Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Primary Dysmenorrhea for Female High School Students in South Korea.
J Nurs Scholarsh. 2016 Aug 19. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27541067
Nam Hyun Cha, Sohyune R Sok
Nam Hyun Cha
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of auricular acupressure therapy on primary dysmenorrhea among female high school students in South Korea.
DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was employed.
METHODS: The study sample consisted of 91 female high school students, with 45 participants in the experimental group and 46 in the control group in two regions of South Korea. The average age of the participants was 16.7 years, and the average age of menarche was 12.2 years. Auricular acupressure therapy including an auricular acupressure needle on skin paper tape was applied on an ear for 3 days during periods of extreme primary dysmenorrhea. The acupoint names were Jagung, Sinmun, Gyogam, and Naebunbi. For the placebo control group, only the skin paper tape without an auricular acupressure needle was applied on the same acupoints. Measures used were the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire to assess primary dysmenorrhea, and the visual analog scale to assess abdominal and back pain of participants.
FINDINGS: There were significant differences on abdominal pain (t = 24.594, p<.001), back pain (t = 22.661, p<.001), and primary dysmenorrhea (t = 32.187, p<.001) between the two groups. Auricular acupressure therapy decreased abdominal pain, back pain, and primary dysmenorrhea of female high school students in South Korea.
CONCLUSIONS: Auricular acupressure therapy was an effective intervention for alleviating abdominal pain, back pain, and primary dysmenorrhea of female high school students in South Korea. For feasibility of the auricular acupressure therapy in practice, it is needed to train and learn the exact positions of acupoints in ear.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Health providers should consider providing auricular acupressure therapy as an alternative method for reducing abdominal and back pain, and primary dysmenorrhea in female high school students in South Korea.
Article Published Date : Aug 18, 2016
The effect of auricular acupressure on nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among breast cancer patients.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016 Aug ;24:189-94. Epub 2016 Jul 5. PMID: 27502820
Mohammad Eghbali, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Shokoh Varaei, Seydeh Fatemeh Jalalinia, Mojgan Alam Samimi, Kiarash Sa'atchi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of auricular acupressure in relieving nausea and vomiting among the women who received chemotherapy.
METHODS: 48 women suffering from Breast Cancer and receiving chemotherapy were recruited for the study. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups of experiment and control. In the initial phase of chemotherapy, the experimental group received standard medications to control nausea and vomiting and auricular acupressure for five days. Meanwhile, the control group received only the standard medications.
RESULTS: The use of auricular acupressure led to the decrease in the number and intensity of nausea and vomiting in both the acute and delayed phases in experimental group which were significantly lower than the control group (P = 0/001).
CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that nurses use this pressure technique as a complementary treatment, non - pharmacological, inexpensive, non-invasive approach for the relief of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Article Published Date : Jul 31, 2016
[Body acupuncture combined with auricular acupressure for menstrual headache: a randomized controlled clinical trial].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2015 Feb ;40(1):70-4. PMID: 25845225
Li-hong Sun, Xin-hua Li, Wen-li Li, Li Liu, Hong-li Ma, Yu-lei Liang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect of body acupuncture combined with auricular acupressure for treatment of menstrual headache of hyperactivity of"liver fire".
METHODS: A total of 85 menstrual headache patients with hyperactivity of"liver-fire"were randomly divided into control group (n = 42) and treatment group (n = 43). Patients of the control group were treated by oral administration of Flunarizine Hydrochloride Capsules (Sibelium, 5 mg/time, twice daily) for 5 days beginning at the headache attack in the first menstrual cycle, and for two weeks (except weekends) in the second and third menstrual cycles. Patients of the treatment group were treated by manual acupuncture stimulation of body acupoints Baihui (GV 20), Fengchi (GB 20), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Taichong (LR 3), Xiaxi (GB 43), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Hanyan (GB 4), Xuanlu (GB 5) and Shuaigu (GB 8) beginning from the headache attack, and otopoint-pellet pressure of otopoints unilateral Endocrine, Ovaries, Shenmen, Cortex, Liver, Spleen and Kidney (beginning 5 days before menstrual onset) and bilateral Shenmen, Nie, Liver, Gallbladder, Subcortex and Jiaogan during headache attack. Clinical symptom scores were assessed according to the"Guiding Principles for Clinical Research on New Chinese Herbal Drugs"issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health.
RESULTS: After the treatment, of the 42 and 43 cases in the control and treatment groups, 9 (21.43%) and 20 (46.51%) were cured, 12 (28.57%) and 14 (32.56%) had a marked improvement, 13 (30.95%) and 7 (16.28%) were effective, 8 (19.05%) and 2 (4.65%) invalid, with the effective rates being 80.95% and 95.35% , respectively. The curative effect of the treatment group was significantly better than that of the control group (P<0.05). The symptom score and VAS score after the treatment and 3 months post-treatment in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.01). The headache scores and VAS scores were significantly reduced following the treatment and 3 months after the treatment in both control and treatment groups (P<0.01). After the treatment for 2-3 therapeutic courses, the headache attack duration during menstruation was markedly and gradually shortened in both groups (P<0.01), and therapeutic effect of the treatment group was significantly better than that of the control group (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Body acupuncture combined with auricular acupressure treatment can effectively relieve menstrual headache in menstrual women with hyperactivity of"liver fire".
Article Published Date : Jan 31, 2015
[Efficacy on depression in breast cancer treated with acupuncture and auricular acupressure].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2014 Oct ;34(10):956-60. PMID: 25543421
Bin Xiao, Zhan-hua Liu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy difference in treatment of depression in breast cancer between the combined therapy of acupuncture and auricular acupressure and western medication.
METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. In the observation group, the combined therapy of acupuncture and auricular acupressure was adopted. The main acupoints of acupuncture were Hegu (LI 4), Tai-chong (LR 3), Baihui (GV 20), Zusanli (ST 36), Qihai (CV 6), etc. The supplementary acupoints were combined according to the syndrome differentiation. The treatment was given once every day, 5 treatments a week, at the interval of 2 days among weeks. The auricular acupressure was applied to gan (CO12, liver), pi (CO13, spleen), neifenmi (CO18, endocrine), etc., once every 4 days, on each side in one treatment. In the control group, fluoxetine hydrochloride capsules were prescribed for oral administration, 20 mg, once a day. The Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) was used to assess the disease severity and efficacy before treatment, in 4 and 8 weeks of treatment separately. HAMD factor changes were observed before treatment and at the end of the 8th week. The Asberg antidepressants scale (SERS) was applied to safety assessment.
RESULTS: The total effective rate was 86.7% (26/30) in the observation group, better than 63.3% (19/30) in the control group (P<0.05). At the end of the 4th and 8th weeks, HAMD scores were all reduced apparently in the two groups (all P<0.01). At the end of the 8th week, the scores of the HAMD factor 1 (anxiety/somatic system), factor 5 (retardation) and factor 6 (sleep disturbance) were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (all P<0.01); the results in the observation group were better than those in the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). SERS score in the observation group was lower obviously than that in the control group (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: The combined therapy of acupuncture and auricular acupressure achieves the antidepression effect in treatment of depression in breast cancer and has less side effects and high safety. The efficacy is superior to fluoxetine hydrochloride capsules.
Article Published Date : Sep 30, 2014
Effects of auricular acupressure on pain reduction in patient-controlled analgesia after lumbar spine surgery.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2010 Jun;48(2):80-6. PMID: 20643366
Mei-Ling Yeh, Mei-Yung Tsou, Bih-Yun Lee, Hsing-Hsia Chen, Yu-Chu Chung
National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the adjuvant effects of auricular acupres-sure in augmenting intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine and droperidol for postoperative lumbar surgery patients in terms of postoperative pain relief satisfaction, and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). METHODS: In this single-blind experimental study, 94 subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group in which patients received auricular acupressure to six auricular acupoints or a control group without acupressure. Data were collected using the American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, t tests, chi(2) tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and the generalized estimating equation model were used. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower average pain scores than the control group, but no between-group difference was found. Analgesic dose and satisfaction were similar in both groups. The incidence of PONV was low and similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Although this study did not demonstrate adjuvant effects of auricular acupressure on postoperative pain, analgesic dose, analgesic satisfaction and PONV, most subjects were satisfied with the pain management even though they were subjected to moderate pain because of insufficient analgesia. Further studies should reconfirm the effects of auricular acupressure on analgesia provided by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in postoperative patients, and its influence on the frequency and duration of analgesia administration.
Article Published Date : Jun 01, 2010
Effects of ear acupressure in improving visual health in children.
Am J Chin Med. 2010;38(3):431-9. PMID: 20503462
Ching-Hsiu Chen, Hsing-Hsia Chen, Mei-Ling Yeh, Shiow-Luan Tsay
Department of Nursing, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.
Myopia is a major health problem, not only because of its high prevalence in Asia but also because it contributes to visual morbidity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ear acupressure for visual improvement on school children in Taiwan. Participants were fifth-grade school children with visual acuity between 6/37.5 and 6/9.6 in one eye. The experimental group (n = 35) received a 15-week ear acupressure intervention with seed embedding; the control group (n = 35) did not. Data for demographic factors, visual acuity, refractive error, and behavior toward visual health were collected before and after the intervention. The significant differences were observed between the two groups in visual acuity (p = 0.02), refractive error (p = 0.04), and behaviors toward visual health (p = 0.045). Performing ear acupressure may facilitate improved visual health for children. However, it requires more extended studies exploring its effects on elementary students in different grades. Longitudinal effects of this intervention also require further study.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
A combined therapy using stimulating auricular acupoints enhances lower-level atropine eyedrops when used for myopia control in school-aged children evaluated by a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial.
Complement Ther Med. 2008 Dec ;16(6):305-10. Epub 2008 May 29. PMID: 19028329
Chih-Kai Liang, Tin-Yun Ho, Tsai-Chung Li, Wen-Ming Hsu, Te-Mao Li, Yu-Chen Lee, Wai-Jane Ho, Juei-Tang Cheng, Chung-Yuh Tzeng, I-Ting Liu, Shih-Liang Chang
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the reduction in myopia progression in patients treated with atropine eyedrops alone with patients treated with a combined treatment of atropine and stimulation of the auricular acupoints.
METHODS: This study was a randomized single-blind clinical controlled trial. A total of 71 school-aged children with myopia, who fulfilled the eligibility criteria, were recruited. They were randomly assigned into three groups. These were 22 treated with the 0.25% atropine (0.25A) only, 23 treated with the 0.5% atropine (0.5A) only and 26 treated with 0.25% atropine together with stimulation of the auricular acupoints (0.25A+E). The differences in the post-treatment effects among these three groups were statistically assessed. The primary outcome parameter was myopia progression, which was defined as diopter change per year (D/Y) after cycloplegic refraction measurement.
RESULTS: The mean myopia progression of the 0.25A group was 0.38+/-0.32 D/Y. No significant difference in mean myopia progression was found between the 0.5A (0.15+/-0.15 D/Y) and 0.25A+E (0.21+/-0.23 D/Y) groups. However, there was a markedly reduced myopia progression in the 0.25A+E group compared to the 0.25A group (p<0.05). Furthermore, there was no statistical difference among these three groups in axial length elongation (ALE) of eye during this stage of the investigation.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that there was efficacy in stimulating the auricular acupoints and this enhanced the action of 0.25% atropine as a means of myopia control. The result was an effect almost equal to that of 0.5% atropine alone. There is also a need that the ALE of the eye should be further investigated over a longer period using the combined therapy.
Article Published Date : Nov 30, 2008
Effects of auricular acupressure on menstrual symptoms and nitric oxide for women with primary dysmenorrhea.
J Neurochem. 2007 Aug;102(4):1095-104. Epub 2007 Apr 30. PMID: 19292653
Mei-Chuan Wang, Mei-Chi Hsu, Li-Wei Chien, Chien-Huei Kao, Chi-Feng Liu
Department of Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on relieving menstrual symptoms and decreasing nitric oxide (NO) for women with primary dysmenorrhea. DESIGN: This was a randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of auricular acupressure by seed-pressure method and placebo adhesive patch. SETTING: Settings included colleges in northern and central Taiwan. SUBJECTS: Serum CA-125 testing was used as a screening test for primary dysmenorrhea (<35 mg/dL). The study included 36 college females randomized to acupressure group, 35 to control group. INTERVENTIONS: The acupressure group received auricular acupressure by seed-pressure method on liver (CO12), kidney (CO10), and endocrine (CO18) acupoints. The control group had a plain adhesive patch placed on the same acupoints with no seed attached. Acupressure protocol included massaging 15 times on each acupoint, 3 times a day, for a total of 20 days. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: Short-form Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQs). Secondary: blood sample of NO. Assessments of MDQs and NO were performed at baseline and within the first 2 days of their next menses (after completion of 20 days of acupressure). RESULTS: In the acupressure group, the overall menstrual symptoms (95% confidence interval [CI] = -49.8 to -6.5, effect size [ES] = 0.43, p = 0.01) and two subscales, menstrual pain (95% CI = -16.4 -to -2.2, ES = 0.45, p = 0.01) and negative affects (95% CI = -11.9-2.0, ES = 0.38, p = 0.04), revealed that menstrual symptoms decreased significantly after auricular acupressure by the seed-pressure method. The ES for the MDQs were in favor of the auricular acupressure by seed-pressure method. NO level increased in the acupressure group, although this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the effects of auricular acupressure by seed-pressure method in improving menstrual symptoms, and offers a noninvasive complementary therapy for women with primary dysmenorrhea.
Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2007
Acupuncture and related interventions for the treatment of symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 02;12:CD011215
Authors: Choi GH, Wieland LS, Lee H, Sim H, Lee MS, Shin BC
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a compressive neuropathic disorder at the level of the wrist. Acupuncture and other methods that stimulate acupuncture points, such as electroacupuncture, auricular acupuncture, laser acupuncture, moxibustion, and acupressure, are used in treating CTS. Acupuncture has been recommended as a potentially useful treatment for CTS, but its effectiveness remains uncertain. We used Cochrane methodology to assess the evidence from randomised and quasi-randomised trials of acupuncture for symptoms in people with CTS.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of acupuncture and acupuncture-related interventions compared to sham or active treatments for the management of pain and other symptoms of CTS in adults.
SEARCH METHODS: On 13 November 2017, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, CINAHL Plus, DARE, HTA, and NHS EED. In addition, we searched six Korean medical databases, and three Chinese medical databases from inception to 30 April 2018. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing trials.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials examining the effects of acupuncture and related interventions on the symptoms of CTS in adults. Eligible studies specified diagnostic criteria for CTS. We included outcomes measured at least three weeks after randomisation. The included studies compared acupuncture and related interventions to placebo/sham treatments, or to active interventions, such as steroid nerve blocks, oral steroid, splints, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), surgery and physical therapy.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors followed standard Cochrane methods.
MAIN RESULTS: We included 12 studies with 869 participants. Ten studies reported the primary outcome of overall clinical improvement at short-term follow-up (3 months or less) after randomisation. Most studies could not be combined in a meta-analysis due to heterogeneity, and all had an unclear or high overall risk of bias.Seven studies provided information on adverse events. Non-serious adverse events included skin bruising with electroacupuncture and local pain after needle insertion. No serious adverse events were reported.One study (N = 41) comparing acupuncture to sham/placebo reported change on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) at three months after treatment (mean difference (MD) -0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.79 to 0.33) and the BCTQ Functional Status Scale (FSS) (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.63), with no clear difference between interventions; the evidence was of low certainty. The only dropout was due to painful acupuncture. Another study of acupuncture versus placebo/sham acupuncture (N = 111) provided no usable data.Two studies assessed laser acupuncture versus sham laser acupuncture. One study (N = 60), which was at low risk of bias, provided low-certainty evidence of a better Global Symptom Scale (GSS) score with active treatment at four weeks after treatment (MD 7.46, 95% CI 4.71 to 10.22; range of possible GSS scores is 0 to 50) and a higher response rate (risk ratio (RR) 1.59, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.22). No serious adverse events were reported in either group. The other study (N = 25) did not assess overall symptom improvement.One trial (N = 77) of conventional acupuncture versus oral corticosteroids provided very low-certainty evidence of greater improvement in GSS score (scale 0 to 50) at 13 months after treatment with acupuncture (MD 8.25, 95% CI 4.12 to 12.38) and a higher responder rate (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.45). Change in GSS at two weeks or four weeks after treatment showed no clear difference between groups. Adverse events occurred in 18% of the oral corticosteroid group and 5% of the acupuncture group (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.32). One study comparing electroacupuncture and oral corticosteroids reported a clinically insignificant difference in change in BCTQ score at four weeks after treatment (MD -0.30, 95% CI -0.71 to 0.10; N = 52).Combined data from two studies comparing the responder rate with acupuncture versus vitamin B12, produced a RR of 1.16 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.36; N = 100, very low-certainty evidence). No serious adverse events occurred in either group.One study of conventional acupuncture versus ibuprofen in which all participants wore night splints found very low-certainty evidence of a lower symptom score on the SSS of the BCTQ with acupuncture (MD -5.80, 95% CI -7.95 to -3.65; N = 50) at one month after treatment. Five people had adverse events with ibuprofen and none with acupuncture.One study of electroacupuncture versus night splints found no clear difference between the groups on the SSS of the BCTQ (MD 0.14, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.43; N = 60; very low-certainty evidence). Six people had adverse events with electroacupuncture and none with splints. One study of electroacupuncture plus night splints versus night splints alone presented no difference between the groups on the SSS of the BCTQ at 17 weeks (MD -0.16, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.04; N = 181, low-certainty evidence). No serious adverse events occurred in either group.One study comparing acupuncture plus NSAIDs and vitamins versus NSAIDs and vitamins alone showed no clear difference on the BCTQ SSS at four weeks (MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.46; very low-certainty evidence). There was no reporting on adverse events.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture and laser acupuncture may have little or no effect in the short term on symptoms of CTS in comparison with placebo or sham acupuncture. It is uncertain whether acupuncture and related interventions are more or less effective in relieving symptoms of CTS than corticosteroid nerve blocks, oral corticosteroids, vitamin B12, ibuprofen, splints, or when added to NSAIDs plus vitamins, as the certainty of any conclusions from the evidence is low or very low and most evidence is short term. The included studies covered diverse interventions, had diverse designs, limited ethnic diversity, and clinical heterogeneity. High-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are necessary to rigorously assess the effects of acupuncture and related interventions upon symptoms of CTS. Based on moderate to very-low certainty evidence, acupuncture was associated with no serious adverse events, or reported discomfort, pain, local paraesthesia and temporary skin bruises, but not all studies provided adverse event data.
PMID: 30521680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]