Therapeutic Actions EXERCISE Strength Training

NCBI pubmed

The Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Lower-Body Resistance Detraining in College-Age Women.

The Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Lower-Body Resistance Detraining in College-Age Women. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2017 Dec 08;:1-9 Authors: Lindsay KG, Nichols DL, Davis RW, Marshall DD Abstract PURPOSE: This study explored the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) using accelerations of 2.56 g to 7.68 g on lower-body detraining. METHODS: All participants (N = 20) were trained using a lower-body resistance-training program for 30 min twice per week from Week 0 to Week 6. At the end of the program, they were randomly assigned to a control group that performed no further training or a WBV group that performed a progressive static WBV program. Data for the 5-repetition-maximum (5RM) squat and extensors and flexors of the knee and ankle were collected at Weeks 0, 6, 8, 10, and 12 for all participants. RESULTS: Two-way (condition vs. time) analysis of variance revealed that although the WBV group maintained strength in the 5RM from Week 6 through Week 8 and the control group had a lower 5RM in Week 8 from Week 6, no differences in the 5RM squat existed between the groups at Week 8. Two-way factorial multivariate analysis of variance revealed no differences between the groups at any of the time for torque of knee flexion, dorsiflexion, or plantar flexion. CONCLUSION: Static WBV of 2.56 g to 7.68 g did not attenuate detraining of the flexors and extensors of the knee and ankle. PMID: 29220619 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Aerobic training but no resistance training increases SIRT3 in skeletal muscle of sedentary obese male adolescents.

Aerobic training but no resistance training increases SIRT3 in skeletal muscle of sedentary obese male adolescents. Eur J Sport Sci. 2017 Dec 08;:1-9 Authors: Vargas-Ortiz K, Pérez-Vázquez V, Figueroa A, Díaz FJ, Montaño-Ascencio PG, Macías-Cervantes MH Abstract In recent years, prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased. A strategy for prevention and management of obesity is aerobic training (AT) due to its effectiveness to decrease fat mass. AT increases the content of SIRT3, a mitochondrial protein that increases the expression of PGC-1α and NFR1, thereby enhances mitochondrial function and metabolic health. Resistance training (RT) provides metabolic benefits but its effect on SIRT3 content is unknown. To compare the effect of AT and RT on SIRT3, PGC-1α and NRF-1 protein levels in skeletal muscle of sedentary obese adolescents. Twenty-seven sedentary obese male adolescents (age: 16.7 ± 0.9 years; BMI: 33.7 ± 4.3 kg/m2) completed a 1-month control period prior to randomization to one of two supervised exercise protocols: AT (3 days/week, 40 min/day, 70-80% peak heart rate) or RT (3 days/week, 11 exercises, 2 sets/exercise, 12 repetitions/set) for 12 weeks. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after 12 weeks to analyse SIRT3, PGC-1α and NRF-1 proteins content. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and anthropometric variables were evaluated before and after training. AT increased SIRT3 content, which was associated with improvements in PGC-1α content and body fat percentage. RT did not affect SIRT3 or PGC-1α. VO2peak increased only in AT. The increase in muscle mitochondrial SIRT3 was observed only following AT. In contrast, RT increased muscle mass without improving SIRT3 in obese male adolescents. PMID: 29220206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An analysis of training loads in elite under 18 Australian Rule football players.

An analysis of training loads in elite under 18 Australian Rule football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017 Dec 06;: Authors: Cust EE, Elsworthy N, Robertson S Abstract Differences in training loads (TL) between under 18 (U18) Australian Rules football (AF) State Academy selected and non-selected players were investigated. Players were categorised relating to their highest representative level; State Academy selected (n = 9) and TAC Cup level players (n = 38). Data were obtained from an online training-monitoring tool implemented to collect player training and match information across a 20 - week period during the regular season. Parameters modelled included AF skills, strength, and other sport training sessions. Descriptive statistics (mean ± SD) and between-group comparisons (Cohen's d) were computed. A J48 decision tree modelled which TL variables could predict selection level. Pooled data showed 60% of weekly training duration consisted of AF training sessions. Similar AF TL were reported between State Academy and TAC Cup players (1578 ± 1264 arbitrary units (AU) v 1368 ± 872 AU; d = .05). While higher TL were reported for State selected players comparative to TAC Cup in total training (d = .20), core stability (d = .36), flexibility (d = .44), on-feet conditioning (d = .26), and off-feet conditioning (d = .26). Decision tree analysis showed core stability duration and flexibility TL the most influential parameters in classifying group selection (97.7% accuracy TAC Cup level; 35.8% accuracy State Academy level). Insights of U18 AF players' weekly training structures, loads, and characteristics of higher achieving players are provided. This study supports the application of training diaries and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) for TL monitoring in junior athletes. PMID: 29219896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effect Of 8-Week of Hospital-Based Resistance Training Program on TCD4+ Cell Count and Anthropometric Characteristic of HIV Patients in Tehran, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Effect Of 8-Week of Hospital-Based Resistance Training Program on TCD4+ Cell Count and Anthropometric Characteristic of HIV Patients in Tehran, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Strength Cond Res. 2017 Dec 06;: Authors: Ghayomzadeh M, SeyedAlinaghi S, Shamsi MM, Rezaei S, Earnest CP, Akbarnejad S, Taj L, Mohraz M, Navalta JW, Ghasemi P, Voltarelli FA Abstract We examined the effects of an 8 w circuit resistance training (RES) program using elastic bands and body weight on TCD4+ cell counts and anthropometry in HIV patients. Patients (N=21) receiving antiretroviral therapy were randomly assigned to resistance training (RES; n=14) or control group (CON; n=7) groups. RES (3/w) consisted of training with elastic bands and bodyweight training focusing on major muscle groups. CON received standard care. Statistical analyses were performed using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, length of infection and respective baseline measures. The primary outcome was TDC4+ and secondary outcomes were anthropometry indices. Tertiary assessments explored Pearson correlations surrounding the relationship between changes in anthropometry and TDC4+. We observed significant increases in TCD4+ count accompanying RES training (105.50 cells/mm3, 95% CI, 47.42, 163.59), while CON significantly decreased (-41.01 cells/mm3, 95% CI, -126.78, 44.76). Significant between group differences were noted (P<0.02; n=0.42). We also observed significant reductions in fat mass for RES (1.18 kg, 95% CI, =1.80, -0.56) vs. increased fat mass for CON (1.21 kg, 95% CI, 0.31, 2.11). Significant between group differences were noted (P=0.001, n=0.64). Similar effects were noted for lean body mass. No significant changes were observed for body weight. Significant correlations were observed for fat mass (r = -0.699, P=0.001) and lean mass (r = 0.553, P=0.017), but not body weight (r =-0.390, P=0.109) vs. changes in TDC4+. Our results suggest the RES program used in this study is effective for improving TDC4+ status and body composition in HIV patients. PMID: 29219895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Korean adults have lower physical function despite longer exercise times compared with their Japanese counterparts: A Japan-Korea comparative study.

Related Articles Korean adults have lower physical function despite longer exercise times compared with their Japanese counterparts: A Japan-Korea comparative study. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017 Dec 07;: Authors: Jung S, Okubo Y, Osuka Y, Seino S, Park J, Nho H, Tanaka K Abstract AIM: We aimed to compare the level of physical function (PF) and habitual exercise between older Japanese and Korean adults. METHODS: A comparative study was carried out on 1069 community-dwelling older Japanese and Korean adults (mean age 73.9 ± 5.2 years). The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire regarding habitual exercise and covariates. PF age, a composite measure of PF, was derived from the 12 items, using principal component analysis. PF age and habitual exercise were compared between the Japanese and Korean adults, using analysis of covariance (ancova) and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for all covariates using propensity scores. RESULTS: ancova showed that PF age in older Japanese adults was significantly younger than in their Korean counterparts. Older Japanese adults exercised significantly less frequently than their Korean counterparts. Furthermore, older Japanese adults practiced significantly less walking, mountain climbing and bicycling, but more calisthenics, resistance training, ball games and dances than their Korean counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: We found that older Korean adults had lower PF (3.7 years older in PF age) than their Japanese counterparts. Although the overall frequency and amount of habitual exercise in older Korean adults were higher than those in their Japanese counterparts, particular types of exercise might have contributed to the higher PF levels among older Japanese adults. Thus, older Korean adults might need to engage more in habitual exercises that are specifically effective in maintaining PF. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. PMID: 29218770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Feasibility and Parental Acceptability of an 8-Week, Slow-Speed, High-Intensity, Community-Based Resistance Training Program for Preadolescent Children.

Related Articles Feasibility and Parental Acceptability of an 8-Week, Slow-Speed, High-Intensity, Community-Based Resistance Training Program for Preadolescent Children. Fam Community Health. 2017 Jul/Sep;40(3):183-191 Authors: Mullane SL, Bocchicchio VB, Crespo NC Abstract High-intensity resistance training (RT) shows promise for improved cardiometabolic health in children. Achieving high-intensity RT safely is a challenge for community-based programs because of parental concerns and group engagement. Twenty preadolescent children completed an 8-week, twice per week program using slow speed to achieve high-intensity RT. Parent and child surveys were conducted to measure acceptability and effectiveness. Child fitness levels were assessed, and fasting blood draws and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were performed on a subset population. Perceived RT safety, self-efficacy, body composition, waist circumference, and fitness tests exhibited significant improvements. Using slow speed to achieve high-intensity RT may provide a safe and effective community-based alternative for preadolescents. PMID: 28525437 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A Multifactorial, Criteria-based Progressive Algorithm for Hamstring Injury Treatment.

Related Articles A Multifactorial, Criteria-based Progressive Algorithm for Hamstring Injury Treatment. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Jul;49(7):1482-1492 Authors: Mendiguchia J, Martinez-Ruiz E, Edouard P, Morin JB, Martinez-Martinez F, Idoate F, Mendez-Villanueva A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Given the prevalence of hamstring injuries in football, a rehabilitation program that effectively promotes muscle tissue repair and functional recovery is paramount to minimize reinjury risk and optimize player performance and availability. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the concurrent effectiveness of administering an individualized and multifactorial criteria-based algorithm (rehabilitation algorithm [RA]) on hamstring injury rehabilitation in comparison with using a general rehabilitation protocol (RP). METHODS: Implementing a double-blind randomized controlled trial approach, two equal groups of 24 football players (48 total) completed either an RA group or a validated RP group 5 d after an acute hamstring injury. RESULTS: Within 6 months after return to sport, six hamstring reinjuries occurred in RP versus one injury in RA (relative risk = 6, 90% confidence interval = 1-35; clinical inference: very likely beneficial effect). The average duration of return to sport was possibly quicker (effect size = 0.34 ± 0.42) in RP (23.2 ± 11.7 d) compared with RA (25.5 ± 7.8 d) (-13.8%, 90% confidence interval = -34.0% to 3.4%; clinical inference: possibly small effect). At the time to return to sport, RA players showed substantially better 10-m time, maximal sprinting speed, and greater mechanical variables related to speed (i.e., maximum theoretical speed and maximal horizontal power) than the RP. CONCLUSIONS: Although return to sport was slower, male football players who underwent an individualized, multifactorial, criteria-based algorithm with a performance- and primary risk factor-oriented training program from the early stages of the process markedly decreased the risk of reinjury compared with a general protocol where long-length strength training exercises were prioritized. PMID: 28277402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of Resistance Training and Protein Supplementation in Breast Cancer Survivors.

Related Articles Effects of Resistance Training and Protein Supplementation in Breast Cancer Survivors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Jul;49(7):1283-1292 Authors: Madzima TA, Ormsbee MJ, Schleicher EA, Moffatt RJ, Panton LB Abstract PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate 12 wk of resistance training (RT; n = 16) and protein supplementation (RT + protein; n = 17) on muscular strength, body composition, and blood biomarkers of muscle (insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]), fat (adiponectin), and inflammation (human C-reactive protein [CRP]) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Thirty-three BCS (59 ± 8 yr) were measured pre- and posttraining for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) muscular strength (chest press and leg extension), body composition (lean mass [LM] and fat mass [FM]) via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and serum concentrations of IGF-1, adiponectin, and CRP. RT consisted of 2 d·wk using 10 exercises for two sets of 10-12 repetitions and a third set to failure at ~65%-85% of 1-RM. RT + protein consumed 20 g of protein twice a day. ANOVA was used for analyses. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Average RT intensity was 65%-81% of 1-RM and was not different between RT and RT + protein. There were no group-time interactions for strength, LM, FM, and biomarkers. Both groups significantly increased upper (+31 ± 18 kg) and lower (+19 ± 12 kg) body strength, LM (+0.9 ± 1.0 kg) and decreased FM (-0.5 ± 1.2 kg), and percent body fat (-1.0% ± 1.2%). Serum levels of IGF-1 significantly increased from baseline to 12 wk in both RT (102 ± 34 to 115 ± 33 ng·mL) and RT + protein (110 ± 40 to 119 ± 37 ng·mL); adiponectin and CRP did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of RT at 65%-81% of 1-RM, 2 d·wk in BCS, was well tolerated and significantly improved strength, body composition, and IGF-1. Supplemental protein (40 g·d) did not induce a change in any variable. However, on the basis of food logs, reductions in total calories and dietary protein intake from whole foods resulted in only a net protein increase of 17 g·d for RT + protein, which may have influenced the results. PMID: 28252552 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Great expectations: racial differences in outcome expectations for a weight lifting intervention among black and white breast cancer survivors with or without lymphedema.

Related Articles Great expectations: racial differences in outcome expectations for a weight lifting intervention among black and white breast cancer survivors with or without lymphedema. Psychooncology. 2016 Sep;25(9):1064-70 Authors: Dean LT, Brown J, Coursey M, Schmitz KH Abstract BACKGROUND: Black breast cancer survivors are less likely to engage in physical activity than are White survivors. This is unfortunate because physical activity may be especially beneficial given Black breast cancer survivors' higher rates of obesity and adverse treatment effects related to obesity, such as breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). The analysis explored outcome expectations for a weight lifting intervention by sedentary Black or White female breast cancer survivors and assessed the role of BCRL on outcome expectations for exercise. METHODS: Chi-squared tests compared mean outcome expectation values for Black and White breast cancer survivors who completed baseline surveys for the Physical Activity and Lymphedema trial (n = 281). With race as the independent variable, multivariable analysis compared results for women without BCRL with those with BCRL, separately. RESULTS: Across the entire sample, Black survivors (n = 90) had significantly higher (p < 0.05) outcome expectations than White survivors (n = 191) for improvements in sleep, appearance, mental health, affect, energy, and eating habits, with small to moderate effect sizes. When stratified by BCRL status, differences by race were robust only among those with BCRL. CONCLUSIONS: Black cancer survivors had greater expectations than White cancer survivors for how a weight lifting intervention would improve their physical and mental states; these differences were most apparent among women with BCRL. Improving outcomes in Black breast cancer survivors rests on the development of interventions that are appropriately tailored to address the expectations of this population and account for differences in persistent adverse effects of cancer such as BCRL. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID: 27192633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]