Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Spiritual Beliefs

Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. 📎

Abstract Title: Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. Abstract Source: J Psychopharmacol. 2017 Sep 1:269881117731279. Epub 2017 Sep 1. PMID: 29020861 Abstract Author(s): Roland R Griffiths, Matthew W Johnson, William A Richards, Brian D Richards, Robert Jesse, Katherine A MacLean, Frederick S Barrett, Mary P Cosimano, Maggie A Klinedinst Article Affiliation: Roland R Griffiths Abstract: Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level ("standard") support for spiritual-practice (LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS). Psilocybin was administered double-blind and instructions to participants/staff minimized expectancy confounds. Psilocybin was administered 1 and 2 months after spiritual-practice initiation. Outcomes at 6 months included rates of spiritual practice and persisting effects of psilocybin. Compared with low-dose, high-dose psilocybin produced greater acute and persisting effects. At 6 months, compared with LD-SS, both high-dose groups showed large significant positive changes on longitudinal measures of interpersonal closeness, gratitude, life meaning/purpose, forgiveness, death transcendence, daily spiritual experiences, religious faith and coping, and community observer ratings. Determinants of enduring effects were psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience and rates of meditation/spiritual practices. Psilocybin can occasion enduring trait-level increases in prosocial attitudes/behaviors and in healthy psychological functioning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00802282. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2017

Psilocybin-induced spiritual experiences and insightfulness are associated with synchronization of neuronal oscillations.

Abstract Title: Psilocybin-induced spiritual experiences and insightfulness are associated with synchronization of neuronal oscillations. Abstract Source: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Aug 1. Epub 2015 Aug 1. PMID: 26231498 Abstract Author(s): Michael Kometer, Thomas Pokorny, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Volleinweider Article Affiliation: Michael Kometer Abstract: RATIONALE: During the last years, considerable progress has been made toward understanding the neuronal basis of consciousness by using sophisticated behavioral tasks, brain-imaging techniques, and various psychoactive drugs. Nevertheless, the neuronal mechanisms underlying some of the most intriguing states of consciousness, including spiritual experiences, remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate state of consciousness-related neuronal mechanisms, human subjects were given psilocybin, a naturally occurring serotonergic agonist and hallucinogen that has been used for centuries to induce spiritual experiences in religious and medical rituals. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 50 healthy human volunteers received a moderate dose of psilocybin, while high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were taken during eyes-open and eyes-closed resting states. The current source density and the lagged phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations across distributed brain regions were computed and correlated with psilocybin-induced altered states of consciousness. RESULTS: Psilocybin decreased the current source density of neuronal oscillations at 1.5-20 Hz within a neural network comprising the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices and the parahippocampal regions. Most intriguingly, the intensity levels of psilocybin-induced spiritual experience and insightfulness correlated with the lagged phase synchronization of delta oscillations (1.5-4 Hz) between the retrosplenial cortex, the parahippocampus, and the lateral orbitofrontal area. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide systematic evidence for the direct association of a specific spatiotemporal neuronal mechanism with spiritual experiences and enhanced insight into life and existence. The identified mechanism may constitute a pathway for modulating mental health, as spiritual experiences can promote sustained well-being and psychological resilience. Article Published Date : Jul 31, 2015

Religious involvement is associated with greater purpose, optimism, generosity and gratitude in persons with major depression and chronic medical illness.

Abstract Title: Religious involvement is associated with greater purpose, optimism, generosity and gratitude in persons with major depression and chronic medical illness. Abstract Source: J Psychosom Res. 2014 Aug ;77(2):135-43. Epub 2014 May 15. PMID: 25077855 Abstract Author(s): Harold G Koenig, Lee S Berk, Noha S Daher, Michelle J Pearce, Denise L Bellinger, Clive J Robins, Bruce Nelson, Sally F Shaw, Harvey Jay Cohen, Michael B King Article Affiliation: Harold G Koenig Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Religious involvement may help individuals with chronic medical illness cope better with physical disability and other life changes. We examine the relationships between religiosity, depressive symptoms, and positive emotions in persons with major depression and chronic illness. METHODS: 129 persons who were at least somewhat religious/spiritual were recruited into a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of religious vs. secular cognitive behavioral therapy. Reported here are the relationships at baseline between religious involvement and depressive symptoms, purpose in life, optimism, generosity, and gratefulness using standard measures. RESULTS: Although religiosity was unrelated to depressive symptoms (F=0.96, p=0.43) and did not buffer the disability-depression relationship (B=-1.56, SE 2.90, p=0.59), strong relationships were found between religious indicators and greater purpose, optimism, generosity, and gratefulness (F=7.08, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although unrelated to depressive symptoms in the setting of major depression and chronic medical illness, higher religious involvement is associated with positive emotions, a finding which may influence the course of depression over time. Article Published Date : Jul 31, 2014
Therapeutic Actions Spiritual Beliefs

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Examining protective and buffering associations between sociocultural factors and adverse childhood experiences among American Indian adults with type 2 diabetes: a quantitative, community-based participatory research approach.

Related Articles Examining protective and buffering associations between sociocultural factors and adverse childhood experiences among American Indian adults with type 2 diabetes: a quantitative, community-based participatory research approach. BMJ Open. 2018 Sep 19;8(9):e022265 Authors: Brockie TN, Elm JHL, Walls ML Abstract OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of select adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among a sample of American Indian (AI) adults living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the associations between ACEs and self-rated physical and mental health. We also examined associations between sociocultural factors and health, including possible buffering processes. DESIGN: Survey data for this observational study were collected using computer-assisted survey interviewing techniques between 2013 and 2015. SETTING: Participants were randomly selected from AI tribal clinic facilities on five reservations in the upper Midwestern USA. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of T2D, age 18 years or older and self-identified as AI. The sample includes n=192 adults (55.7% female; mean age=46.3 years). PRIMARY MEASURES: We assessed nine ACEs related to household dysfunction and child maltreatment. Independent variables included social support, diabetes support and two cultural factors: spiritual activities and connectedness. Primary outcomes were self-rated physical and mental health. RESULTS: An average of 3.05 ACEs were reported by participants and 81.9% (n=149) said they had experienced at least one ACE. Controlling for gender, age and income, ACEs were negatively associated with self-rated physical and mental health (p<0.05). Connectedness and social support were positively and significantly associated with physical and mental health. Involvement in spiritual activities was positively associated with mental health and diabetes-specific support was positively associated with physical health. Social support and diabetes-specific social support moderated associations between ACEs and physical health. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrates inverse associations between ACEs and well-being of adult AI patients with diabetes. The findings further demonstrate the promise of social and cultural integration as a critical component of wellness, a point of relevance for all cultures. Health professionals can use findings from this study to augment their assessment of patients and guide them to health-promoting social support services and resources for cultural involvement. PMID: 30232110 [PubMed - in process]