Emotional freedom techniques (EFT) as a practice for supporting chronic disease healthcare: a practitioners' perspective.
Disabil Rehabil. 2017 Mar 27;:1-9
Authors: Kalla M, Simmons M, Robinson A, Stapleton P
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to explore Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) practitioners' experiences of using EFT to support chronic disease patients. This was part of a larger study exploring chronic disease patients' and EFT practitioners' experiences of using EFT to support chronic disease healthcare.
METHODS: A qualitative approach was deemed suitable for this study. Eight practitioners were interviewed using semi-structured interviews via telephone or Zoom (an online video-conferencing platform). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data was analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis methodology.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This article presents two super-ordinate themes which explore application of EFT for addressing emotional issues faced by chronic disease patients, and for management of physical symptoms, respectively. Chronic disease patients may benefit from a holistic biopsychosocial, patient-centered healthcare approach. EFT offers potential as a technique that may be used by health practitioners to support the psychosocial aspect of chronic disease healthcare. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation professionals should incorporate suitable psychological interventions (e.g., EFT) to improve coping and acceptance in physical chronic disease patients and alleviate their fears about the future. Rehabilitation professionals are also recommended to address in chronic disease patients, long-standing or unresolved emotional issues, including past traumas from early life, using EFT or another suitable intervention. Rehabilitation professionals should help improve patients' emotional states using EFT to enhance physical symptom management.
PMID: 28345427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Corrigendum to "Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial".
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:9741394
Authors: Suh JW, Chung SY, Kim SY, Lee JH, Kim JW
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/203612.].
PMID: 27818704 [PubMed - in process]
A Randomized Controlled Comparison of Emotional Freedom Technique and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Reduce Adolescent Anxiety: A Pilot Study.
J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Feb;23(2):102-108
Authors: Gaesser AH, Karan OC
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to compare the efficacy of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) with that of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in reducing adolescent anxiety.
DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.
SETTINGS: This study took place in 10 schools (8 public/2 private; 4 high schools/6 middle schools) in 2 northeastern states in the United States.
PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three high-ability students in grades 6-12, ages 10-18 years, who scored in the moderate to high ranges for anxiety on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2 (RCMAS-2) were randomly assigned to CBT (n = 21), EFT (n = 21), or waitlist control (n = 21) intervention groups.
INTERVENTIONS: CBT is the gold standard of anxiety treatment for adolescent anxiety. EFT is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety that incorporates acupoint stimulation. Students assigned to the CBT or EFT treatment groups received three individual sessions of the identified protocols from trained graduate counseling, psychology, or social work students enrolled at a large northeastern research university.
OUTCOME MEASURES: The RCMAS-2 was used to assess preintervention and postintervention anxiety levels in participants.
RESULTS: EFT participants (n = 20; M = 52.16, SD = 9.23) showed significant reduction in anxiety levels compared with the waitlist control group (n = 21; M = 57.93, SD = 6.02) (p = 0.005, d = 0.74, 95% CI [-9.76, -1.77]) with a moderate to large effect size. CBT participants (n = 21; M = 54.82, SD = 5.81) showed reduction in anxiety but did not differ significantly from the EFT (p = 0.18, d = 0.34; 95% CI [-6.61, 1.30]) or control (p = 0.12, d = 0.53, 95% CI [-7.06, .84]).
CONCLUSIONS: EFT is an efficacious intervention to significantly reduce anxiety for high-ability adolescents.
PMID: 27642676 [PubMed - in process]
A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Wholistic Hybrid Derived From Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and Emotional Freedom Technique (WHEE) for Self-Treatment of Pain, Depression, and Anxiety in Chronic Pain Patients.
J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2016 Jul 18;:
Authors: Benor D, Rossiter-Thornton J, Toussaint L
In this pilot study, a convenience sample of 24 chronic pain patients (17 with chronic fatigue syndrome/fibromyalgia) were randomized into WHEE treatment and wait-list control groups for 6 weeks. Assessments of depression, anxiety, and pain were completed before, during, and at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Wait-listed patients then received an identical course of WHEE and assessments. WHEE decreased anxiety (P < .5) and depression (P < .05) compared with the control group. The wait-list-turned-WHEE assessments demonstrated decreased pain severity (P < .05) and depression (P < .04) but not pain interference or anxiety. WHEE appears a promising method for pain, anxiety, and depression in patients with chronic pain, compared to standard medical care alone. Though a small pilot study, the present results suggest that further research appears warranted. An incidental finding was that a majority of patients with chronic pain had suffered psychological trauma in childhood and/or adulthood.
PMID: 27432773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Emotional Freedom Techniques in Reducing Depression and Anxiety Among Adults: A Pilot Study.
Integr Med (Encinitas). 2016 Apr;15(2):27-34
Authors: Chatwin H, Stapleton P, Porter B, Devine S, Sheldon T
CONTEXT: The World Health Organization (WHO) places major depressive disorder (MDD), or depression, as the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide. Some studies have found that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the most superior approach in treating mild to severe symptoms. Recent literature has indicated a number of limitations to this therapeutic approach. An approach that has received increasing attention within the literature is the emotional freedom technique (EFT).
OBJECTIVE: The current pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT and EFT in the treatment of depression and comorbid anxiety.
DESIGN: The research team designed a pilot study structured as a randomized, controlled trial with 2 intervention arms.
SETTING: The study took place at Bond University in Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n = 10) were local community members who had screened positive for a primary diagnosis of MDD.
INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to an 8-wk CBT or EFT treatment program, the intervention groups. A sample of individuals from the community was assessed for comparative purposes (control group) (n = 57).
OUTCOME MEASURES: Pre- and postintervention, all participants were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) 6.0, and they completed the following validated questionnaires: (1) the Beck Depression Inventory, second edition (BDI-2) and (2) the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21).
RESULTS: Findings revealed that both treatment approaches produced significant reductions in depressive symptoms, with the CBT group reporting a significant reduction postintervention, which was not maintained with time. The EFT group reported a delayed effect involving a significant reduction in symptoms at the 3- and 6-mo follow-ups only. Examination of the individual cases revealed clinically significant improvements in anxiety across both interventions.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings provide evidence to suggest that EFT might be an effective treatment strategy worthy of further investigation.
PMID: 27330487 [PubMed]
The Emotional Freedom Technique: Finally, a Unifying Theory for the Practice of Holistic Nursing, or Too Good to Be True?
J Holist Nurs. 2016 May 11;:
Authors: Rancour P
The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is defined and described as a clinical procedure for the relief of psychological and physical distress that patients often bring to the attention of nurses. Frequently referred to as "tapping," this technique combines the cognitive reprocessing benefits of exposure and acceptance therapy with the energetic disturbance releases associated with acupuncture and other energy therapies. More than 60 research articles in peer-reviewed journals report a staggering 98% efficacy rate with the use of this procedure from psychological distress (posttraumatic stress disorder, phobias, anxiety, depression, etc.) to physical conditions (asthma, fibromyalgia, pain, seizure disorders, etc.) to performance issues (athletic, academic). Perhaps because of this, this technique has encountered a fair degree of skepticism within the health care community. Easily taught as a self-help aid that patients can administer to themselves, EFT becomes an efficacious tool in the hands of nurses who are seeking whole person approaches for the healing of a wide variety of psychological and physical conditions. A conceptual framework, mechanisms of action, evidence of safety, literature review, and case studies are also included.
PMID: 27170647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.
Nurse Educ Today. 2016 May;40:104-10
Authors: Patterson SL
BACKGROUND: Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management.
DESIGN: The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience.
SETTING: The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States.
PARTICIPANTS: All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39).
METHODS: Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week.
RESULTS: Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait data, the reduction in self-reported stress was statistically significant with a mean difference baseline to week 4. Qualitative data suggested that nursing students experienced a decrease in feelings of stress and anxiety including a decrease in somatic symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings suggested that EFT can be an effective tool for stress management and anxiety relief in nursing students.
PMID: 27125158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Emotional Freedom Techniques for Anxiety: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis.
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2016 May;204(5):388-95
Authors: Clond M
Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) combines elements of exposure and cognitive therapies with acupressure for the treatment of psychological distress. Randomized controlled trials retrieved by literature search were assessed for quality using the criteria developed by the American Psychological Association's Division 12 Task Force on Empirically Validated Treatments. As of December 2015, 14 studies (n = 658) met inclusion criteria. Results were analyzed using an inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. The pre-post effect size for the EFT treatment group was 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.64; p < 0.001), whereas the effect size for combined controls was 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.67; p = 0.001). Emotional freedom technique treatment demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety scores, even when accounting for the effect size of control treatment. However, there were too few data available comparing EFT to standard-of-care treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy, and further research is needed to establish the relative efficacy of EFT to established protocols.
PMID: 26894319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Efficacy of Fifteen Emerging Interventions for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review.
J Trauma Stress. 2016 Feb;29(1):88-92
Authors: Metcalf O, Varker T, Forbes D, Phelps A, Dell L, DiBattista A, Ralph N, O'Donnell M
Although there is an abundance of novel interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), often their efficacy remains unknown. This systematic review assessed the evidence for 15 new or novel interventions for the treatment of PTSD. Studies that investigated changes to PTSD symptoms following the delivery of any 1 of the 15 interventions of interest were identified through systematic literature searches. There were 19 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this study. Eligible studies were assessed against methodological quality criteria and data were extracted. The majority of the 19 studies were of poor quality, hampered by methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes and lack of control group. There were 4 interventions, however, stemming from a mind-body philosophy (acupuncture, emotional freedom technique, mantra-based meditation, and yoga) that had moderate quality evidence from mostly small- to moderate-sized randomized controlled trials. The active components, however, of these promising emerging interventions and how they related to or were distinct from established treatments remain unclear. The majority of emerging interventions for the treatment of PTSD currently have an insufficient level of evidence supporting their efficacy, despite their increasing popularity. Further well-designed controlled trials of emerging interventions for PTSD are required.
PMID: 26749196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Development of the SAFE Checklist Tool for Assessing Site-Level Threats to Child Protection: Use of Delphi Methods and Application to Two Sites in India.
PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0141222
Authors: Betancourt TS, Zuilkowski SS, Ravichandran A, Einhorn H, Arora N, Bhattacharya Chakravarty A, Brennan RT
BACKGROUND: The child protection community is increasingly focused on developing tools to assess threats to child protection and the basic security needs and rights of children and families living in adverse circumstances. Although tremendous advances have been made to improve measurement of individual child health status or household functioning for use in low-resource settings, little attention has been paid to a more diverse array of settings in which many children in adversity spend time and how context contributes to threats to child protection. The SAFE model posits that insecurity in any of the following fundamental domains threatens security in the others: Safety/freedom from harm; Access to basic physiological needs and healthcare; Family and connection to others; Education and economic security. Site-level tools are needed in order to monitor the conditions that can dramatically undermine or support healthy child growth, development and emotional and behavioral health. From refugee camps and orphanages to schools and housing complexes, site-level threats exist that are not well captured by commonly used measures of child health and well-being or assessments of single households (e.g., SDQ, HOME).
METHODS: The present study presents a methodology and the development of a scale for assessing site-level child protection threats in various settings of adversity. A modified Delphi panel process was enhanced with two stages of expert review in core content areas as well as review by experts in instrument development, and field pilot testing.
RESULTS: Field testing in two diverse sites in India-a construction site and a railway station-revealed that the resulting SAFE instrument was sensitive to the differences between the sites from the standpoint of core child protection issues.
PMID: 26540159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:203612
Authors: Suh JW, Chung SY, Kim SY, Lee JH, Kim JW
Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB) patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), the conventional meditation technique. Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey. Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p < 0.05). Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients.
PMID: 26539218 [PubMed]
THE EFFECT OF THE "EVOKING FREEDOM" TECHNIQUE ON AN UNUSUAL AND DISTURBING REQUEST.
Psychol Rep. 2015 Jun;116(3):936-40
Authors: Guéguen N, Silone F, David M, Pascual A
The "evoking freedom" technique consists in soliciting someone to comply with a request by simply saying that she is free to accept or to refuse the request. However, previous studies used low cost requests. The present study examined the magnitude of this technique associated with a more disturbing and costly request. Sixty men and 60 women aged approximately 20-25 years walking in the street were asked by a male confederate to hold a closed transparent box containing a live trap-door spider while he went into the post office to pick up a package. In the evoking freedom condition, the confederate added in his request that the participant was "free to accept or to refuse." More compliance occurred in the "evoking freedom" condition (53.3%) than in the control condition (36.7%). These results confirm the robustness and the magnitude of the evoking freedom technique on compliance and show that this technique remained effective even when the request was psychologically costly to perform and was associated with fear.
PMID: 26030208 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) Effects on Psychoimmunological Factors of Chemically Pulmonary Injured Veterans.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015 Feb;14(1):37-47
Authors: Babamahmoodi A, Arefnasab Z, Noorbala AA, Ghanei M, Babamahmoodie F, Alipour A, Alimohammadian MH, Riazi Rad F, Khaze V, Darabi H
Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) as a new therapeutic technique in energy psychology has positive effects on psychological and physiological symptoms, and quality of life. In this research we studied the effect of this treatment on immunological factors. This study tested whether 8-week group sessions of EFT (compared to a wait-list control group) with emphasis on patient's respiratory, psychological and immunological problems in chemically pulmonary injured veterans (N=28) can affect on immunological and psychological factors. Mixed effect linear models indicated that EFT improved mental health (F=79.24, p=0) and health-related quality of life (F=13.89, p=0.001), decreased somatic symptoms (F=5.81, p=0.02), anxiety/insomnia (F=24.03, p<0.001), social dysfunction (F=21.59, p<0.001), frequency and severity of respiratory symptoms (F=20.38, p<0.001), and increased lymphocyte proliferation with nonspecific mitogens Concanavalin A (Con A) (F=14.32, p=0.001) and Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (F=12.35, p=0.002), and peripheral blood IL-17 (F=9.11, p=0.006). This study provides an initial indication that EFT may be a new therapeutic approach for improving psychological and immunological factors.
PMID: 25530137 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Health-related empowerment in cancer: validity of scales from the Health Education Impact Questionnaire.
Cancer. 2014 Oct 15;120(20):3228-36
Authors: Maunsell E, Lauzier S, Brunet J, Pelletier S, Osborne RH, Campbell HS
BACKGROUND: Empowerment refers to an individual's feelings of being able to manage the challenges of the cancer experience and of having a sense of control over one's life. However, empowerment questionnaires that have been validated for the cancer setting are lacking. The objective of this study was to validate scales from the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ), which assesses the effects of health education programs among individuals with chronic conditions. The heiQ scales Social integration and support, Health service navigation, Constructive attitudes and approaches, Skill and technique acquisition, and Emotional distress were identified as key dimensions of empowerment for the cancer context.
METHODS: Adults who were diagnosed with cancer < 3 years earlier were recruited from a population-based cancer registry and from the Canadian Cancer Society's information and peer-support programs. The 731 participants completed a mailed questionnaire, which included the heiQ scales, related constructs, and demographics. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach α values, and validity was determined using confirmatory factor analysis and scale correlations with related constructs (self-efficacy, intrusive thoughts about cancer, and mental and physical health).
RESULTS: The hypothesized 5-factor model fit the data adequately (chi-square statistic, 528.17; degrees of freedom, 265; root mean square error of approximation, .04; non-normed fit index, .99; comparative fit index, 1.00; standardized root mean residual, .05). Factor loadings were high (23 of 25 were ≥ .70), and the factor correlations indicated separate but related constructs. Cronbach α values ranged from .75 to .90. A priori hypotheses about the correlations between heiQ scales and related constructs all were supported.
CONCLUSIONS: The current results support the validity of these 5 heiQ scales as generic measures of health-related empowerment in the cancer setting. These scales could fill an important gap in the measures currently available to evaluate proximal effects of support interventions.
PMID: 24988944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Traditional Chinese Medicine as a Basis for Treating Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Theory with Illustrative Cases.
Med Acupunct. 2013 Dec 01;25(6):398-406
Authors: Aung SK, Fay H, Hobbs RF
Background: Integrative medicine is becoming increasingly accepted in the global scheme of health care. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is often included among integrative medicine modalities. Objective: This article provides a background for integration of acupuncture and other TCM-derived approaches to managing psychiatric conditions. Methods: Classical theories of TCM that pertain to psychiatric conditions are reviewed, focusing on concepts of energetic imbalance, the implications of mind-body-spirit connections, and treatment strategies that involve TCM modalities. An example of correlation between TCM patterns of disharmony and the Western diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is given, along with an illustrative case in which counseling, medications, and acupuncture were combined in treatment. TCM principles are incorporated in certain energy psychology modalities, such as Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT). A case is presented demonstrating the integration of energy psychology with acupuncture, Qigong and hypnosis as an avenue for releasing pathogenic emotions. In classical TCM theory, assessing and treating spiritual disharmonies is fundamental for dealing with emotional disorders. Practical application in a clinical case is described. Conclusions: TCM offers a cogent theoretical basis for assessing and clinically managing patients presenting with mental health issues. TCM principles integrate well with other systems, including Western medicine.
PMID: 24761185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Effect of the emotional freedom technique on perceived stress, quality of life, and cortisol salivary levels in tension-type headache sufferers: a randomized controlled trial.
Explore (NY). 2013 Mar-Apr;9(2):91-9
Authors: Bougea AM, Spandideas N, Alexopoulos EC, Thomaides T, Chrousos GP, Darviri C
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term effects of the emotional freedom technique (EFT) on tension-type headache (TTH) sufferers.
DESIGN: We used a parallel-group design, with participants randomly assigned to the emotional freedom intervention (n = 19) or a control arm (standard care n = 16).
SETTING: The study was conducted at the outpatient Headache Clinic at the Korgialenio Benakio Hospital of Athens.
PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five patients meeting criteria for frequent TTH according to International Headache Society guidelines were enrolled.
INTERVENTION: Participants were instructed to use the EFT method twice a day for two months.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Study measures included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Short-Form questionnaire-36. Salivary cortisol levels and the frequency and intensity of headache episodes were also assessed.
RESULTS: Within the treatment arm, perceived stress, scores for all Short-Form questionnaire-36 subscales, and the frequency and intensity of the headache episodes were all significantly reduced. No differences in cortisol levels were found in any group before and after the intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: EFT was reported to benefit patients with TTH. This randomized controlled trial shows promising results for not only the frequency and severity of headaches but also other lifestyle parameters.
PMID: 23452711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The effect of emotional freedom techniques on stress biochemistry: a randomized controlled trial.
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012 Oct;200(10):891-6
Authors: Church D, Yount G, Brooks AJ
This study examined the changes in cortisol levels and psychological distress symptoms of 83 nonclinical subjects receiving a single hour long intervention. Subjects were randomly assigned to either an emotional freedom technique (EFT) group, a psychotherapy group receiving a supportive interviews (SI), or a no treatment (NT) group. Salivary cortisol assays were performed immediately before and 30 minutes after the intervention. Psychological distress symptoms were assessed using the symptom assessment-45. The EFT group showed statistically significant improvements in anxiety (-58.34%, p < 0.05), depression (-49.33%, p < 0.002), the overall severity of symptoms (-50.5%, p < 0.001), and symptom breadth (-41.93%, p < 0.001). The EFT group experienced a significant decrease in cortisol level (-24.39%; SE, 2.62) compared with the decrease observed in the SI (-14.25%; SE, 2.61) and NT (-14.44%; SE, 2.67) groups (p < 0.03). The decrease in cortisol levels in the EFT group mirrored the observed improvement in psychological distress.
PMID: 22986277 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Reflections on psychoanalytic technique with adolescents today: pseudo-pseudomaturity.
Int J Psychoanal. 2012 Jun;93(3):649-66
Authors: Mondrzak VS
The starting point for this paper is current observation of adolescents who seem unable to break the latency structure, making it difficult for the adolescence process to become established. These youngsters present with a specific set of characteristics which the author proposes to call 'pseudo-pseudomaturity': they seem for the most part well adapted, with an absence of unconscious conflicts. However, they differ from Meltzer's description of pseudomaturity in that the omnipotent attitude of dependence-denying is not seen. On the contrary, they seem eager to take the opportunity to have the infantile true self accepted and contained before they can safely enter the process of adolescence, with all its turbulence. Some aspects of our culture are discussed in relation to the psychic configuration described. Using fragments from the analysis of a 19 year-old patient, the paper looks at technical issues raised by these cases. There is an emphasis on the analyst's own mental processes and the importance of being able to contain the emotional turbulence that cannot be sensed by the patient. The author sets out the different modalities suggested/tested/proposed in the analytic relationship in support of the transferential work. Some questions regarding how and when to make interpretations are also discussed. In these types of cases, the psychoanalytic process carries a two-fold responsibility - to the patient and to society as a whole, in view of the creative potential that adolescents represent, essential for social change and growth.
PMID: 22671254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Technique and final cause in psychoanalysis: four ways of looking at one moment.
Int J Psychoanal. 2009 Dec;90(6):1299-317
Authors: Lear J
This paper argues that if one considers just a single clinical moment there may be no principled way to choose among different approaches to psychoanalytic technique. One must in addition take into account what Aristotle called the final cause of psychoanalysis, which this paper argues is freedom. However, freedom is itself an open-ended concept with many aspects that need to be explored and developed from a psychoanalytic perspective. This paper considers one analytic moment from the perspectives of the techniques of Paul Gray, Hans Loewald, the contemporary Kleinians and Jacques Lacan. It argues that, if we are to evaluate these techniques, we must take into account the different conceptions of freedom they are trying to facilitate.
PMID: 20002817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Pilot study of emotional freedom techniques, wholistic hybrid derived from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and emotional freedom technique, and cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of test anxiety in university students.
Explore (NY). 2009 Nov-Dec;5(6):338-40
Authors: Benor DJ, Ledger K, Toussaint L, Hett G, Zaccaro D
OBJECTIVE: This study explored test anxiety benefits of wholistic hybrid derived from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and Emotional Freedom Techniques (WHEE), Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFTs), and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
PARTICIPANTS: Canadian university students with severe or moderate test anxiety participated.
METHODS: A controlled trial of WHEE (n = 5), EFT (n = 5), and CBT (n = 5) was conducted. Standardized anxiety measures included the Test Anxiety Inventory and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-21.
RESULTS: Despite small sample size, significant reductions in test anxiety were found for all three treatments. In only two sessions, WHEE and EFT achieved the same benefits as CBT did in five sessions. Participants reported high satisfaction with all treatments. Emotional freedom techniques and WHEE participants successfully transferred their self-treatment skills to other stressful areas of their lives.
CONCLUSIONS: Both WHEE and EFT show promise as feasible treatments for test anxiety.
PMID: 19913760 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A review of efficacy claims in energy psychology.
Psychotherapy (Chic). 2009 Jun;46(2):249-56
Authors: McCaslin DL
In a recent article in this journal, Feinstein (see record 2008-07317-008) cited evidence that he claimed shows the efficacy of the emotional freedom technique and the Tapas acupressure technique, 2 energy psychology therapies. Further investigation into these claims reveals serious flaws in the methodology of the research cited by Feinstein. The small successes seen in these therapies are potentially attributable to well-known cognitive and behavioral techniques that are included with the energy manipulation. Psychologists and researchers should be wary of using such techniques, and make efforts to inform the public about the ill effects of therapies that advertise miraculous claims. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 22122622 [PubMed]
Investigating adaptive grieving styles: a Delphi study.
Death Stud. 2009 May;33(5):462-80
Authors: Doughty EA
There has been an evolution in the understanding of the nature of grief since S. Freud's initial work, Mourning and Melancholia (1917/1953). Mental health practitioners and researchers have established new models to aid in the conceptualization and treatment of grief issues. The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of experts in the field of grief regarding elements of a new model of adult bereavement, Martin and Doka's (2000) adaptive grieving styles, using the Delphi Method to identify points of consensus. A survey of 20 experts in the field of thanatology reached consensus on 21 items in which the panelists addressed the uniqueness of the griever, recognized there are multiple factors that influence the grieving process (i.e., culture, personality, and gender), that most bereaved individuals use both cognitive and affective strategies in adapting to bereavement, and that bereaved individuals experience both internal and external pressures to grieve in particular ways.
PMID: 19469075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The heart field effect: Synchronization of healer-subject heart rates in energy therapy.
Adv Mind Body Med. 2008;23(4):10-9
Authors: Bair CC
Recent health research has focused on subtle energy and vibrational frequency as key components of health and healing. In particular, intentional direction of bioenergy is receiving increasing scientific attention. This study investigates the effect of the healer's electromagnetic (EM) heart field upon subjects during energy healing as measured by synchronization of heart rates and scores on a Subjective Units of Distress (SUD) scale and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) inventory. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest design was used based on heart rate comparisons between healer and subject and correlated with pre-and posttest SUD and POMS scores. Subjects included those who sat within the 3- to 4-foot "strong" range of the independent variable, the healer's heart field, while performing self-application of WHEE (the wholistic hybrid derived from EMDR [eye movement desensitization and reprocessing], and EFT [emotional freedom technique]), a meridian-based tapping technique (n=50); and those who performed the same process beyond the 15- to 18-foot range of the healer's EM heart field (n=41). The dependent variables were heart rate, SUD, and POMS inventory. All subjects completed these measures within 1 hour. Study results showed statistically significant heart-rate synchronization with the intervention population. In addition, SUD and POMS scores demonstrated considerably more improvement than in the control population, indicating additional benefit beyond the meridian-based therapies, such as WHEE, alone. Additional findings and future research recommendations are presented in this article.
PMID: 20664147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effect of surgeon on transprosthetic gradients after aortic valve replacement with Freestyle stentless bioprosthesis and its consequences: a follow-up study in 587 patients.
J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007 Oct 05;2:40
Authors: Albert A, Florath I, Rosendahl U, Hassanein W, Hodenberg EV, Bauer S, Ennker I, Ennker J
BACKGROUND: The implantation of stentless valves is technically demanding and the outcome may depend on the performance of surgeons. We studied systematically the role of surgeons and other possible determinants for mid-term survival, postoperative gradients and Quality of Life (QoL) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with Freestyle stentless bioprostheses.
METHODS: Between 1996 and 2003, 587 patients (mean 75 years) underwent AVR with stentless Medtronic Freestyle(R) bioprostheses. Follow-up was 99% complete. Determinants of morbidity, mortality, survival time and QoL were evaluated by multiple, time-related, regression analysis. Risk models were built for all sections of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP): energy, pain, emotional reaction, sleep, social isolation and physical mobility
RESULTS: Actuarial freedom from aortic valve re-operation, structural valve deterioration, non-structural valve dysfunction, prosthetic valve endocarditis and thromboembolic events at 6 years were 95.9 +/- 2.1%, 100%, 98.7 +/- 0.5%, 97.0 +/- 1.5%, 79.6 +/- 4.3%, respectively. The actuarial freedom from bleeding events at 6 years was 93.1 +/- 1.9%. Estimated survival at 6 years was similar to the age-matched German population (61.4 +/- 3.8 %). Predictors of survival time were: diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, renal dysfunction, female gender > 80 years and patients < 165 cm with BMI < 24. Predictive models showed characteristic profiles and good discriminative powers (c-indexes > 0.7) for each of the 6 QoL sections. Early transvalvular gradients were identified as independent risk factors for impaired physical mobility (c-index 0.77, p < 0.002). A saturated propensity score identified besides patient related factors (e.g. preoperative gradients, ejection fraction, haematological factors) indexed geometric orifice area, subcoronary implantation technique and individual surgeons as predictors of high gradients.
CONCLUSION: In addition to the valve size (in relation to body size), subcoronary technique (versus total root) and various patient-related factors the risk of elevated gradients after stentless valve implantation depends, considerably on the individual surgeon. Although there was no effect on survival time and most aspects of QoL, higher postoperative transvalvular gradients affect physical mobility after AVR.
PMID: 17919325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Nurs Stand. 2007 Aug 22-28;21(50):24-5
Authors: Lynch E
Emotional freedom technique is gaining popularity in the UK for the treatment of psychological problems. Its supporters say it is particularly useful for people who have had traumatic experiences.
PMID: 17896572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sharing life with a gluten-intolerant person--the perspective of close relatives.
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2007 Oct;20(5):412-22
Authors: Sverker A, Ostlund G, Hallert C, Hensing G
BACKGROUND: Several studies indicate the importance of social support in the case of chronic disease.
AIM: The aim was to explore dilemmas experienced by close relatives living with a person suffering from coeliac disease, and to describe the strategies they used to deal with these dilemmas.
METHODS: Twenty-three informants were interviewed. A systematic inductive qualitative method, the critical incident technique was used.
RESULTS: Disease-related worries included having bad conscience about not being affected by the disease, experiencing anxiety and witnessing the vulnerability of the affected relative in social situations. Dilemmas related to manage daily life were connected with increased domestic work, restricted freedom of action and the diseased person's preferential right of interpretation of health risks associated with the coeliac disease and deviations from the diet restrictions. Dilemmas related to disturbances in social life, concerned lack of information, knowledge and understanding. Different strategies were described to manage daily life.
CONCLUSIONS: Close relatives experienced a variety of dilemmas that affected the situation of the whole family. The role of relatives in handling the coeliac disease with the diseased person in the everyday life might be underestimated, and to provide relatives with better knowledge regarding the disease might improve the situation also for patients.
PMID: 17845375 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Neural network control for position tracking of a two-axis inverted pendulum system: experimental studies.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw. 2007 Jul;18(4):1042-8
Authors: Jung S, Cho HT, Hsia TC
In this paper, experimental studies of a decentralized neural network control scheme of the reference compensation technique applied to control a 2-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) inverted pendulum on an x - y plane are presented. Each axis is controlled by two separate neural network controllers to have a decoupled control structure. Neural network controllers are applied not only to balance the angle of pendulum, but also to control the position tracking of the cart. The decoupled control structure can compensate for uncertainties and cancel coupling effects. Especially, a circular trajectory tracking task is tested for position tracking control of the cart while maintaining the angle of the pendulum. Experimental result shows that position control of the inverted pendulum and cart is successful.
PMID: 17668660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Humanistic approach to nursing communication: the case of a hospitalized adolescent female].
Rev Bras Enferm. 2000 Jan-Mar;53(1):7-13
Authors: Mendes IA, Trevizan MA, Nogueira MS, Hayashida M
Nursing is a profession committed to the promotion of human beings. It takes into consideration their freedom, uniqueness and dignity. Therefore, communication plays an important role within the nursing process and its results, and it is also a fundamental component of the treatment. However, in the context of Brazilian hospitals, communication between nurses and patients is limited to the performance of these professionals' technical role. The purpose of this study is to analyse the case of a hospitalized female adolescent, focusing on the communication that happens between her and the nursing professionals who provide her assistance. This analysis was based on Bales' categories. Through the technique of direct observation, the behavior resultant from the interaction between nurses and the adolescent was analysed on a total of 30 hours during five days. The observation showed 428 units of interaction which were classified, by qualified professionals, in positive, negative and neutral socio-emotional areas. Considering the high incidence of interactions in the neutral area (89.2%), authors recommend a humanistic correction in the communication during the nursing process. This change in communication can qualify patient's care as well as generate satisfaction at work through empathy and solidarity.
PMID: 12138445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
[Problems of methodology when studying the relationship between EEG and behaviour: use of the technique of sedation threshold to sodium amytal (author's transl)].
Rev Electroencephalogr Neurophysiol Clin. 1978 Sep;8(3):277-83
Authors: Julien I, Timsit-Berthier M
The objective of the study was to clarify the relations between EEG activity and behaviour using the technique of the sedation threshold to sodium amytal. Our results show that there is no parellelism between the EEG and behavioural thresholds, more especially because, in male subjects, there is resistance to falling asleep which delays the appearance of errors in calculation. Contrary to Shagass, whose work on the sedation threshold is based on the implicit postulation of the existence of a close relationship between EEG and behaviour, our results lead to the theoretical conclusion that we must take into account a certain freedom of behavioural responses, in relation to physiological phenomena upon which they are based.
PMID: 751119 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Therapy with eight schizophrenic and borderline patients: summary of a therapy approach that employs a semi-symbiotic bond between patient and therapist.
J Clin Psychol. 1975 Jul;31(3):519-25
Authors: Scagnelli J
In conclusion, it appears to this therapist that working through a semi-symbiotic union is a useful and perhaps essential therapy technique with both schizophrenic and borderline patients. The essential ingredients of this technique include: (1) open expression of feelings by the therapist; (2) consistency and reliability by the therapist; (3) understanding and acceptance of schizophrenic jargon; (4) acceptance of the patient's ambivalent feelings about closeness and distance and allowing distancing tactics; (5) interpreting and working through distancing needs as an on-going process -- understanding that they generally indicate both fear of rejection and of incorporation; (6) acceptance of a long-term semi-symbiotic responsibility to the patient; (7) expression of the therapist's own legitimate limits and of his inability to meet all the patient's needs; (8) allowing and encouraging the patient the freedom to grow toward increasing independence with security.
PMID: 1165281 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]