CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Yogic Technique - Sudarshan kriya

Effect of Sudarshan Kriya on male prisoners with non psychotic psychiatric disorders: a randomized control trial.

Abstract Title: Effect of Sudarshan Kriya on male prisoners with non psychotic psychiatric disorders: a randomized control trial. Abstract Source: Asian J Psychiatr. 2014 Dec ;12:43-9. Epub 2014 Jun 20. PMID: 25440560 Abstract Author(s): Pankaj Sureka, Sandeep Govil, Debadutta Dash, Chandika Dash, Mukesh Kumar, Vikas Singhal Article Affiliation: Pankaj Sureka Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (SK&P) can lead to increased global assessment of functioning (GAF) and increased feeling of wellness in male prisoners with a non psychotic psychiatric disorder. METHODOLOGY: This is a six month parallel randomized controlled study with sample size of 230 male prisoners. Participants meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned to a study or control group by simple random allocation in which random allocation sequence was generated using a random number table. Each individual study participant was involved in a daily program of SK&P for six weeks. Each individual control participant was instructed to sit in an armchair with his eyes closed and gentle attention to their breath for duration of six weeks. To be included in this study, a participant must be a male prisoner diagnosed to be suffering from a psychiatric disorder (except psychosis and bipolar affective disorder [BPAD]) by ICD-10 (DCR) criteria with age between 18 and 65 years. RESULTS: Majority of subjects were unemployed married individuals, educated until undermatric level and not having occupational skills of more than an unskilled labor level. Practicing SK&P for six weeks led to improvement in mean±SD score of study participants in GAF, anxiety (ANX), depressed mood (DEP), positive well being (PWB), general health (GH), self control (SC), vitality (VT) and total positive general well being (PGWB). Change in mean±SD score of study participants when compared with control participants was statistically significant in terms of GAF, ANX, DEP, PWB, GH and PGWB. Increase in SC and VT scores was statistically insignificant when compared with control participants. CONCLUSION: Practicing SK&P helps in improving GAF, PWB, GH and total PGWB of an individual. SK&P also causes significant reduction in anxiety and depression levels. Effect of SK&P on SC and VT is insignificant. Article Published Date : Nov 30, 2014

Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance. 📎

Abstract Title: Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance. Abstract Source: World J Clin Cases. 2016 Apr 16 ;4(4):99-102. PMID: 27099859 Abstract Author(s): Kirtigandha Salwe Carter, Robert Carter Article Affiliation: Kirtigandha Salwe Carter Abstract: Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural"technological"solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier for beginning practitioners when compared to other forms of meditation more research is needed to elucidate these observations. A breath-based meditation sequence such as Sudarshan Kriya has the potential to help develop an individual's self-awareness and support better integration of the brain (i.e., mind) with other organ systems (i.e., body) for enhanced human performance. Article Published Date : Apr 15, 2016

Effect of Sudarshan Kriya (meditation) on gamma, alpha, and theta rhythm during working memory task. 📎

Abstract Title: Effect of Sudarshan Kriya (meditation) on gamma, alpha, and theta rhythm during working memory task. Abstract Source: Int J Yoga. 2016 Jan-Jun;9(1):72-6. PMID: 26865775 Abstract Author(s): Sushil Chandra, Greeshma Sharma, Alok Prakash Mittal, Devendra Jha Article Affiliation: Sushil Chandra Abstract: AIMS: The present study focuses on analyzing the effects of Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) on brain signals during a working memory (WM) task. To envision the significant effects of SKY on WM capacity (WMC), we chose a control group for contriving a cogent comparison that could be corroborated using statistical tests. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 25 subjects were taken in the study, of which 10 were allotted to a control group and 15 to an experimental group. Electroencephalograph was taken during a WM task, which was an automated operation span test before and after SKY with 90 days intervals. No SKY was given to the control group. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: t-test and one-way ANOVA were applied. RESULTS: SKY promoted the efficient use of energy and power spectral density (PSD) for different brain rhythms in the desired locations as depicted by the gamma (F8 channel), alpha, and theta 2 (F7 and FC5) bands. It was found that gamma PSD reduced for both phases of memory in the experimental group. Alpha energy increased during the retrieval phase in the experimental group after SKY. Theta 1 rhythm was not affected by SKY, but theta 2 had shown left hemispheric activation. Theta rhythm was associated with memory consolidation. CONCLUSIONS: SKY had shown minimized energy losses while performing the task. SKY can improve WMC by changing the brain rhythms such that energy is utilized efficiently in performing the task. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Improvements in well-being and vagal tone following a yogic breathing-based life skills workshop in young adults: Two open-trial pilot studies. 📎

Abstract Title: Improvements in well-being and vagal tone following a yogic breathing-based life skills workshop in young adults: Two open-trial pilot studies. Abstract Source: Int J Yoga. 2016 Jan-Jun;9(1):20-6. PMID: 26865767 Abstract Author(s): Michael R Goldstein, Gregory F Lewis, Ronnie Newman, Janice M Brown, Georgiy Bobashev, Lisa Kilpatrick, Emma M Seppälä, Diana H Fishbein, Sreelatha Meleth Article Affiliation: Michael R Goldstein Abstract: BACKGROUND: While efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) has been demonstrated in a number of prior studies, little is known about the effects of SKY taught as part of the Your Enlightened Side (YES+) workshop designed for college students and other young adults. AIMS: This study aimed to assess the effects of YES+, a yogic breathing-based life skills workshop, on multiple measures of well-being and physiological stress response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two nonrandomized open-trial pilot studies were conducted with a total of 74 young adults (age 25.4± 6.6 years; 55% female). Study 1 collected a variety of self-report questionnaires at baseline, postworkshop, and 1-month follow-up. Study 2 collected self-report questionnaires in addition to electrocardiography with a stationary cycling challenge at baseline and 1-month follow-up. RESULTS: Study 1: Improvements in self-reported depression (P's≤ 0.010), perceived stress (P's ≤ 0.002), life satisfaction (P's ≤ 0.002), social connectedness (P's ≤ 0.004), and gratitude (P's ≤ 0.090) were observed at postworkshop and 1-month after workshop relative to baseline. Study 2: Improvements in self-reported emotion regulation were observedat 1-month follow-up relative to baseline (P = 0.019). Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form positive affect increased (P = 0.021), while fatigue and sadness decreased (P's ≤ 0.005). During the stationary cycling challenge, rate to recovery of electrocardiography inter-beat intervalalso increased from baseline to 1-month follow-up (P = 0.077). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a life skills workshop integrating yogic breathing techniques may provide self-empowering tools for enhancing well-being in young adults. Future research is indicated to further explore these effects, particularly in regards to vagal tone and other aspects of stress physiology. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Effect of rhythmic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayam) on immune functions and tobacco addiction.

Abstract Title: Effect of rhythmic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayam) on immune functions and tobacco addiction. Abstract Source: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov ;1056:242-52. PMID: 16387692 Abstract Author(s): Vinod Kochupillai, Pratik Kumar, Devinder Singh, Dhiraj Aggarwal, Narendra Bhardwaj, Manisha Bhutani, Satya N Das Article Affiliation: Vinod Kochupillai Abstract: Stress, a psychophysiological process, acts through the immune-neuroendocrine axis and affects cellular processes of body and immune functions, leading to disease states including cancer. Stress is also linked to the habit of tobacco consumption and substance abuse, which in turn also leads to diseases. Sudarshan Kriya (SK) and Pranayam (P), rhythmic breathing processes, are known to reduce stress and improve immune functions. Cancer patients who had completed their standard therapy were studied. SK and P increased natural killer (NK) cells significantly (P<0.001) at 12 and 24 weeks of the practice compared to baseline. Increase in NK cells at 24 weeks was significant (P<0.05) compared to controls. There was no effect on T-cell subsets after SK and P either in the study group or among controls. SK and P helped to control the tobacco habit in 21% of individuals who were followed up to 6 months of practice. We conclude that the inexpensive and easy to learn and practice breathing processes (SK and P) in this study demonstrated an increase in NK cells and a reduction in tobacco consumption. When confirmed in large and randomized studies, this result could mean that the regular practice of SK and P might reduce the incidence and progression of cancer. Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2005

Anti-anxiety efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga in general anxiety disorder: A multicomponent, yoga based, breath intervention program for patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder with or without comorbidities.

Abstract Title: Anti-anxiety efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga in general anxiety disorder: A multicomponent, yoga based, breath intervention program for patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder with or without comorbidities. Abstract Source: J Affect Disord. 2015 Sep 15 ;184:310-7. Epub 2015 Jun 24. PMID: 26142611 Abstract Author(s): S Doria, A de Vuono, R Sanlorenzo, F Irtelli, C Mencacci Article Affiliation: S Doria Abstract: BACKGROUND: Surdashan Kriya Yoga (SKY) is a procedure that in various studies, has shown evidences of efficacy in alleviating Depression and Anxiety disorders, but in Europe and USA it has not been studied yet on a Caucasian population as an adjunct therapy for psychiatric Disorders. METHODS: The study involved a sample of consenting women and men (n = 69) who received SKY therapy for a six-month time period. They were assessed at recruitment, after two weeks, after three months and after six months using Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS) and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). RESULTS: All the analyses have shown that SKY therapy significantly reduces the scores of Anxiety and Depression. This is plain, especially after the initial SKY treatment, which is followed by a long plateau phase that seems to verge on no Anxiety/Depression scores. It was found that SKY effects lead to a significant convergence between the self-assessment (Zung Self-Rating Scale) and hetero-assessment (Hamilton Rating Scale). LIMITATIONS: The study should be replicated on a larger clinical sample in a controlled trial to learn more about the effectiveness of SKY Protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in SKY adjunct therapy ten days intense workshop and follow-ups, coupled with daily individual and independent practice of a simplified protocol of breathing techniques (30 min), can lead to significant reduction in levels of Anxiety and Depression. Article Published Date : Sep 14, 2015

Effectiveness of yogic breathing intervention on quality of life of opioid dependent users. 📎

Abstract Title: Effectiveness of yogic breathing intervention on quality of life of opioid dependent users. Abstract Source: Int J Yoga. 2015 Jul-Dec;8(2):144-7. PMID: 26170596 Abstract Author(s): Anju Dhawan, Anita Chopra, Raka Jain, Deepak Yadav, Vedamurthachar Article Affiliation: Anju Dhawan Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) of substance users is known to be impaired. Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY), a yogic breathing program has potential to improve QOL and needs evaluation in an Indian setting. AIMS: Study aimed to assess changes in QOL in treatment seeking male opioid dependent users following practice of SKY program. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Users were randomized into study (n = 55) and control group (n = 29). Study group besides standard treatment (long term pharmacotherapy with buprenorphine in flexible dosing schedule) underwent a 3 days, 12 h SKY program while control group received standard treatment alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: World Health Organization QOL-brief scale was used to measure QOL and urine tested to assess recent drug use. Assessments were made at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed using generalized estimation equation to assess within group change with time and the overall difference between groups for changes at assessment points. RESULTS: Overtime within study group, all four QOL domain scores were significantly higher at 6 months. Between group comparison showed significant increase in physical (P<0.05); psychological (P<0.001) and environment domains (P<0.001) for study group while control group showed significant changes in social relationship domain only. Urine screening results were negative for study group indicating no drug use at 6 months. CONCLUSION: SKY as a complementary therapy was found beneficial in improving QOL for group practicing it and is recommended for use as low cost and low-risk adjunct in substance treatment settings in India. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2015

Sudarshan Kriya yoga improves quality of life in healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV): results from an open label randomized clinical trial. 📎

Abstract Title: Sudarshan Kriya yoga improves quality of life in healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV): results from an open label randomized clinical trial. Abstract Source: Indian J Med Res. 2015 Jan ;141(1):90-9. PMID: 25857500 Abstract Author(s): N Mawar, T Katendra, R Bagul, S Bembalkar, A Vedamurthachar, S Tripathy, K Srinivas, K Mandar, N Kumar, N Gupte, R S Paranjape Article Affiliation: N Mawar Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Improving quality of life (QOL) of healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical needing home-based, long-term strategy. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) intervention is acknowledged for its positive impact on health. It is hypothesised that SKY would improve PLHIV's QOL, justifying an evaluation. METHODS: In this open label randomized controlled pilot trial, 61 adult PLHIV with CD4 count more than 400 cells/µl and Karnofsky scale score above 70 were enrolled. Those with cardiac disease, jaundice, tuberculosis, or on antiretroviral therapy/yoga intervention were excluded. All were given standard care, randomized to SKY intervention (31: I-SKY) and only standard of care in control (30: O-SOC) arms. TheI-SKY participants were trained for six days to prepare for daily practice of SKY at home for 30 min. A validated 31-item WHOQOL-HIVBREF questionnaire was used to document effect in both arms from baseline to three visits at 4 wk interval. RESULTS: Baseline QOL scores, hypertension and CD4 count were similar in both arms. An overall 6 per cent improvement of QOL scores was observed in I-SKY group as compared to O-SOC group, after controlling for baseline variables like age, gender, education and occupation ( p =0.016); 12 per cent for physical ( p =0.004), 11 per cent psychological (p =0.023) and 9 per cent level of independence (p =0.001) domains. Improvement in I-SKY observed at post-training and in the SKY adherence group showed increase in these two domains. CONCLUSIONS: A significant improvement in QOL scores was observed for the three health related QOL domains in SKY intervention arm. This low cost strategy improved physical and psychological state of PLHIV calling for upscaling with effective monitoring for sustainability of quality of life. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Breathing-based meditation decreases posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in U.S. military veterans: a randomized controlled longitudinal study. 📎

Abstract Title: Breathing-based meditation decreases posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in U.S. military veterans: a randomized controlled longitudinal study. Abstract Source: J Trauma Stress. 2014 Aug ;27(4):397-405. PMID: 25158633 Abstract Author(s): Emma M Seppälä, Jack B Nitschke, Dana L Tudorascu, Andrea Hayes, Michael R Goldstein, Dong T H Nguyen, David Perlman, Richard J Davidson Article Affiliation: Emma M Seppälä Abstract: Given the limited success of conventional treatments for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), investigations of alternative approaches are warranted. We examined the effects of a breathing-based meditation intervention, Sudarshan Kriya yoga, on PTSD outcome variables in U.S. male veterans of the Iraq or Afghanistan war. We randomly assigned 21 veterans to an active (n = 11) or waitlist control (n = 10) group. Laboratory measures of eye-blink startle and respiration rate were obtained before and after the intervention, as were self-report symptom measures; the latter were also obtained 1 month and 1 year later. The active group showed reductions in PTSD scores, d = 1.16, 95% CI [0.20, 2.04], anxiety symptoms, and respiration rate, but the control group did not. Reductions in startle correlated with reductions in hyperarousal symptoms immediately postintervention (r = .93, p<.001) and at 1-year follow-up (r = .77, p = .025). This longitudinal intervention study suggests there may be clinical utility for Sudarshan Kriya yoga for PTSD. Article Published Date : Jul 31, 2014

Effect of controlled breathing exercises on the psychological status and the cardiac autonomic tone: Sudarshan Kriya and Prana-Yoga.

Abstract Title: Effect of controlled breathing exercises on the psychological status and the cardiac autonomic tone: Sudarshan Kriya and Prana-Yoga. Abstract Source: Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014 Jul-Sep;58(3):211-21. PMID: 25906603 Abstract Author(s): Chhaya Kharya, Varun Gupta, Kishore Kumar Deepak, Rajesh Sagar, Ashish Upadhyav, Vinod Kochupillai, Sneh Anand Article Affiliation: Chhaya Kharya Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to observe the effect of controlled breathing exercises including Sudarshan Kriya (SK) and Prana-Yoga (PY) on the psycho-physiological status. METHODS: The study group included 60 healthy volunteers (M:30, F:30) in the age group of 18 to 30 years (21.3± 3.2 yrs), randomly divided in to three groups of 20 subjects each--(1) The SK group (2) the PY group and the (3) Control group. The psycho-physiological data was collected at the following four time interventions: Baseline, 6th, 60th and the 150th day. Psychological assessment was done using questionnaires and for the autonomic tone quantification Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis was done using the standard lead II electrocardiogram recordings. In a post-hoc analysis each group was further sub divided in to the following two patterns, based on the baseline values of normalized Low Frequency (LF) power (cutoff 64 ms2): (i) Pattern A-Subjects with low level LF power, and (ii) Pattern B- subjects with high level LF power. RESULTS: The stress management skills have shown significant increase in SK group but not in PY and Control group. Subjects of SK, PY, and control group showed significant increase in LF value and LF:HF ratio for pattern A and significant decrease for pattern B. Plotted LF value for pattern A&B in SK and PY practitioners showed convergence, coming to a mean value over the period of 150 days. The LF:HF ratio curve plotted over time for pattern A&B showed convergence in SK group only. No such convergence in LF value&LF/HF ratio for pattern A&B was seen in control group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Sudarshan Kriya positively modifies stress coping behavior and initiates appropriate balance in cardiac autonomic tone. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2014

Completion report: Effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing program on type 2 diabetes: A randomized control trial. 📎

Abstract Title: Completion report: Effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing program on type 2 diabetes: A randomized control trial. Abstract Source: Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jul ;18(4):582-4. PMID: 25143922 Abstract Author(s): V P Jyotsna, Anju Dhawan, V Sreenivas, K K Deepak, Rajiv Singla Article Affiliation: V P Jyotsna Abstract: BACKGROUND: Yoga has been shown to be beneficial in diabetes in many studies, though randomized control trials are few. The aim of this randomized control trial was to see the effect of Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (comprehensive yogic breathing program) on quality of life, glycemic control, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been implicated in the causation of sudden cardiac death. Therefore, a maneuver to prevent progression of cardiac autonomic neuropathy holds significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 patients of diabetes on oral medication and diet and exercise advice were randomized into two groups: (1) Continued to receive standard treatment for diabetes. (2) Patients administered comprehensive yogic breathing program and monitored to regularly practice yoga in addition to standard treatment of diabetes. At 6 months, quality of life and postprandial plasma glucose significantly improved in the group practicing yoga compared to baseline, but there was no significant improvement in the fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin. RESULTS: On per protocol analysis, sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions significantly improved from baseline in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing. CONCLUSION: This randomized control trial points towards the beneficial effect of yogic breathing program in preventing progression of cardiac neuropathy. This has important implications as cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been considered as one of the factors for sudden cardiac deaths. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2014

Randomized Controlled Trial in Advance Stage Breast Cancer Patients for the Effectiveness on Stress Marker and Pain through Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayam. 📎

Abstract Title: Randomized Controlled Trial in Advance Stage Breast Cancer Patients for the Effectiveness on Stress Marker and Pain through Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayam. Abstract Source: Indian J Palliat Care. 2013 Sep ;19(3):180-5. PMID: 24347909 Abstract Author(s): Neeta Kumar, Sushma Bhatnagar, T Velpandian, Santosh Patnaik, Geetha Menon, Manju Mehta, Komal Kashyap, Vishwajeet Singh, Surajpal Article Affiliation: Neeta Kumar Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a cognitive, behavioral stress management module of Sudarshan Kriya (SK) and P on levels of serum cortisol and pain among the women suffering from advanced stage breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants (n = 147) were screened and randomized to receive standard care (n = 69) versus standard along with SK and Pranayam (P) intervention (n = 78) imparted in one 18 hrs workshop spread during 3 days. Participants were expected to practice it at home 20 min daily as adjuvant to standard pharmacological treatment for pain. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in blood cortisol levels after 3 months of practice of SK and P. Mean blood levels in the intervention arm were 341.2 ng/ml against 549.2 ng/ml in the control arm (P≤ 0.002). Pain perception in comparison to control arm reduced by 3 points in SK and P arm on 0-10 verbal scale of pain. CONCLUSION: SK and P is an effective intervention in reducing stress and pain among advance stage patients of breast cancer. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2013

Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program. 📎

Abstract Title: Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program. Abstract Source: Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May ;17(3):480-5. PMID: 23869306 Abstract Author(s): Viveka P Jyotsna, Smita Ambekar, Rajiv Singla, Ansumali Joshi, Anju Dhawan, Neeta Kumar, K K Deepak, V Sreenivas Article Affiliation: Viveka P Jyotsna Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam) had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program. Standard therapy included dietary advice, brisk walking for 45 min daily, and administration of oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was introduced to the participants through a course of 12 h spread over 3 days. It was an interactive session in which SKY, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam is taught under the guidance of a certified teacher. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and after 6 months of intervention. RESULTS: In the intervention group, after practicing the breathing techniques for 6 months, the improvement in sympathetic functions was statistically significant (P 0.04). The change in sympathetic functions in the standard therapy group was not significant (P 0.75). Parasympathetic functions did not show any significant change in either group. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P 0.06). In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P 0.99). CONCLUSION: Cardiac autonomic functions improved in patients with diabetes on standard treatment who followed the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared to patients who were on standard therapy alone. Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2013

Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program. 📎

Abstract Title: Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2013 ;8(4):e61910. Epub 2013 Apr 17. PMID: 23613970 Abstract Author(s): Su Qu, Solveig Mjelstad Olafsrud, Leonardo A Meza-Zepeda, Fahri Saatcioglu Article Affiliation: Su Qu Abstract: One of the most common integrative medicine (IM) modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P) compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012

Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health. 📎

Abstract Title: Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health. Abstract Source: Int J Yoga. 2013 Jan ;6(1):4-10. PMID: 23440614 Abstract Author(s): Sameer A Zope, Rakesh A Zope Article Affiliation: Sameer A Zope Abstract: Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2012
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Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance.

Related Articles Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance. World J Clin Cases. 2016 Apr 16;4(4):99-102 Authors: Carter KS, Carter R Abstract Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural "technological" solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier for beginning practitioners when compared to other forms of meditation more research is needed to elucidate these observations. A breath-based meditation sequence such as Sudarshan Kriya has the potential to help develop an individual's self-awareness and support better integration of the brain (i.e., mind) with other organ systems (i.e., body) for enhanced human performance. PMID: 27099859 [PubMed]
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