Free-radicals and advanced chemistries involved in cell membrane organization influence oxygen diffusion and pathology treatment.
AIMS Biophys. 2017;4(2):240-283
Authors: Petersen RC
A breakthrough has been discovered in pathology chemistry related to increasing molecular structure that can interfere with oxygen diffusion through cell membranes. Free radicals can crosslink unsaturated low-viscosity fatty acid oils by chain-growth polymerization into more viscous liquids and even solids. Free radicals are released by mitochondria in response to intermittent hypoxia that can increase membrane molecular organization to reduce fluidity and oxygen diffusion in a possible continuing vicious cycle toward pathological disease. Alternate computational chemistry demonstrates molecular bond dynamics in free energy for cell membrane physiologic movements. Paired electrons in oxygen and nitrogen atoms require that oxygen bonds rotate and nitrogen bonds invert to seek polar nano-environments and hide from nonpolar nano-environments thus creating fluctuating instability at a nonpolar membrane and polar biologic fluid interface. Subsequent mechanomolecular movements provide free energy to increase diffusion by membrane transport of molecules and oxygen into the cell, cell-membrane signaling/recognition/defense in addition to protein movements for enzyme mixing. In other chemistry calcium bonds to membrane phosphates primarily on the outer plasma cell membrane surface to influence the membrane firing threshold for excitability and better seal out water permeation. Because calcium is an excellent metal conductor and membrane phosphate headgroups form a semiconductor at the biologic fluid interface, excess electrons released by mitochondria may have more broad dissipation potential by safe conduction through calcium atomic-sized circuits on the outer membrane surface. Regarding medical conditions, free radicals are known to produce pathology especially in age-related disease in addition to aging. Because cancer cell membranes develop extreme polymorphism that has been extensively followed in research, accentuated easily-visualized free-radical models are developed. In terms of treatment, use of vitamin nutrient supplements purported to be antioxidants that remove free radicals has not proved worthwhile in clinical trials presumably due to errors with early antioxidant measurements based on inaccurate colorimetry tests. However, newer covalent-bond shrinkage tests now provide accurate measurements for free-radical inhibitor hydroquinone and other molecules toward drug therapy.
PMID: 29202036 [PubMed]