisms mediating the bystander effect. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2017 ;12(3):e0173685. Epub 2017 Mar 9. PMID: 28278290 Abstract Author(s): Michelle Le, Cristian Fernandez-Palomo, Fiona E McNeill, Colin B Seymour, Andrew J Rainbow, Carmel E Mothersill Article Affiliation: Michelle Le Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to explore a possible molecular mechanism by which ultraviolet (UV) biophotons could elicit bystander responses in reporter cells and resolve the problem of seemingly mutually exclusive mechanisms of a physical UV signal&a soluble factor-mediated bystander signal. METHODS: The human colon carcinoma cell line, HCT116 p53 +/+, was directly irradiated with 0.5 Gy tritium beta particles to induce ultraviolet biophoton emission. Bystander cells were not directly irradiated but were exposed to the emitted UV biophotons. Medium was subsequently harvested from UV-exposed bystander cells. The exosomes extracted from this medium were incubated with reporter cell populations. These reporter cells were then assayed for clonogenic survival and mitochondrial membrane potential with and without prior treatment of the exosomes with RNase. RESULTS: Clonogenic cell survival was significantly reduced in reporter cells incubated with exosomes extracted from cells exposed to secondarily-emitted UV. These exosomes also induced significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization in receiving reporter cells. Conversely, exosomes extracted from non-UV-exposed cells did not produce bystander effects in reporter cells. The treatment of exosomes with RNase prior to their incubation with reporter cells effectively abolished bystander effects in reporter cells and this suggests a role for RNA in mediating the bystander response elicited by UV biophotons and their produced exosomes. CONCLUSION: This study supports a role for exosomes released from UV biophoton-exposed bystander cells in eliciting bystander responses and also indicates a reconciliation between the UV-mediated bystander effect and the bystander effect which has been suggested in the literature to be mediated by soluble factors. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm after ultraviolet light-emitting diode treatment: a comparative study between ultraviolet C and ultraviolet B.

Abstract Title: Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm after ultraviolet light-emitting diode treatment: a comparative study between ultraviolet C and ultraviolet B. Abstract Source: J Biomed Opt. 2017 06 1 ;22(6):65004. PMID: 28655056 Abstract Author(s): Aikaterini Argyraki, Merete Markvart, Lars Bjørndal, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Paul Michael Petersen Article Affiliation: Aikaterini Argyraki Abstract: The objective of this study was to test the inactivation efficiency of two different light-based treatments, namely ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages (24, 48, and 72 h grown). In our experiments, a type of AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms. The effectiveness of the UVB at 296 nm and UVC at 266 nm irradiations was quantified by counting colony-forming units. The survival of less mature biofilms (24 h grown) was studied as a function of UV-radiant exposure. All treatments were performed on three different biological replicates to test reproducibility. It was shown that UVB irradiation was significantly more effective than UVC irradiation in inactivating P. aeruginosa biofilms. UVC irradiation induced insignificant inactivation on mature biofilms. The fact that the UVB at 296 nm exists in daylight and has such disinfection ability on biofilms provides perspectives for the treatment of infectious diseases. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Regular sun exposure benefits health.

Abstract Title: Regular sun exposure benefits health. Abstract Source: Med Hypotheses. 2016 Dec ;97:34-37. Epub 2016 Oct 19. PMID: 27876126 Abstract Author(s): H J van der Rhee, E de Vries, J W Coebergh Article Affiliation: H J van der Rhee Abstract: Since it was discovered that UV radiation was the main environmental cause of skin cancer, primary prevention programs have been started. These programs advise to avoid exposure to sunlight. However, the question arises whether sun-shunning behaviour might have an effect on general health. During the last decades new favourable associations between sunlight and disease have been discovered. There is growing observational and experimental evidence that regular exposure to sunlight contributes to the prevention of colon-, breast-, prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, hypertension and diabetes. Initially, these beneficial effects were ascribed to vitamin D. Recently it became evident that immunomodulation, the formation of nitric oxide, melatonin, serotonin, and the effect of (sun)light on circadian clocks, are involved as well. In Europe (above 50 degrees north latitude), the risk of skin cancer (particularly melanoma) is mainly caused by an intermittent pattern of exposure, while regular exposure confers a relatively low risk. The available data on the negative and positive effects of sun exposure are discussed. Considering these data we hypothesize that regular sun exposure benefits health. Article Published Date : Nov 30, 2016

The role of UVR and vitamin D on T cells and inflammatory bowel disease. 📎

Abstract Title: The role of UVR and vitamin D on T cells and inflammatory bowel disease. Abstract Source: Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2016 Sep 8. Epub 2016 Aug 8. PMID: 27714313 Abstract Author(s): Stephanie Bora, Margherita T Cantorna Article Affiliation: Stephanie Bora Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In experimental IBD the targets of vitamin D that result in protection from IBD include gut epithelial cells, innate immune cells, T cells, and the microbiota. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces production of vitamin D in the skin and suppresses T cell responses in the host. There is limited data demonstrating an effect of UVR on experimental IBD but the mechanisms of UVR suppression in IBD have not been defined. There are several shared effects of vitamin D and UVR on T cells including inhibition of proliferation and suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T cells. Conversely UVR decreases and vitamin D increases IL-4 production from T cells. Together the data suggest that UVR suppression of T cells and potentially IBD are both vitamin D dependent and independent. Article Published Date : Sep 07, 2016

Sunlight Has Cardiovascular Benefits Independently of Vitamin D. 📎

Abstract Title: Sunlight Has Cardiovascular Benefits Independently of Vitamin D. Abstract Source: Blood Purif. 2016 Jan 15 ;41(1-3):130-134. Epub 2016 Jan 15. PMID: 26766556 Abstract Author(s): Richard B Weller Article Affiliation: Richard B Weller Abstract: BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is the leading risk factor for disability adjusted life years lost globally. Epidemiological data show a correlation between increased sun exposure and reduced population BP and cardiovascular mortality. Individuals with high serum vitamin D levels are at reduced risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, yet multiple trial data show that oral vitamin D supplementation has no effect on these endpoints. Sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancers, but no link has been shown with increased all-cause mortality. Cohort studies from Scandinavia show a dose-dependent fall in mortality with increased sun-seeking behaviour. Skin contains significant stores of nitrogen oxides, which can be converted to NO by UV radiation and exported to the systemic circulation. Human studies show that this pathway can cause arterial vasodilatation and reduced BP. Murine studies suggest the same mechanism may reduce metabolic syndrome. SUMMARY: Sunlight has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors independently of vitamin D. Key Messages: All-cause mortality should be the primary determinant of public health messages. Sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer, but sun avoidance may carry more of a cost than benefit for overall good health. Article Published Date : Jan 14, 2016

Vitamin D4 in mushrooms. 📎

Abstract Title: Vitamin D4 in mushrooms. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2012 ;7(8):e40702. Epub 2012 Aug 3. PMID: 22870201 Abstract Author(s): Katherine M Phillips, Ronald L Horst, Nicholas J Koszewski, Ryan R Simon Article Affiliation: Katherine M Phillips Abstract: An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system willresolve vitamins D(3) and D(4). Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011

The effect of solar cycles on human lifespan in the 50 United states: variation in light affects the human genome.

Abstract Title: The effect of solar cycles on human lifespan in the 50 United states: variation in light affects the human genome. Abstract Source: Med Hypotheses. 2010 Jul;75(1):17-25. Epub 2010 May 7. PMID: 20452128 Abstract Author(s): Walter E Lowell, George E Davis Article Affiliation: Psybernetics, Inc. (Research Group), 28 Eastern Ave., Augusta, ME 04330, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: This paper describes the Sun's effect on the human genome as it relates to lifespan and expands our previous study from the State of Maine to the entire United States and the District of Columbia. In the current study we report that those persons conceived and likely born during the peaks (MAX approximately 3years) of approximately 11-year solar cycles lived an average 1.7years less than those conceived and likely born during non-peaks (MIN approximately 8years). Increased energy at solar MAX, albeit relatively a small 0.1% increase from MIN, apparently modifies the human genome/epigenome and engenders changes that predispose to various diseases, thereby shortening lifespan. It is likely that same energy increases beneficial variety in the genome which may enhance adaptability in a changing environment. This study also reports that living at higher elevations increases exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and increases the difference between MAX and MIN in the six states at the highest elevations of their population centroids by approximately 13%, further shortening average lifespan about 3 months. How solar energy affects the genome is still not clear. The mechanism could be quantum mechanical (direct effects at a distance) similar to photosynthesis, or mediated by maternal hormones, chemokines or cytokines. The hypothesis is that specific wavelengths of UVR, experienced at critical times in development as at conception or early gestation, and with specific intensity or rate of change, modulates the expression of human diseases. This hypothesis could be readily testable in mice bred to manifest specific diseases. Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2010

Impact of solar radiation in disinfecting drinking water contaminated with Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar at a point-of-use water treatment. 📎

Abstract Title: Impact of solar radiation in disinfecting drinking water contaminated with Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar at a point-of-use water treatment. Abstract Source: J Appl Microbiol. 2009 Mar;106(3):847-52. Epub 2009 Jan 15. PMID: 19191972 Abstract Author(s): S Mtapuri-Zinyowera, N Midzi, C E Muchaneta-Kubara, T Simbini, T Mduluza Article Affiliation: Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. Abstract: AIMS: To determine the impact of natural sunlight in disinfecting water contaminated with cysts of Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar using plastic containers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Known quantities of Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts in sterile water were exposed to the sun. Containers were made of polyethylene terephthalate, eight painted black on one side, one not painted and another cut open at the top and the last was a high density polypropylene container. Viability testing was performed using vital and fluorescent dyes. The same assays were conducted under cloudy conditions. Thermal control tests were also performed using heat without ultra violet light from the sun. Results show that 99.9% of parasites was inactivated when water temperatures reached 56 degrees C after sunlight exposure. CONCLUSION: Both solar radiation and heat produced by the sun have a synergistic effect in killing cysts of Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar when temperatures rise above 50 degrees C, with complete death at 56 degrees C, using painted 2-l PET containers. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Solar disinfection system using PET containers painted black on one side can be used to disinfect water against Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar using natural sunlight. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2009

An adjunctive preventive treatment for cancer: ultraviolet light and ginkgo biloba, together with other antioxidants, are a safe and powerful, but largely ignored, treatment option for the prevention of cancer.

Abstract Title: An adjunctive preventive treatment for cancer: ultraviolet light and ginkgo biloba, together with other antioxidants, are a safe and powerful, but largely ignored, treatment option for the prevention of cancer. Abstract Source: Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(6):1152-6. Epub 2006 Feb 17. PMID: 16483725 Abstract Author(s): Robert Eli, James A Fasciano Abstract: Cancer has surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death in the United States. The mortality rate for cancer is high (roughly 42%), and it increases dramatically with increasing age, especially in patients between the ages of 40 and 60 years old. Currently, the efforts at cancer prevention have been minimal. The drugs developed so far are expensive and have serious side effects. There are at least 18 vitamin D-sensitive cancers. Ultraviolet light, and specifically ultraviolet B (UVB), could reduce cancer by the limited exposure of suitable skin areas to UVB of an intensity and duration insufficient to produce skin cancer. An irrational fear of skin cancer is preventing this idea from being implemented. Though skin cancer incidence is significant, mortality from skin cancer is relatively rare. Roughly 1,000,000 Americans will be affected by skin cancer but only 10,000 deaths are expected in 2005 (a 1% mortality rate). Skin cancer is easily detected and often cured by excisional biopsy alone. Current practice among practicing clinicians is to use a prescription drug substitute for UV light, calcitriol (1-25 dihydroxycholcalciferol). However, high levels of (calcitriol) are dangerous, and there is no consensus on just what a high dose or a safe dose is. Apart from skin cancer, UV light exposure possesses few risks. Additionally, a number of botanical agents such as ginkgo biloba, vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins can prevent the risk of skin cancer. Ginkgo biloba also possess the following additional cancer chemopreventive qualities: (1) promoting apoptosis of cancer cells; (2) an anti-clastogenic effect on chromosomes by repairing and reconstituting broken and damaged chromosomes; (3) a powerful therapeutic effect on the treatment of fibrosis-related cancer; (4) a therapeutic effect on free radical-induced cancer; (5) a therapeutic effect on the treatment of cancer incident to the result of numerous carcinogens; (6) a therapeutic effect on preventing free radical-induced cancer; (7) an enhancing effect on radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer; and (8) a therapeutic effect on reducing the size of cancer tumors. Ginkgo biloba is widely-used and has few adverse effects. The proposed preventive treatment for cancer consists of short intermittent exposure of the least sensitive areas of the body to sunlight and/or artificial ultraviolet light. The routine testing of plasma vitamin D levels help monitor the effectiveness of the treatment and periodic checkups with a dermatologist help monitor the safety. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2006

Curcumin inhibits the expression of COX-2 in UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) by inhibiting activation of AP-1: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential upstream targets. 📎

Abstract Title: Curcumin inhibits the expression of COX-2 in UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) by inhibiting activation of AP-1: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential upstream targets. Abstract Source: Exp Mol Med. 2005 Jun 30;37(3):186-92. PMID: 16000872 Abstract Author(s): Jae-We Cho, Kun Park, Gi Ryang Kweon, Byeong-Churl Jang, Won-Ki Baek, Min-Ho Suh, Chang-Wook Kim, Kyu-Suk Lee, Seong-Il Suh Article Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Keimyung University, School of Medicine, 194 DongSan-dong Jung-gu, Daegu 700-712, Korea. Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of skin induces an acute inflammation. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein plays key roles in acute inflammation in UVB-irradiated keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Recently, curcumin has been regarded as a promising anti-inflammatory agent due to its ability to inhibit COX-2 expression. However, it remains largely unknown whether curcumin inhibits the UVB-induced COX-2 expression in HaCaT cells. This study was undertaken to clarify the effect of curcumin on the expression of COX-2 in UVB- irradiated HaCaT cells and further determined the molecular mechanisms associated with this process. In this study, we have found that the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, treatment with curcumin strongly inhibited COX-2 mRNA and protein expressions in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Notably, there was effective inhibition by curcumin on UVB-induced activations of p38 MAPK and JNK in HaCaT cells. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 transcription factor was also markedly decreased with curcumin treatment in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. These results collectively suggest that curcumin may inhibit COX- 2 expression by suppressing p38 MAPK and JNK activities in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. We propose that curcumin may be applied as an effective and novel sunscreen drug for the protection of photoinflammation. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2005
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Therapeutic Actions Sunlight exposure

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Vitamin D and its pathway genes in myopia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Related Articles Vitamin D and its pathway genes in myopia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2018 Jul 17;: Authors: Tang SM, Lau T, Rong SS, Yazar S, Chen LJ, Mackey DA, Lucas RM, Pang CP, Yam JC Abstract OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of blood vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) concentration and vitamin D pathway genes with myopia. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies published up to 29 January 2018. Cross-sectional or cohort studies which evaluated the blood 25(OH)D concentration, blood 25(OH)D3 concentration or vitamin D pathway genes, in relation to risk of myopia or refractive errors were included. Standard mean difference (SMD) of blood 25(OH)D concentrations between the myopia and non-myopia groups was calculated. The associations of blood 25(OH)D concentrations and polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes with myopia using summary ORs were evaluated. RESULTS: We summarised seven studies involving 25 008 individuals in the meta-analysis. The myopia group had lower 25(OH)D concentration than the non-myopia group (SMD=-0.27 nmol/L, p=0.001). In the full analysis, the risk of myopia was inversely associated with blood 25(OH)D concentration after adjusting for sunlight exposure or time spent outdoors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.92 per 10 nmol/L, p<0.0001). However, the association was not statistically significant for the <18 years subgroup (AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.13) and was significant only for 25(OH)D3 (likely to be mainly sunlight derived), but not total 25(OH)D (AOR=0.93 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.00007; AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.15). We analysed four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VDR gene from two studies; there was no significant association with myopia. CONCLUSIONS: Lower 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of myopia; the lack of a genetic association suggests that 25(OH)D level may be acting as a proxy for time outdoors. PMID: 30018147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Thermal ecology and microhabitat use of an arboreal lizard in two different Pantanal wetland phytophysionomies (Brazil).

Related Articles Thermal ecology and microhabitat use of an arboreal lizard in two different Pantanal wetland phytophysionomies (Brazil). J Therm Biol. 2018 Jul;75:81-87 Authors: de Souza Terra J, Ortega Z, Ferreira VL Abstract Temperature is one of the main environmental variables shaping the evolution and biology of terrestrial ectotherms. The Pantanal is the largest continuous wetland in the World. However, a lack of knowlegde still exists on the thermal ecology of terrestrial ectothems from this wetland. In this context, the thermal ecology of the lizard Tropidurus lagunablanca Carvalho, 2016 (Squamata, Tropiduridae) was investigated in the Brazilian Pantanal. The thermal ecology and microhabitat use of lizards from a riparian forest was compared to lizards from a park savanna. At both studied areas, air and body temperatures of lizards did not differ between sexes. Mean T. lagunablanca body temperatures were higher at the savanna compared to the forest, while air temperatures were similar in both habitats. The main substrates were tree trunks, with a frequency of approximately 90% of the observations. Lizards from the savanna used higher perches than those from the forest despite -in average- trees were higher at the forest. Lizard sun and shade exposure was similar for both areas. Lizards from both habitats showed similar strong linear relationships between body and air temperatures. However, lizard behaviour of using tree trunk perches differently under different sunlight situations suggests that these lizards actively thermoregulate. Further research on the thermoregulation abilities of this species, with a null hypotesis and behavioral observations will shed light on lizard thermal biology. Studies on the ecophysiological aspects of these lizards should be a priority to understand how they will react to climate change and which conservation measures will be more effective concerning their preservation. PMID: 30017056 [PubMed - in process]

Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm after ultraviolet light-emitting diode treatment: a comparative study between ultraviolet C and ultraviolet B.

Related Articles Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm after ultraviolet light-emitting diode treatment: a comparative study between ultraviolet C and ultraviolet B. J Biomed Opt. 2017 06 01;22(6):65004 Authors: Argyraki A, Markvart M, Bjørndal L, Bjarnsholt T, Petersen PM Abstract The objective of this study was to test the inactivation efficiency of two different light-based treatments, namely ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages (24, 48, and 72 h grown). In our experiments, a type of AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms. The effectiveness of the UVB at 296 nm and UVC at 266 nm irradiations was quantified by counting colony-forming units. The survival of less mature biofilms (24 h grown) was studied as a function of UV-radiant exposure. All treatments were performed on three different biological replicates to test reproducibility. It was shown that UVB irradiation was significantly more effective than UVC irradiation in inactivating P. aeruginosa biofilms. UVC irradiation induced insignificant inactivation on mature biofilms. The fact that the UVB at 296 nm exists in daylight and has such disinfection ability on biofilms provides perspectives for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID: 28655056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

UVB represses melanocyte cell migration and acts through β-catenin.

Related Articles UVB represses melanocyte cell migration and acts through β-catenin. Exp Dermatol. 2017 Oct;26(10):875-882 Authors: Bertrand JU, Petit V, Hacker E, Berlin I, Hayward NK, Pouteaux M, Sage E, Whiteman DC, Larue L Abstract The exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can have both beneficial and deleterious effects: it can lead, for instance, to increased pigmentation and vitamin D synthesis but also to inflammation and skin cancer. UVB may induce genetic and epigenetic alterations and have reversible effects associated with post-translational and gene regulation modifications. β-catenin is a main driver in melanocyte development; although infrequently mutated in melanoma, its cellular localization and activity are frequently altered. Here, we evaluate the consequence of UVB on β-catenin in the melanocyte lineage. We report that in vivo, UVB induces cytoplasmic/nuclear relocalization of β-catenin in melanocytes of newborn mice and adult human skin. In mouse melanocyte and human melanoma cell lines in vitro, UVB increases β-catenin stability, accumulation in the nucleus and cotranscriptional activity, leading to the repression of cell motility and velocity. The activation of the β-catenin signalling pathway and its effect on migration by UVB are increased by an inhibitor of GSK3β, and decreased by an inhibitor of β-catenin. In conclusion, UVB represses melanocyte migration and does so by acting through the GSK3-β-catenin axis. PMID: 28191677 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]