CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Ultrasound therapy

Ultrasound plus low-level laser therapy for knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Abstract Title: Ultrasound plus low-level laser therapy for knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Abstract Source: Rheumatol Int. 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26. PMID: 29480363 Abstract Author(s): Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Alessandra Rossi Paolillo, Jessica Patrícia João, Daniele Frascá, Marcelo Duchêne, Herbert Alexandre João, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato Article Affiliation: Fernanda Rossi Paolillo Abstract: This study evaluated the synergistic effects of ultrasound (US) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with or without therapeutic exercises (TE) in women with knee osteoarthritis. Forty-two Caucasian women with knee osteoarthritis were allocated into three groups: (1) the placebo group who did not perform TE, but the prototype without emitting light or ultrasonic waves was applied, (2) the US + LLLT group in which only the prototype was applied and (3) the TE + US + LLLT group that performed TE before the prototype was applied. However, 35 women completed the full clinical trial. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) using an algometer and functional performance during the sit-to-stand test were carried out. The average PPT levels increased for US + LLLT (41 ± 9 to 54 ± 15 N, p < 0.01) and TE + US + LLLT (32 ± 8 to 45 ± 9 N, p < 0.01) groups. The number of sit-to-stands was significantly higher for all groups. However, the change between pre-treatment and post-treatment (delta value) was greater for the US + LLLT (4 ± 1) and TE + US + LLLT groups (5 ± 1) than for the placebo group (2 ± 1) witha significant intergroup difference (p < 0.05). This study showed reduced pain and increased physical functionality after 3 months of US + LLLT with and without TE. Article Published Date : Feb 25, 2018

Combinational light emitting diode-high frequency focused ultrasound treatment for HeLa cell.

Abstract Title: Combinational light emitting diode-high frequency focused ultrasound treatment for HeLa cell. Abstract Source: Comput Assist Surg (Abingdon). 2017 Sep 28:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 28. PMID: 28956464 Abstract Author(s): Se-Woon Choe, Kitae Park, Chulwoo Park, Jaemyung Ryu, Hojong Choi Article Affiliation: Se-Woon Choe Abstract: PURPOSE: Light sources such as laser and light emitting diode or ultrasound devices have been widely used for cancer therapy and regenerative medicines, since they are more cost-effective and less harmful than radiation therapy, chemotherapy or magnetic treatment. Compared to laser and low intensity ultrasound techniques, light emitting diode and high frequency focused ultrasound shows enhanced therapeutic effects, especially for small tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We propose combinational light emitting diode-high frequency focused ultrasound treatment for human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Individual red, green, and blue light emitting diode light only, high frequency focused ultrasound only, or light emitting diode light combined with high frequency focused ultrasound treatments were applied in order to characterize the responses of HeLa cells. RESULTS: Cell density exposed by blue light emitting diode light combined with high frequency focused ultrasound (2.19 ± 0.58%) was much lower than that of cells exposed by red and green light emitting diode lights (81.71 ± 9.92% and 61.81 ± 4.09%), blue light emitting diode light (11.19 ± 2.51%) or high frequency focused ultrasound only (9.72 ± 1.04%). CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the proposed combinational blue light emitting diode-high frequency focused ultrasound treatment could have therapeutic benefits to alleviate cancer cell proliferation. Article Published Date : Sep 27, 2017

A study to evaluate the effect of ultrasound treatment on nodules in multiple sclerosis patients.

Abstract Title: A study to evaluate the effect of ultrasound treatment on nodules in multiple sclerosis patients. Abstract Source: Int J Neurosci. 2016 May 4:1-20. Epub 2016 May 4. PMID: 27144498 Abstract Author(s): Anna Gil Sánchez, Eugenia Lacasa Andrade, Joan Valls Marsal, Lourdes Assens Tauste, Cristina González Mingot, Jorge Lecina Monge, Margarita Casalilla Puértolas, Nuria Sáez Calero, Albert Sacristán Argemí, Blanca Guiu Badia, Silvia Peralta Moncusí, Hugo Gonzalo Benito, Lara Nogueras Peñabad, Marta Lordan Pujol, Mónica Nieves I Collado, Luis Brieva Ruiz Article Affiliation: Anna Gil Sánchez Abstract: : Purpose/Aim: Ultrasound has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and pain-relief benefits in several conditions such as cellulite or trauma events. We assessed the efficacy of ultrasound therapy on nodules associated with first-line treatments in multiple sclerosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled during 2013 and randomized to two groups: in the control group patients were treated only with a conventional gel prescribed for cellulite and nodules, while in the experimental group the gel was combined with ultrasound therapy. Patients were treated during 10 weeks and followed up for 10 additional weeks. Three nodules were assessed for each patient, measuring size, pain and redness at 0, 10 and 20 weeks. RESULTS: We found a significant decrease in both groups in size, pain and redness across the three visits (p<0.0001 for size, p = 0.01 and p<0.0001 for pain, and p = 0.0002 and p<0.0001 for redness, respectively for the difference at visit 2 and 3 with respect to visit 1). More interestingly, we observed a greater reduction in pain and redness in the ultrasound-treated group, but the difference was only statistically significant at 10 weeks (p = 0.01 for both pain and redness). On the third visit, no differences between control and experimental groups were detected, both achieving the same levels in measured variables. CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments are useful to improve skin reaction after first-line treatments, but ultrasound in combination with gel achieves a faster reduction in pain and redness, suggesting that ultrasound treatment might be a good analgesic for nodule management in multiple sclerosis patients. Article Published Date : May 03, 2016

Ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the pudendal nerve in chronic pelvic pain.

Abstract Title: Ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the pudendal nerve in chronic pelvic pain. Abstract Source: Anaesthesist. 2016 Feb ;65(2):134-136. Epub 2016 Jan 26. PMID: 26811947 Abstract Author(s): D Ozkan, T Akkaya, S Yildiz, A Comert Article Affiliation: D Ozkan Abstract: Chronic pelvic pain is a condition that can be caused by pudendal neuralgia, interstitial cystitis, piriformis syndrome and neuropathy of the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric and genitofemoral nerves. Based on three case reports this article discusses the clinical effectiveness of pulsed high-frequency radiofrequency (PRF) treatment applied to the pudendal nerve under ultrasound guidance in medicinally treated patients with chronic pelvic pain. Article Published Date : Jan 31, 2016

Focused ultrasound-aided immunomodulation in glioblastoma multiforme: a therapeutic concept. 📎

Abstract Title: Focused ultrasound-aided immunomodulation in glioblastoma multiforme: a therapeutic concept. Abstract Source: J Ther Ultrasound. 2016 ;4:2. Epub 2016 Jan 22. PMID: 26807257 Abstract Author(s): Or Cohen-Inbar, Zhiyuan Xu, Jason P Sheehan Article Affiliation: Or Cohen-Inbar Abstract: Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) exhibit a deficient anti-tumor immune response. Both arms of the immune system were shown to be hampered in GBM, namely the local cellular immunity mediated by the Th1 subset of helper T cells and the systemic humoral immunity mediated by the Th2 subset of helper T cells. Immunotherapy is rapidly becoming one of the pillars of anti-cancer therapy. GBM has not received similar clinical successes as of yet, which may be attributed to its relative inaccessibility (the blood-brain barrier (BBB)), its poor immunogenicity, few characterized cancer antigens, or any of the many other immune mechanisms known to be hampered. Focused ultrasound (FUS) is emerging as a promising treatment approach. The effects of FUS on the tissue are not merely thermal. Mounting evidence suggests that in addition to thermal ablation, FUS induces mechanical acoustic cavitation and immunomodulation plays a key role in boosting the host anti-tumor immune responses. We separately discuss the different pertinent immunosuppressive mechanisms harnessed by GBM and the immunomodulatory effects of FUS. The effect of FUS and microbubbles in disrupting the BBB and introducing antigens and drugs to the tumor milieu is discussed. The FUS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and stress response, the FUS-induced change in the intra-tumoral immune-cells populations, the FUS-induced augmentation of dendritic cells activity, and the FUS-induced increased cytotoxic cells potency are all discussed. We next attempt at offering a conceptual synopsis of the synergistic treatment of GBM utilizing FUS and immunotherapy. In conclusion, it is increasingly apparent that no single treatment modality will triumph on GBM. The reviewed FUS-induced immunomodulation effects can be harnessed to current and developing immunotherapy approaches. Together, these may overcome GBM-induced immune-evasion and generate a clinically relevant anti-tumor immune response. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Combined ultrasound-curcumin treatment of human cervical cancer cells.

Abstract Title: Combined ultrasound-curcumin treatment of human cervical cancer cells. Abstract Source: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015 Aug 1 ;193:96-101. Epub 2015 Aug 1. PMID: 26262768 Abstract Author(s): Kaylene R Carr, Yevgeniya J Ioffe, Maria Filippova, Penelope Duerksen-Hughes, Philip J Chan Article Affiliation: Kaylene R Carr Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical cancer. Studies showed curcumin inhibits HPV oncogenes expression but curcumin has low bioavailability. The objectives were: (1) to study ultrasound enhancement of curcumin effects on HeLa, SiHa and C33A, (2) to compare two frequencies for sonoporation and (3) to detect cell-free DNA released by the treatment. STUDY DESIGN: HeLa, SiHa and C33A cells (non-HPV control) were processed and exposed to either: (1) 10μM curcumin only, (2) 10μM curcumin with 8s of 7.5MHz ultrasound, (3) 10μM curcumin with 8s of 5.0MHz ultrasound, (4) control medium, or (5) 8s of 7.5MHz ultrasound. The five treated groups were incubated (48h) and analyzed by dual fluorescence apoptosis/necrosis assay. DNA in spent media was analyzed by capillary analysis. RESULTS: Combined curcumin ultrasound resulted in 9-, 12- and 16-fold higher necrosis in HeLa, SiHa and C33A cells respectively. Increased necrosis correlated with higher ultrasound frequencies. There was increased apoptosis in HeLa or SiHa cells with the combined treatment. Curcumin alone resulted in a lesser 2-4-fold increase in necrosis in the groups. Cell-free DNA was detected in the spent media of HeLa and SiHa but not C33A cultures. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed enhanced necrosis in cervical carcinoma cell lines after combined treatment and confirmed the ultrasound capacity to increase effectiveness of curcumin. Cancer cells were smaller post-treatment suggesting microtubule structural disruption. Cell-free DNA was low molecular weight consistent with lysed host cell. Article Published Date : Jul 31, 2015

Low intensity-pulsed ultrasound induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.

Abstract Title: Low intensity-pulsed ultrasound induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. Abstract Source: Ultrasonics. 2015 Jul 26. Epub 2015 Jul 26. PMID: 26231998 Abstract Author(s): Mingfang Shi, Bangzhong Liu, Guanghua Liu, Ping Wang, Mingzhen Yang, Yun Li, Jian Zhou Article Affiliation: Mingfang Shi Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine whether low intensity-pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) could induce apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, SMMC-7721, and to define the mechanism of ultrasound-induced apoptosis, in vitro. MTT assay was used to measure cell proliferation. Apoptosis was investigated by multiple methods such as flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, Ca(2+) mobilizations, pro- and anti-apoptotic protein expression, and light as well as ultramicroscopic morphology. The results provide evidence that LIPUS induced a dose-dependent effect on cell viability and apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. Specifically, exposure of cells to>0.5W/cm(2) intensity significantly increased cell apoptosis, caused shifts in cell cycle phase, and induced structural changes. Ultrasound significantly increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations and modulated expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax. The findings suggest that this novel technology can be used to induce SMMC-7721 apoptosis via the Ca(2+)/mitochondrial pathway and could potentially be of clinical use for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721 cell line) and other cancers. Article Published Date : Jul 25, 2015

Ultrasonic Stimulation of Mouse Skin Reverses the Healing Delays in Diabetes and Aging by Activation of Rac1. 📎

Abstract Title: Ultrasonic Stimulation of Mouse Skin Reverses the Healing Delays in Diabetes and Aging by Activation of Rac1. Abstract Source: J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Jun 16. Epub 2015 Jun 16. PMID: 26079528 Abstract Author(s): James A Roper, Rosalind C Williamson, Blandine Bally, Christopher Am Cowell, Rebecca Brooks, Phil Stephens, Andrew J Harrison, Mark D Bass Article Affiliation: James A Roper Abstract: Chronic skin healing defects are one of the leading challenges to lifelong wellbeing, affecting 2-5% of populations. Chronic wound formation is linked to age and diabetes and frequently leads to major limb amputation. Here we identify a strategy to reverse fibroblast senescence and improve healing rates. In healthy skin, fibronectin activates Rac1 in fibroblasts, causing migration into the wound bed and driving wound contraction. We discover that mechanical stimulation of skin with ultrasound can overturn healing defects by activating a calcium/CamKinaseII/Tiam1/Rac1 pathway that substitutes for fibronectin-dependent signaling and promotes fibroblast migration. Treatment of diabetic and aged mice recruits fibroblasts to the wound bed and reduces healing times by 30%, restoring healing rates to those observed in young, healthy animals. Ultrasound treatment is equally effective in rescuing the healing defects of animals lacking fibronectin receptors, and can be blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the CamKinaseII pathway. Finally, we discover that the migration defects of fibroblasts from human venous leg ulcer patients can be reversed by ultrasound, demonstrating that the approach is applicable to human chronic samples. By demonstrating that this alternative Rac1 pathway can substitute for that normally operating in skin, we identify future opportunities for management of chronic wounds.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 16 June 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.224. Article Published Date : Jun 15, 2015

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances bone repair in a rabbit model of steroid-associated osteonecrosis. 📎

Abstract Title: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances bone repair in a rabbit model of steroid-associated osteonecrosis. Abstract Source: Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 May ;473(5):1830-9. Epub 2015 Mar 4. PMID: 25736917 Abstract Author(s): Hanxiao Zhu, Xunzi Cai, Tiao Lin, Zhongli Shi, Shigui Yan Article Affiliation: Hanxiao Zhu Abstract: BACKGROUND: Steroids are a leading cause of femoral head osteonecrosis. Currently there are no medications available to prevent and/or treat steroid-associated osteonecrosis. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) was approved by the FDA for treating delayed union of bone fractures. Some studies have reported that LIPUS can enhance bone formation and local blood flow in an animal model of fracture healing. However, whether the effect of osteogenesis and neovascularization by LIPUS can enhance the repair progress in steroid-associated osteonecrosis is unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We hypothesized that LIPUS may facilitate osteogenesis and neovascularization in the reparative processes of steroid-associated osteonecrosis. Using a rabbit animal model, we asked whether LIPUS affects (1) bone strength and trabecular architecture; (2) blood vessel number and diameter; and (3) BMP-2 and VEGF expression. METHODS: Bilateral femoral head necrosis was induced by lipopolysaccharide and methylprednisolone in 24 rabbits. The left femoral heads of rabbits received LIPUS therapy (200 mW/cm(2)) for 20 minutes daily and were classified as the LIPUS group. The right femoral heads of the same rabbits did not receive therapy and were classified as the control group. All rabbits were euthanized 12 weeks after LIPUS therapy. Micro-CT, biomechanical testing, histologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blot were used for examination of the effects of LIPUS. RESULTS: Twelve weeks after LIPUS treatment, the loading strength in the control group was 355± 38 N (95% CI, 315-394 N), which was lower (p = 0.028) than that in the LIPUS group (441 ± 78 N; 95% CI, 359-524 N). The bone tissue volume density (bone volume/total volume) in the LIPUS group (49.29% ± 12.37%; 95 % CI, 36.31%-62.27%) was higher (p = 0.022) than that in the control group (37.93% ± 8.37%; 95 % CI, 29.15%-46.72%). The percentage of empty osteocyte lacunae in the LIPUS group (17% ± 4%; 95% CI, 15%-20%) was lower (p = 0.002) than that in the control group (26% ± 9%; 95% CI, 21%-32%). The mineral apposition rate (μm/day) in the LIPUS group (2.3 ± 0.8 μm/day; 95% CI, 1.82.8 μm/day) was higher (p = 0.001) than that in the control group (1.6 ± 0.3 μm/day; 95% CL, 1.4-1.8 μm/day). The number of blood vessels in the LIPUS group (7.8 ± 3.6/mm(2); 95% CI, 5.5-10.1 mm(2)) was greater (p = 0.025) than the number in the control group (5.7 ± 2.6/mm(2); 95% CI, 4.0-7.3mm(2)). Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of BMP-2 in the LIPUS group (75 ± 7, 95% CI, 70-79; and 30 ± 3, 95% CI, 28-31) were higher (both p<0.001) than those in the control groups (46± 5, 95% CI, 43-49; and 15 ± 2, 95% CI, 14-16). However, there were no differences (p = 0.114 and 0.124) in mRNA and protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor between the control (26 ± 3, 95% CI, 24-28; and 22 ± 6, 95% CI, 18-26) and LIPUS groups (28 ± 2, 95% CI, 26-29; and 23 ±6, 95% CI, 19-27). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that LIPUS promotes osteogenesis and neovascularization, thus promoting bone repair in this steroid-associated osteonecrosis model. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: LIPUS may be a promising modality for the treatment of early-stage steroid-associated osteonecrosis. Further research, including clinical trials to determine whether LIPUS has a therapeutic effect on patients with early-onset steroid-associated osteonecrosis may be warranted. Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2015

Pain palliation in patients with bone metastases using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound with conformal bone system: a preliminary report. 📎

Abstract Title: Pain palliation in patients with bone metastases using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound with conformal bone system: a preliminary report. Abstract Source: Yonsei Med J. 2015 Mar ;56(2):503-9. PMID: 25684002 Abstract Author(s): Bio Joo, Mi-Suk Park, Soo Hyeon Lee, Hye Jin Choi, Seung Tack Lim, Sun Young Rha, Itay Rachmilevitch, Young Han Lee, Jin-Suck Suh Article Affiliation: Bio Joo Abstract: PURPOSE: We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) with the ExAblate Conformal Bone System for the palliation of painful bone metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our Institutional Review Board approved this study, and all patients gave informed consent prior to enrollment. A total of six painful metastatic bone lesions in five patients were treated using MRgFUS with the ExAblate Conformal Bone System for pain palliation. The follow-up sessions were at 3 days, 2 weeks, 1, 2, and 3 months, and 1 year after treatment. Efficacy was evaluated by the changes in visual analog scale (VAS) scores. At 3-months and 1-year follow-ups, unenhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced MR imaging examinations were performed. All adverse events were assessed to evaluate treatment safety. RESULTS: All patients showed significant pain relief within 2 weeks. Two patients experienced complete pain reduction that lasted for 1 year. Two other patients showed pain relief measured as VAS scores of 2 and 4 on their last follow-up. Although the remaining patient had experienced significant pain relief in two lesions, the VAS score re-increased on his last follow-up. The size of the enhancing soft tissue mass in metastatic lesions decreased, and new bone formation was seen on follow-up images. Although adverse events were not serious, non-specific leg pain and second degree skin burn were noted. CONCLUSION: MRgFUS was demonstrated to be effective palliative treatment within 2 weeks in selected patients with painful bone metastases. Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2015

Characterization of Dynamic Behaviour of MCF7 and MCF10A Cells in Ultrasonic Field Using Modal and Harmonic Analyses. 📎

Abstract Title: Characterization of Dynamic Behaviour of MCF7 and MCF10A Cells in Ultrasonic Field Using Modal and Harmonic Analyses. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0134999. Epub 2015 Aug 4. PMID: 26241649 Abstract Author(s): Annette Geltmeier, Beate Rinner, Dennis Bade, Katharina Meditz, Reiner Witt, Uwe Bicker, Catrin Bludszuweit-Philipp, Patrick Maier Article Affiliation: Annette Geltmeier Abstract: Treatment options specifically targeting tumour cells are urgently needed in order to reduce the side effects accompanied by chemo- or radiotherapy. Differences in subcellular structure between tumour and normal cells determine their specific elasticity. These structural differences can be utilised by low-frequency ultrasound in order to specifically induce cytotoxicity of tumour cells. For further evaluation, we combined in silico FEM (finite element method) analyses and in vitro assays to bolster the significance of low-frequency ultrasound for tumour treatment. FEM simulations were able to calculate the first resonance frequency of MCF7 breast tumour cells at 21 kHz in contrast to 34 kHz for the MCF10A normal breast cells, which was due to the higher elasticity and larger size of MCF7 cells. For experimental validation of the in silico-determined resonance frequencies, equipment for ultrasonic irradiation with distinct frequencies was constructed. Differences for both cell lines in their response to low-frequent ultrasonic treatment were corroborated in 2D and in 3D cell culture assays. Treatment with ~ 24.5 kHz induced the death of MCF7 cells and MDA-MB-231 metastases cells possessing a similar elasticity; frequencies of>29 kHz resulted in cytotoxicity of MCF10A. Fractionated treatments by ultrasonic irradiation of suspension myeloid HL60 cells resulted in a significant decrease of viable cells, mostly significant after threefold irradiation in intervals of 3 h. Most importantly in regard to a clinical application, combined ultrasonic treatment and chemotherapy with paclitaxel showed a significantly increased killing of MCF7 cells compared to both monotherapies. In summary, we were able to determine for the first time for different tumour cell lines a specific frequency of low-intensity ultrasound for induction of cell ablation. The cytotoxic effect of ultrasonic irradiation could be increased by either fractionated treatment or in combination with chemotherapy. Thus, our results will open new perspectives in tumour treatment. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Ultrasound treatment for accelerating fracture healing of the distal radius. A control study. 📎

Abstract Title: Ultrasound treatment for accelerating fracture healing of the distal radius. A control study. Abstract Source: Acta Cir Bras. 2014 Nov ;29(11):765-70. PMID: 25424299 Abstract Author(s): Yinwen Liu, Xiaoen Wei, Yong Kuang, Yuxin Zheng, Xinfeng Gu, Hongsheng Zhan, Yinyu Shi Article Affiliation: Yinwen Liu Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the accelerating effects of low-intensity pulse ultrasound stimulation (LIPUS) on the fracture healing of distal radius. METHODS: A total of 81 patients with distal radius fracture were randomly divided into two groups: the ultrasound treatment group and the control group. Patients in the ultrasound treatment group were immobilized in a below-elbow cast and received LIPUS treatment 15 min/day, while the control group were immobilized by a plaster support and cast. The patients were followed up every week and took X-ray films. The initial and healed X-ray films and the gray value of fracture site were analyzed by Photoshop software. The effect of reposition was evaluated based upon Steward recommended by Dienst, combining with Aro's measuring method. RESULTS: Clinical fracture healing time in ultrasound group was significantly shorter than that in the control group (32.04± 2.58d vs. 40.75 ± 5.12d, p<0.01). In addition, the grey value changes of fracture sites of the ultrasound group were much higher than that of the control group. The reposition effects of fracture healing had no difference between the two groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Low-intensity pulse ultrasound stimulation could accelerate fracture healing of the distal radius and promote local bone formation. Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2014

Salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after brachytherapy.

Abstract Title: Salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after brachytherapy. Abstract Source: Urology. 2014 Nov ;84(5):1157-62. Epub 2014 Oct 24. PMID: 25443920 Abstract Author(s): Vladimir Yutkin, Hashim U Ahmed, Ian Donaldson, Neil McCartan, Khurram Siddiqui, Mark Emberton, Joseph L Chin Article Affiliation: Vladimir Yutkin Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in patients with local failure after brachytherapy for prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Whole-gland HIFU was administered to prospectively recruited patients with local histologic failure after brachytherapy at 2 institutions in the United Kingdom and Canada. Functional and oncologic outcomes of the procedure were analyzed. RESULTS: Nineteen patients underwent the treatment, 12 with Gleason sum 7 and 5 with Gleason sum 8 at recurrence. Thirteen men had grade-3a or -3b complications by the Clavien system; there were no grade-4 or -5 complications. The most common postoperative complication was dysuria, which was self-limited. Three men developed rectourethral fistulae. The overall continence rate was 68.4%. At a mean follow-up of 51.6 months, all men were alive. The overall biochemical recurrence-free survival rate was 66.7% and 73.3% using the"nadir prostate-specific antigen level"+1.3 ng/mL and +2 mg/ml criteria, respectively. This study is limited by the small cohort size, relatively short follow-up period, and heterogeneity of the patient population. CONCLUSION: In this, the largest prospective series to date, we demonstrate that salvage HIFU for locally recurrent prostate cancer after failed primary brachytherapy has encouraging disease control results, albeit with a relatively high complication rate. Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2014

Comparison of high-frequency and MIST ultrasound therapy for the healing of venous leg ulcers. 📎

Abstract Title: Comparison of high-frequency and MIST ultrasound therapy for the healing of venous leg ulcers. Abstract Source: Adv Clin Exp Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;23(6):969-75. PMID: 25618125 Abstract Author(s): Akram Beheshti, Younes Shafigh, Hossien Parsa, Amir A Zangivand Article Affiliation: Akram Beheshti Abstract: BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are a health problem in clinical care. Several options can be employed as adjuvant to standard treatment. OBJECTIVES: We have aimed to analyze the effect of standard ulcer care alone with high-frequency ultrasound (HFU) and MIST ultrasound therapy on VLUs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with VLUs were assigned into the standard treatment, HFU and MIST ultrasound groups. All groups received the standard wound care. In the ultrasound groups, HFU and MIST ultrasound therapy was administered to wounds 3 times per week until the wound healed. Time of complete wound healing was recorded. Wound size, pain, and edema were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 4 months. Also, patients were instructed to contact our clinic monthly, and recurrence of VLUs was recorded for 6 months after complete wound healing. The data was analyzed using a Student's t-test, ANOVA, c2, or Fisher's exact test. P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Mean time duration of complete wound healing in the first, second and third groups was 8.13 (SD 1.40), 6.10 (SD 1.47) and 5.70 (SD 1.57) months, respectively (p<0.0001). Size of ulcer, mean degree of pain and edema in ultrasound therapy was decreased after the 4-month visit in comparison to the standard-treatment group (p=0.01, p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). Also, our results don't show any significant differences between groups in the recurrence of VLUs during a 6-month follow up after complete wound healing (p=0.37). CONCLUSIONS: Our results in the present study show the significant effectiveness of ultrasound therapy in wound healing. Differences between the two ultrasound therapy groups were not statistically significant. Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2014

Cesarean scar pregnancy: noninvasive and effective treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound.

Abstract Title: Cesarean scar pregnancy: noninvasive and effective treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound. Abstract Source: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Oct ;211(4):356.e1-7. Epub 2014 Apr 23. PMID: 24769010 Abstract Author(s): Juhua Xiao, Shouhua Zhang, Fang Wang, Yuqin Wang, Zhen Shi, Xin Zhou, Jinshui Zhou, Jinshi Huang Article Affiliation: Juhua Xiao Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate whether ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can play a role in treating cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). STUDY DESIGN: Between November 2011 and December 2012, 16 patients with CSP were treated with ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation. Successful treatment was defined as disappearance of CSP mass, undetectable serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin, and no serious complications such as severe bleeding, uterine rupture, or hysterectomy. RESULTS: All patients were successfully treated in the outpatient department and none required readmission. After 2-5 treatment sessions, the mean time for achieving undetectable serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin was 4.94± 2.32 weeks, and the mean time for CSP mass disappearance was 6.69 ± 3.36 weeks. Three patients experienced moderate abdominal pain that subsided in 1-2 days, and nine patients experienced mild vaginal bleeding (<30 mL) that resolved within 2-3 days. All 16 patients had recovered their normal menstruation function at follow-up. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results suggest that ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation is a noninvasive, feasible, and effective method for the treatment of CSP. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2014
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A Phase 2 Trial of Lutikizumab, an Anti-Interleukin 1α/β Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin, in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients With Synovitis.

Related Articles A Phase 2 Trial of Lutikizumab, an Anti-Interleukin 1α/β Dual Variable Domain Immunoglobulin, in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients With Synovitis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Jan 17;: Authors: Fleischmann RM, Bliddal H, Blanco FJ, Schnitzer TJ, Peterfy C, Chen S, Wang L, Feng S, Conaghan PG, Berenbaum F, Pelletier JP, Martel-Pelletier J, Vaeterlein O, Kaeley GS, Liu W, Kosloski MP, Levy G, Zhang L, Medema JK, Levesque MC Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of the anti-interleukin (IL)-1α/β dual variable domain immunoglobulin lutikizumab (ABT-981) in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and evidence of synovitis. METHODS: Subjects (N=350; 347 analyzed) with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2-3 knee OA and synovitis (determined by magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or ultrasound) were randomized to placebo or lutikizumab 25, 100 or 200 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 50 weeks. The co-primary endpoints were change from baseline in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) pain index at week 16 and change from baseline in MRI synovitis at week 26. RESULTS: WOMAC pain at week 16 improved significantly versus placebo with lutikizumab 100 mg (P=0.050) but not 25 or 200 mg. Beyond week 16, WOMAC pain was reduced in all groups but was not significantly different for lutikizumab and placebo. Changes from baseline in MRI synovitis at week 26 and other key symptom- and most structure-related endpoints at weeks 26 and 52 were not significantly different for lutikizumab and placebo. Injection site reactions, neutropenia, and discontinuations due to neutropenia were more frequent with lutikizumab versus placebo. Neutrophil and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein reductions plateaued at lutikizumab 100 mg. Immunogenicity to lutikizumab did not meaningfully affect systemic lutikizumab concentrations. CONCLUSION: The limited improvement of WOMAC pain and the lack of synovitis improvement with lutikizumab, together with published trial results for other IL-1 inhibitors, suggest that IL-1 inhibition is not an effective analgesic/anti-inflammatory therapy in most patients with knee OA and associated synovitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30653843 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The role of ultrasound-driven microbubble dynamics in drug delivery: from microbubble fundamentals to clinical translation.

Related Articles The role of ultrasound-driven microbubble dynamics in drug delivery: from microbubble fundamentals to clinical translation. Langmuir. 2019 Jan 17;: Authors: Roovers S, Segers T, Lajoinie G, Deprez J, Versluis M, De Smedt SC, Lentacker I Abstract In the last couple of decades, ultrasound-driven microbubbles have proven excellent candidates for local drug delivery applications. Besides being useful drug carriers, microbubbles have demonstrated the ability to enhance cell and tissue permeability and as a consequence, drug uptake herein. Notwithstanding the large amount of evidence for their therapeutic efficacy, open issues remain. Due to the vast amount of ultrasound- and microbubble-related parameters that can be altered, and the variability in different models, the translation from basic research to (pre-)clinical studies has been hindered. This review aims at connecting the knowledge gained from fundamental microbubble studies to the therapeutic efficacy seen in in vitro and in vivo studies, with an emphasis on a better understanding of the response of a microbubble upon exposure to ultrasound and its interaction with cells and tissues. More specifically, we address the acoustic settings and microbubble-related parameters i.e. bubble size and physico-chemistry of the bubble shell that play a key role in microbubble-cell interactions and in the associated therapeutic outcome. Additionally, new techniques that may provide additional control over the treatment, such as monodisperse microbubble formulations, tunable ultrasound scanners and cavitation detection techniques, are discussed. An in-depth understanding of the aspects presented in this work could eventually lead the way to more efficient and tailored microbubble-assisted ultrasound therapy in the future. PMID: 30653325 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Simultaneous Hodgkin lymphoma and BRAFV600E-positive papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report.

Related Articles Simultaneous Hodgkin lymphoma and BRAFV600E-positive papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jan;98(3):e14180 Authors: Liu S, Zhao Y, Li M, Xi J, Shi B, Zhu H Abstract RATIONALE: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. However, the simultaneous occurrence of PTC and Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) was rarely reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of simultaneous BRAF-positive PTC and HL in a 17-year-old female. DIAGNOSIS: She was referred to our clinic with a painless lump in her left neck. A highly suspicious thyroid nodule and multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the neck were found by ultrasonography examination. The suspicious nodule was diagnosed as PTC by fine needle aspiration cytology. INTERVENTIONS: A total thyroidectomy with bilateral lymph node dissection was performed and the microscopic examination revealed a 2-cm PTC with BRAF mutation and HL (mixed cellularity) in the bilateral lymph nodes. PTC was postoperatively considered as T1bN0M0. Levothyroxine (125 μg/d) was administered to the patient for thyrotropin suppression therapy. Then the patient was referred to the Department of Hematology to receive 4 cycles of ABVD followed by 30 Gy involved-site radiotherapy and radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for thyroid cancer. OUTCOMES: After two cycles of ABVD, multiple enlarged lymph nodes showed a significant response to the chemotherapy in the patient. LESSONS: Simultaneous HL and BRAF-positive PTC is extremely rare. Biopsy of the suspicious lymph nodes should be performed to confirm malignancy metastasizing from PTC or other lesions. Similarly, in HL patients with suspicious thyroid nodule, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule should be performed to exclude thyroid malignancy. PMID: 30653166 [PubMed - in process]

Seminal vesicle metastasis after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report.

Related Articles Seminal vesicle metastasis after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jan;98(3):e13770 Authors: Shen Y, Nie L, Yao Y, Yuan L, Liu Z, Lv Y Abstract RATIONALE: Cancer recurrence and metastasis after liver transplantation (LT) is common in some hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. The most common sites of extrahepatic metastases are lung, regional lymph node, adrenal gland, and bone. To our knowledge, HCC metastasis to the seminal vesicle after LT has not been reported in the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year-old Asian man presented at hospital with a 9-year history of orthotopic LT because of HCC. The patient underwent surgery and radiotherapy for HCC metastasis to adrenal gland and 1 year later, chemotherapy for peritoneal metastasis. A few months later, the patient presented with computed tomography (CT) image showing masses in right lobe of liver, seminal vesicle, and space occupying mass between the spleen and stomach. DIAGNOSES: Combination of clinical and pathological features revealed the seminal vesicle mass as metastasis from HCC. INTERVENTIONS: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for liver and seminal vesicle lesions was performed and the postoperative pathology revealed malignancy. Thus, the patient underwent surgery and the diagnosis of seminal vesicle metastasis of HCC was confirmed by pathology and immunohistochemical analysis. OUTCOMES: The patient died due to systemic failure. LESSONS: Seminal vesicle metastasis from HCC after LT is rare and there is no consensus on its treatment. Further research into the pathogenesis and therapy of seminal vesicle from HCC after LT is needed to improve outcomes in the rare disease. PMID: 30653089 [PubMed - in process]

The effect of lumbosacral orthosis on the thickness of deep trunk muscles using ultrasound imaging: A randomized controlled trial in patients with chronic low back pain.

Related Articles The effect of lumbosacral orthosis on the thickness of deep trunk muscles using ultrasound imaging: A randomized controlled trial in patients with chronic low back pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2019 Jan 15;: Authors: Azadinia F, Ebrahimi Takamjani I, Kamyab M, Kalbassi G, Sarrafzadeh J, Parnianpour M Abstract OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the changes occurring in the thickness of deep trunk muscles, measured using ultrasound imaging, after four weeks of lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) use in conjunction with routine physical therapy. DESIGN: This parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 44 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP), randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. Both groups received eight sessions of physical therapy twice per week for four weeks. The experimental group wore non-extensible LSO in addition to undergoing routine physical therapy. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus (IO) and lumbar multifidus (LM) was measured by ultrasound before and after the four-week intervention. RESULTS: The deep trunk muscles differed in thickness in various test positions. Four weeks of intervention with LSO and routine physical therapy, however, did not change the thickness of the IO, TrA and LM. CONCLUSION: Wearing LSO for an average of 7.21 hours per day for four weeks in conjunction with routine physical therapy did not affect the thickness of obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus. PMID: 30652982 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Carvedilol alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats.

Related Articles Carvedilol alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats. Exp Ther Med. 2019 Jan;17(1):479-487 Authors: Zheng W, Li D, Gao X, Zhang W, Robinson BO Abstract Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by structural and functional changes in the myocardium. Several studies have revealed that myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis occur during DCM. Studies have also indicated that oxidative stress may be a major factor associated with the development of DCM. Protein kinase C (PKC)β2 has been demonstrated to be activated in diabetic rats, and overexpression of PKCβ2 in the myocardium may result in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The P66shc adaptor protein, which is mediated by PKCβ, serves an important role in apoptosis during oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the PKCβ2/P66shc oxidative stress pathway is associated with DCM, and to investigate the role and mechanisms of carvedilol in preserving cardiac function. Experimental diabetic rat models were induced by streptozotocin treatment accompanied by high energy intake. Carvedilol was orally administrated at a dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg/day. Cardiac function was evaluated by serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level and cardiac ultrasound. Myocardial inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and fibrosis were assessed by histopathological and echocardiographic analyses and tests for oxidative markers. Associated proteins and factors were examined by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Rats in the diabetes mellitus group exhibited significantly decreased systolic cardiac function along with elevated expression levels of phosphorylated (p)-PKCβ2, phos-P66shc, caspase-3, malondialdehyde, collagen type I, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, which were accompanied by disorder in metabolic processes. Treatment with carvedilol reversed these changes. Thus, the present results suggest that the PKCβ2/P66shc signaling pathway may be associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy; furthermore, carvedilol, as a novel β-receptor blocker, may protect the myocardium from injury by suppressing the myocardial inflammatory response, fibrosis, P66shc-mediated oxidative stress and subsequent apoptosis in myocardial tissue. Consequently, carvedilol may have potential as a therapy for the treatment of DCM. PMID: 30651825 [PubMed]

Current trends in the management of canine traumatic brain injury: An Internet-based survey.

Related Articles Current trends in the management of canine traumatic brain injury: An Internet-based survey. Can Vet J. 2019 Jan;60(1):73-79 Authors: Evans EK, Fernandez AL Abstract This study characterized trends in management of canine traumatic brain injury (TBI) among 182 small animal veterinarians grouped as follows: Board-certified specialists at a veterinary teaching hospital (BCS-VTH), Board-certified specialists in private practice (BCS-PP), non-specialists at a teaching hospital (DVM-VTH), and non-specialists in private practice (DVM-PP). The BCS-VTH, BSC-PP, and DVM-VTH groups were more comfortable using the modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) than the DVM-PP group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.009, respectively). All respondents chose the following diagnostics most frequently: packed cell volume/total solids (95.6%), blood glucose (96.7%), and blood pressure (95.0%). The DVM-VTH group chose the following more frequently than the DVM-PP group: computed tomography (19.4% versus 4.5%; P = 0.027), venous or arterial blood gas (83.9% versus 46.3%; P < 0.001), electrocardiography (71.0% versus 44.8%; P = 0.018), lactate (87.1% versus 59.7%; P = 0.009), and brief thoracic ultrasound (87.1% versus 62.7%; P = 0.017). BCS-PP chose hypertonic saline more frequently than DVM-PP (94.1% versus 74.6%; P = 0.005). The DVM-PP group chose corticosteroid therapy and anticonvulsant therapy more frequently than BCS-PP (10.4% versus 0.0%; P = 0.019; 73.1% versus 43.1%; P = 0.004, respectively). This study highlights variability in management of canine TBI. PMID: 30651654 [PubMed - in process]

Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the carotid artery for evaluating disease activity in Takayasu arteritis.

Related Articles Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the carotid artery for evaluating disease activity in Takayasu arteritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Jan 16;21(1):24 Authors: Ma LY, Li CL, Ma LL, Cui XM, Dai XM, Sun Y, Chen HY, Huang BJ, Jiang LD Abstract AIMS: To assess the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for monitoring disease activity of Takayasu arteritis (TA). METHODS: TA patients were recruited in a Chinese TA clinical center from January 2016 to September 2017. The physician global assessment was used as the referential standard for disease activity. Clinical data, acute phase reactants, and CEUS scans were simultaneously recorded at baseline and after a 3-month therapy. RESULTS: A total of 84 TA patients were enrolled, and 47 (55.95%) cases were active at baseline. Macaroni sign and entire artery involvement were characteristic findings of CEUS in TA. The average vascular full thickness of the carotid artery in active TA patients was significantly higher than that in inactive patients (2.36 ± 0.86 vs. 1.79 ± 0.49 mm; p = 0.001). Severe neovascularization (grade 2) was observed in 29 active cases (61.70%) and in 9 inactive cases (24.32%) (p = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the combination of CEUS parameters (cutoff of thickness was 1.75 mm or neovascularization grade 2) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (cutoff of 20 mm/H) could help differentiate between active and inactive TA patients with a sensitivity and specificity of 81.1% and 81.5%, respectively. Youdon's index was 0.626. Furthermore, our study found that patients with decreased ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP) still had a progression of vascular wall inflammation at 3 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of vascular inflammation by CEUS is more sensitive than acute phase reactants. Neovascularization can still be observed in the vascular lesion sites of those who have reached clinical remission after treatment. Thus, CEUS can be used as an alternative method to assess disease activity for TA patients. PMID: 30651132 [PubMed - in process]

The prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection and disease following six rounds of mass drug administration in Mandalay Region, Myanmar.

Related Articles The prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection and disease following six rounds of mass drug administration in Mandalay Region, Myanmar. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 11;12(11):e0006944 Authors: Dickson BFR, Graves PM, Aye NN, Nwe TW, Wai T, Win SS, Shwe M, Douglass J, Bradbury RS, McBride WJ Abstract Lymphatic filariasis is widely endemic in Myanmar. Despite the establishment of an elimination program in 2000, knowledge of the remaining burden of disease relies predominantly on programmatic information. To assist the program, we conducted an independent cross-sectional household cluster survey to determine the prevalence of filariasis infection, morbidity and mass-drug administration coverage in four townships of the Mandalay Region: Amarapura, Patheingyi, Tada-U and Wundwin. The survey included 1014 individuals from 430 randomly selected households in 24 villages. Household members one year and older were assessed for antigenaemia using immunochromatographic test cards and if positive, microfilaraemia by night-time thick blood smear. Participants 15 years and older were assessed for filariasis morbidity by ultrasound-assisted clinical examination. The overall prevalence of infection was 2.63% by antigenaemia (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-4.04%) and 1.03% by microfilaraemia (95%CI 0.59-1.47%). The prevalence of hydrocoele in adult males was 2.78% (95%CI 1.23-6.15%) and of lymphoedema in both genders was 0% (95%CI 0-0.45%). These results indicate the persistence of filarial infection and transmission despite six rounds of annual mass drug administration and highlight the need for further rounds as well as the implementation of morbidity management programs in the country. PMID: 30419025 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Polysaccharides from pineapple pomace: new insight into ultrasonic-cellulase synergistic extraction and hypoglycemic activities.

Related Articles Polysaccharides from pineapple pomace: new insight into ultrasonic-cellulase synergistic extraction and hypoglycemic activities. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 Jan;121:1213-1226 Authors: Hu H, Zhao Q, Xie J, Sun D Abstract This study determined the optimal extraction conditions for ultrasonic-cellulase synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from pineapple pomace (PPP) using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. The optimal hydrolysis temperature, ratio of material to water, pH value, hydrolysis time, ultrasonic power and the additive quantity of cellulase were 50 °C, 1:45 g/mL, 6.0, 100 min, 160 W and 2.0%, respectively, giving a extraction yield of 1.10 ± 0.03%. PPP was further isolated and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography columns, revealing four main elution peaks, named PPF0, PPF1, PPP2 and PPF3, were obtained. The molecular weight, monosaccharide compositions, structural features and appearance morphology of polysaccharide fractions (PPFs) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the hypoglycemic activities of PPFs with different concentrations were also investigated by insulin resistance HepG2 cells model in vitro. Results showed that PPF0, PPF1, PPF2 and PPF3 were composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose and fucose with molecular weight of 6.71 × 104, 1.11 × 104, 2.22 × 104 and 5.1 × 103 Da, respectively. All of them could alleviate the development of insulin resistance HepG2 cells with a dose-dependent relationship. The glucose consumption increased 46.4%, 50.5%, 82.1% and 53.6%; 86.8%, 81.6%, 86.8% and 84.2% at the concentration of 20 μg/mL, respectively, without or with insulin. These results suggested that PPFs can be explored as a potential hypoglycemic agent in biomedical and functional food. PMID: 30326225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Spontaneous primary hypothyroidism in 7 adult cats.

Related Articles Spontaneous primary hypothyroidism in 7 adult cats. J Vet Intern Med. 2018 Nov;32(6):1864-1873 Authors: Peterson ME, Carothers MA, Gamble DA, Rishniw M Abstract BACKGROUND: Naturally occurring hypothyroidism in adult cats is rare, with only 4 cases reported. OBJECTIVES: To describe the historical, clinical, laboratory, and scintigraphic features of adult cats with spontaneous hypothyroidism. ANIMALS: Seven adult cats referred for suspected hypothyroidism. METHODS: Prospective case series. We collected data on cats' signalment, clinical signs, results of physical examination, routine laboratory and thyroid hormone testing, and thyroid imaging (thyroid scintigraphy or ultrasound). We subsequently treated cats with levothyroxine and evaluated their response to treatment. RESULTS: Cats ranged from 3.5 to 11 years, with no apparent breed predilection; 6/7 cats were male. Only 2/7 cats were initially tested because of signs of hypothyroidism (hair-coat changes, lethargy, obesity); others were tested for routine thyroid monitoring or palpable thyroid nodules. Four were azotemic (serum creatinine, 2.2-3.4 mg/dL). Six of the cats had low serum thyroxine (T4 ) and free T4 (fT4 ) concentrations, whereas all 7 cats had high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. In 6/7 cats, thyroid scintigraphy revealed bilateral goiter with intense radionuclide uptake; imaging showed no visible thyroid tissue in the other. After levothyroxine treatment, serum concentrations of T4 and fT4 increased and TSH fell; high serum creatinine normalized in azotemic cats; and repeat imaging showed reduction in goiter size. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Primary hypothyroidism develops in adult cats, with a higher prevalence than previously thought. Most cats appear to develop a goitrous form of hypothyroidism associated with thyroid hyperplasia, whereas thyroid atrophy appears to be less common. With levothyroxine replacement, clinical and laboratory abnormalities improve or resolve. PMID: 30294940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Agreement of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound and Clinical Assessment of Shoulder Impairment in Manual Wheelchair Users With Various Duration of Spinal Cord Injury.

Related Articles Agreement of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound and Clinical Assessment of Shoulder Impairment in Manual Wheelchair Users With Various Duration of Spinal Cord Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 04;99(4):615-622 Authors: Finley M, Ebaugh D, Trojian T Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) agreement of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSK-US) findings of shoulder pathology and related shoulder special test results in individuals with varied durations of manual wheelchair (MWC) use after spinal cord injury (SCI); and (2) whether shoulder musculoskeletal impairments, per MSK-US and clinical examination, differed in individuals with SCI and varying durations of MWC use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: Laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Adult volunteers (N=23) with SCI who used an MWC for community mobility. Individuals were stratified into 3 groups based on duration of MWC use: <5 years, 5 to 15 years, and >15 years. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Special tests for shoulder impingement and bicipital tendonitis were performed. Bilateral shoulder MSK-US was performed, with the Ultrasound Shoulder Pathology Rating Scale (USPRS) quantifying biceps tendon, supraspinatus tendon, and greater tuberosity cortical surface impairments. RESULTS: No agreement was found between MSK-US and related special tests. Special tests failed to identify impairment in 33.3% to 100% of those identified on MSK-US. The total USPRS score was highest in those with >15 years' MWC use. A higher proportion of dynamic impingement (supraspinatus and biceps) was found in those with >15 years' MWC use, with other MSK-US items having moderate effect sizes among duration-use groups. CONCLUSIONS: MSK-US identified shoulder impairments more frequently than commonly used special tests. A significant increase in the presence of MSK-US shoulder impairments was identified in the longest-duration group. This was not the case for special tests or pain. MSK-US is an easily administered, low-cost, noninvasive method for determining shoulder impairments and should be used in routine screening of individuals who use an MWC after SCI. PMID: 29339205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ultrasound-Guided Versus Landmark-Guided Local Corticosteroid Injection for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Related Articles Ultrasound-Guided Versus Landmark-Guided Local Corticosteroid Injection for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 04;99(4):766-775 Authors: Babaei-Ghazani A, Roomizadeh P, Forogh B, Moeini-Taba SM, Abedini A, Kadkhodaie M, Jahanjoo F, Eftekharsadat B Abstract OBJECTIVE: To review the literature and assess the comparative effectiveness of ultrasound-guided versus landmark-guided local corticosteroid injections in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), and Web of Science (from inception to February 1, 2017). STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ultrasound-guided injection with landmark-guided injection in patients with CTS were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently screened abstracts and full texts. The outcomes of interest were Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS) scores of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 4 electrodiagnostic parameters, including compound muscle action potential (CMAP), sensory nerve action potential (SNAP), distal motor latency (DML), and distal sensory latency (DSL). DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall, 569 abstracts were retrieved and checked for eligibility; finally, 3 RCTs were included (181 injected hands). Pooled analysis showed that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective in SSS improvement (mean difference [MD], -.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.59 to -.32; P<.00001), whereas no significant difference was observed between the 2 methods in terms of the FSS (MD, -.25; 95% CI, -.56 to .05; P=.10). There were also no statistically significant differences in improvements of CMAP (MD, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.01 to 3.07; P=.05), SNAP (MD, -0.02; 95% CI, -6.27 to 6.23; P>.99), DML (MD, .05; 95% CI, -.30 to .39; P=.80), or DSL (MD, .00; 95% CI, -.65 to .65; P>.99). CONCLUSIONS: This review suggested that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective than landmark-guided injection in symptom severity improvement in patients with CTS; however, no significant differences were observed in functional status or electrodiagnostic improvements between the 2 methods. PMID: 28943161 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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