Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Watchful Waiting

Risk factors for persistent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1 and 2: managed by watchful waiting. 📎

Abstract Title: Risk factors for persistent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1 and 2: managed by watchful waiting. Abstract Source: J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2011 Oct ;15(4):268-75. PMID: 21811178 Abstract Author(s): Gloria Y F Ho, Mark H Einstein, Seymour L Romney, Anna S Kadish, Maria Abadi, Magdy Mikhail, Jayasri Basu, Benjamin Thysen, Laura Reimers, Prabhudas R Palan, Shelly Trim, Nafisseh Soroudi, Robert D Burk, Article Affiliation: Departments of Epidemiology&Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: : This study examines risk factors for persistent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and examines whether human papillomavirus (HPV) testing predicts persistent lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: : Women with histologically diagnosed CIN 1 or CIN 2 (n = 206) were followed up every 3 months without treatment. Human papillomavirus genotyping, plasma levels of ascorbic acid, and red blood cell folate levels were obtained. Cervical biopsy at 12 months determined the presence of CIN. Relative risk (RR) was estimated by log-linked binomial regression models. RESULTS: : At 12 months, 70% of CIN 1 versus 54% of CIN 2 lesions spontaneously regressed (p<.001). Levels of folate or ascorbic acid were not associated with persistent CIN at 12 months. Compared with HPV-negative women, those with multiple HPV types (RRs ranged from 1.68 to 2.17 at each follow-up visit) or high-risk types (RRs range = 1.74-2.09) were at increased risk for persistent CIN; women with HPV-16/18 had the highest risk (RRs range = 1.91-2.21). Persistent infection with a high-risk type was also associated with persistent CIN (RRs range = 1.50-2.35). Typing for high-risk HPVs at 6 months only had a sensitivity of 46% in predicting persistence of any lesions at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: : Spontaneous regression of CIN 1 and 2 occurs frequently within 12 months. Human papillomavirus infection is the major risk factor for persistent CIN. However, HPV testing cannot reliably predict persistence of any lesion. Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2011

Natural history of gallstone disease: Expectant management or active treatment? Results from a population-based cohort study.

Abstract Title: Natural history of gallstone disease: Expectant management or active treatment? Results from a population-based cohort study. Abstract Source: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Apr;25(4):719-24. PMID: 20492328 Abstract Author(s): Davide Festi, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Adolfo F Attili, Paola Loria, Paolo Pazzi, Eleonora Scaioli, Simona Capodicasa, Ferdinando Romano, Enrico Roda, Antonio Colecchia Article Affiliation: Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The knowledge of natural history is essential for disease management. We evaluated the natural history (e.g. frequency and characteristics of symptoms and clinical outcome) of gallstones (GS) in a population-based cohort study. METHODS: A total of 11 229 subjects (6610 men, 4619 women, age-range: 29-69 years, mean age: 48 years) were studied. At ultrasonography, GS were present in 856 subjects (338 men, 455 women) (7.1%). GS were followed by means of a questionnaire inquiring about the characteristics of specific biliary symptoms. RESULTS: At enrollment, 580 (73.1%) patients were asymptomatic, 94 (11.8%) had mild symptoms and 119 (15.1%) had severe symptoms. GS patients were followed up for a mean period of 8.7 years; 63 subjects (7.3%) were lost to follow up. At the end of the follow up, of the asymptomatic subjects, 453 (78.1%) remained asymptomatic; 61 (10.5%) developed mild symptoms and 66 (11.4%) developed severe symptoms. In subjects with mild symptoms, the symptoms disappeared in 55 (58.5%), became severe in 23 (24.5%), remained stable in 16 (17%); in subjects with severe symptoms, the symptoms disappeared in 62 (52.1%), became mild in 20 (16.8%) and remained stable in 37 (31.1%). A total of 189 cholecystectomies were performed: 41.3% on asymptomatic patients, 17.4% on patients with mild symptoms and 41.3% on patients with severe symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that: (i) asymptomatic and symptomatic GS patients have a benign natural history; (ii) the majority of GS patients with severe or mild symptoms will no longer experience biliary pain; and (iii) a significant proportion of cholecystectomies are performed in asymptomatic patients. Expectant management still represents a valid therapeutic approach in the majority of patients. Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2010

Spontaneous partial regression of hepatocellular carcinoma in a cirrhotic patient.

Abstract Title: Spontaneous partial regression of hepatocellular carcinoma in a cirrhotic patient. Abstract Source: Ann Hepatol. 2007 Jan-Mar;6(1):66-9. PMID: 17297433 Abstract Author(s): Judith Meza-Junco, Aldo J Montaño-Loza, Braulio Martinez-Benítez, Tatiana Cabrera-Aleksandrova Article Affiliation: Department of Oncology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición, Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Spontaneous regression of a malignant tumor is an exceptional phenomenon. A 56-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis related to chronic hepatitis C presented with a liver tumor. Partial regression of a hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed by imaging studies that showed progressive diminution of the size of the tumor and changes in the tumor markers. However, because of the persistence of the tumor and uncertainty in the diagnosis we recommended surgery. A hepatectomy was performed and a hepatocellular carcinoma moderately differentiated was found. The patient is now doing well and without any evidence of recurrence at 25 months after surgery. We found 61 case reports that have been published from 1982 to September 2006, with apparently spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma. The precise mechanism regarding the spontaneous regression of this tumor is not fully understood, either ischemia due to rapid growth of the neoplasia or particular inflammatory and immunologic mechanisms may be involved in the regression of the hepatocellular carcinoma. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2007

Nonsevere acute otitis media: a clinical trial comparing outcomes of watchful waiting versus immediate antibiotic treatment.

Abstract Title: Nonsevere acute otitis media: a clinical trial comparing outcomes of watchful waiting versus immediate antibiotic treatment. Abstract Source: Pediatrics. 2005 Jun;115(6):1455-65. PMID: 15930204 Abstract Author(s): David P McCormick, Tasnee Chonmaitree, Carmen Pittman, Kokab Saeed, Norman R Friedman, Tatsuo Uchida, Constance D Baldwin Article Affiliation: Division of General Academic Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555-1119, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The widespread use of antibiotics for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens that are difficult to treat. However, it has been shown that most children with nonsevere AOM recover without ABX. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, acceptability, and costs of a non-ABX intervention for children with nonsevere AOM. METHODOLOGY: Children 6 months to 12 years old with AOM were screened by using a novel AOM-severity screening index. Parents of children with nonsevere AOM received an educational intervention, and their children were randomized to receive either immediate antibiotics (ABX; amoxicillin plus symptom medication) or watchful waiting (WW; symptom medication only). The investigators, but not the parents, were blinded to enrollment status. Primary outcomes included parent satisfaction with AOM care, resolution of symptoms, AOM failure/recurrence, and nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains resistant to ABX. Secondary outcomes included medication-related adverse events, serious adverse events, unanticipated AOM-related office and emergency department visits and telephone calls, the child's absence from day care or school resulting from AOM, the parent's absence from school or work because of their child's AOM, and costs of treatment. Subjects were defined as failing (days 0-12) or recurring (days 13-30) if they experienced a higher AOM-severity score on reexamination. RESULTS: A total of 223 subjects were recruited: 73% were nonwhite, 57% were<2 years old, 47% attended day care, 82% had experienced prior AOM, and 83% had not been fully immunized with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine. One hundred twelve were randomized to ABX, and 111 were randomized to WW. Ninety-four percent of the subjects were followed to the 30-day end point. Parent satisfaction with AOM care was not different between the 2 treatment groups at either day 12 or 30. Compared with WW, symptom scores on days 1 to 10 resolved faster in subjects treated with immediate ABX. At day 12, among the immediate-ABX group, 69% of tympanic membranes and 25% of tympanograms were normal, compared with 51% of normal tympanic membranes and 10% of normal tympanograms in the WW group. Parents of children in the ABX group gave their children fewer doses of pain medication than did parents of children in the WW group. Subjects in the ABX group experienced 16% fewer failures than subjects in the WW group. Of the children in the WW group, 66% completed the study without needing ABX. Immediate ABX resulted in eradication of S pneumoniae carriage in the majority of children, but S pneumoniae strains cultured from children in the ABX group at day 12 were more likely to be multidrug-resistant than strains from children in the WW group. More ABX-related adverse events were noted in the ABX group, compared with the WW group. No serious AOM-related adverse events were observed in either group. Office and emergency department visits, phone calls, and days of work/school missed were not different between groups. Prescriptions for ABX were reduced by 73% in the WW group compared with the ABX group. Costs of ABX averaged $47.41 per subject in the ABX group and $11.43 in the WW group. CONCLUSIONS: Sixty-six percent of subjects in the WW group completed the study without ABX. Parent satisfaction was the same between groups regardless of treatment. Compared with WW, immediate ABX treatment was associated with decreased numbers of treatment failures and improved symptom control but increased ABX-related adverse events and a higher percent carriage of multidrug-resistant S pneumoniae strains in the nasopharynx at the day-12 visit. Key factors in implementing a WW strategy were (a) a method to classify AOM severity; (b) parent education; (c) management of AOM symptoms; (d) access to follow-up care; and (e) use of an effective ABX regimen, when needed. When these caveats are observed, WW may be an acceptable alternative to immediate ABX for some children with nonsevere AOM. Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2005
Therapeutic Actions Watchful Waiting

NCBI pubmed

Case Report: Severe back pain, epigastric distress and refractory nausea; an unusual presentation of mediastinal bronchogenic cyst.

Related Articles Case Report: Severe back pain, epigastric distress and refractory nausea; an unusual presentation of mediastinal bronchogenic cyst. F1000Res. 2018;7:960 Authors: Ali S, Rauf A, Meng LB, Sattar Z, Hussain S, Majeed U Abstract Background: Bronchogenic cysts are congenital malformations from abnormal budding of embryonic foregut and tracheobronchial tree. We present a case of bronchogenic cyst with severe back pain, epigastric distress and refractory nausea and vomiting.   Case Presentation: A 44-year-old Hispanic female presented with a 3-week history of recurrent sharp interscapular pain radiating to epigastrium with refractory nausea and vomiting. She underwent cholecystectomy 2-years ago. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen at that time showed a subcarinal mass measuring 5.4 X 5.0 cm. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound diagnosed it as a bronchogenic cyst. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) guided aspiration resulted in incomplete drainage and she was discharged after partial improvement. Current physical examination showed tachycardia and tachypnea with labs showing leukocytosis, elevated inflammatory markers, and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. CT chest showed an increased size of the bronchogenic cyst (9.64 X 7.7 cm) suggestive of possible partial cyst rupture or infected cyst. X-ray esophagram ruled out esophageal compression or contrast extravasation. Patient's symptoms were refractory to conservative management. The patient ultimately underwent right thoracotomy with cyst excision that resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: Bronchogenic cysts are the most common primary cysts of mediastinum with the prevalence of 6%. The most common symptoms are chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and stridor. Diagnosis is made by chest X-Ray and CT chest. Magnetic resonance imaging chest and EBUS are more sensitive and specific. Symptomatic cysts should be resected unless surgical risks are high. Asymptomatic cysts in younger patients should be removed due to low surgical risk and potential late complications. Watchful waiting has been recommended for asymptomatic adults or high-risk patients. This case presents mediastinal bronchogenic cyst as a cause of back, nausea and refractory vomiting. Immediate surgical excision in such cases should be attempted, which will lead to resolution of symptoms and avoidance of complications. PMID: 30345024 [PubMed - in process]

[To the question of elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation, the answer lies in the question].

Related Articles [To the question of elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation, the answer lies in the question]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol. 2018 May;46(5):481-488 Authors: Rozenberg P Abstract The goal of induction of labor is to achieve vaginal delivery when the benefits of expeditious delivery outweigh the risks of continuing the pregnancy. In order to correctly understand the problematic of the elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation (WG), two questions must be raised. (i) What is the perinatal mortality evolution according the gestational age at delivery? All the most recent and methodologically well-conducted studies are convergent: they show that the fetal mortality risk exceeds the perinatal/infant (during the first year of life) mortality risk from 39 WG. The benefit/risk balance related to the expectant management is therefore reversed from 39 WG in favor of the elective induction of labor when the considered issue is the perinatal mortality. (ii) What are the associated risks with elective induction of labor? While some observational studies suggested that the elective induction of labor after 37 WG was associated with an increased risk of cesarean sections, these studies presented a major methodological bias: an error in the control group selection. Indeed, the control group consisted of women in spontaneous labor, whereas the appropriate comparison group must be an expectant management group. Several large cohort studies using a rigorous methodology have shown that elective induction of labor at 39 WG reduces the cesarean section risk compared to an expectant management. Three systematic reviews with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing induction of labor with expectant management were published: two showed that the cesarean section risk was lowered with the induction of labor compared to an expectant management and the third that the cesarean section rates were similar. Finally, the most recent randomized controlled trial, published in 2016, showed no significant difference between the 2 arms in the cesarean section rate. In all, the most recent literature data, free from comparative bias, show that elective induction of labor at term is associated with a significant reduction in the cesarean section risk and perinatal morbidity and mortality compared to an expectant management. PMID: 29656952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Labor induction versus expectant management at early term in pregnancies with second trimester elevated human chorionic gonadotropin or alpha fetoprotein.

Related Articles Labor induction versus expectant management at early term in pregnancies with second trimester elevated human chorionic gonadotropin or alpha fetoprotein. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2018 Jun;44(6):1049-1056 Authors: Yefet E, Kuzmin O, Schwartz N, Basson F, Nachum Z Abstract AIM: Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) have been linked to placental dysfunction and associated morbidities. We aimed to compare the induction of labor with expectant management at term in those pregnancies for the prevention of neonatal and maternal morbidities. METHODS: Women with second trimester HCG ≥ 2 and/or AFP ≥ 2 multiples of the median, without additional maternal or fetal complications, from their 38th gestational week were offered the choice of labor induction or expectant management. The primary outcomes were maternal composite outcome (composed of cesarean deliveries, pre-eclampsia or placental abruption) and neonatal composite outcome (composed of antenatal or neonatal death, Apgar score at 5 min < 7, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, need for phototherapy, respiratory abnormalities, birth trauma or neonatal infection). RESULTS: Of 305 women, 124 women chose to undergo labor induction, and 181 women chose expectant management. The composite maternal outcome in the expectant management group was twice the rate of the labor induction group, although it did not reach statistical significance (18 [10%] vs 6 [5%]; P = 0.1; relative risk [expectant/induced] 2.04; 95% confidence interval 0.8-5.0). Increased rate of phototherapy led to increased neonatal composite outcomes in the labor induction group compared with the expectant management group (34 [27%] vs 27 [15%], respectively = 0.007). CONCLUSION: In pregnancies with elevated AFP and/or HCG, early term labor induction initiated a trend towards improvement in maternal outcome but increased the rate of mild neonatal morbidity. The statistical insignificance of the large effect on the maternal outcome might reflect the lack of statistical power. Further research is needed to address this limitation. PMID: 29516643 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Diagnostic workup for postmenopausal bleeding: a randomised controlled trial.

Related Articles Diagnostic workup for postmenopausal bleeding: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 2017 01;124(2):231-240 Authors: van Hanegem N, Breijer MC, Slockers SA, Zafarmand MH, Geomini P, Catshoek R, Pijnenborg J, van der Voet LF, Dijkhuizen F, van Hoecke G, Reesink-Peters N, Veersema S, van Hooff M, van Kesteren P, Huirne JA, Opmeer BC, Bongers MY, Mol B, Timmermans A Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of hysteroscopy for the detection and treatment of endometrial polyps versus expectant management in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB), a thickened endometrium and benign endometrial sampling. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Three academic hospitals and nine non-academic teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. POPULATION: Women with PMB, an endometrial thickness >4 mm and benign result from endometrial sampling. METHODS: Women were randomised to either further diagnostic workup by hysteroscopy (preceded by saline infusion sonography) or expectant management. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome measure was recurrence of PMB within a year after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures were time to recurrent bleeding and recurrent bleeding after more than 1 year. In the hysteroscopy group, the presence of polyps and the results of their histology were registered. RESULTS: Between January 2010 and October 2013, 200 women were randomised; 98 to hysteroscopy and 102 to expectant management. Within 1 year a total of 15 women (15.3%) in the hysteroscopy group experienced recurrent bleeding, versus 18 (18.0%) in the expectant management group (relative risk 0.85 (95% CI 0.46-1.59). In the hysteroscopy group, 50/98 (51%) polyps were diagnosed of which 6/98 (6%) showed evidence of endometrial (pre)malignancy; final pathology results after hysterectomy showed three women with hyperplasia with atypia and three women with endometrial cancer. CONCLUSION: In women with PMB, a thickened endometrium and benign endometrial sampling, operative hysteroscopy does not reduce recurrent bleeding. Hysteroscopy detected focal endometrial (pre)malignancy in 6% of women who had benign endometrial sampling. This finding indicates that in these women, further diagnostic workup is warranted to detect focal (pre)malignancies, missed by blind endometrial sampling. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: In women with PMB, hysteroscopy does not reduce recurrent bleeding but is warranted to detect focal malignancy. PMID: 27225535 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]