In situ provision of drinking water to grazing dairy cows improves milk production.
N Z Vet J. 2018 Jan;66(1):37-40
Authors: Miglierina MM, Bonadeo N, Ornstein AM, Becú-Villalobos D, Lacau-Mengido IM
AIMS: To determine the effect of providing water within the area grazed by dairy cows on milk yield and quality, compared to requiring cows to walk to a distant water trough, on a dairy farm in the Pampa region of Argentina during summer.
METHODS: Holstein dairy cows were allocated to two herds with similar parity, days in milk and milk production. They were grazed in one paddock that was divided in two, with a fixed water trough at one end. Cows were moved twice daily to grazing plots within the paddock. Control cows (n=66) could only access water from the fixed trough, whereas supplemented cows (n=67) also received water from a mobile trough within the grazing plot. Milk production of each cow, and water consumption of the two herds were measured daily over 62 days. Milk composition for each herd was determined weekly from Days 18 to 60 of the study, and grazing behaviour was observed between 08:00 and 16:00 hours on Days 11-15, 19-22 and 39-43.
RESULTS: Over the 62 days of the study, supplemented cows produced 1.39 (SE 0.11) L/cow/day more milk than Control cows (p=0.027). Estimated mean daily water intake was 50.4 (SE 2.1) L/cow/day for supplemented cows and 58.2 (SE 2.7) L/cow/day for Control cows (p=0.004). Percentage total solids in milk was higher for supplemented (12.5 (SE 0.06)%) than Control (12.4 (SE 0.04)%) cows (p=0.047). During the periods of behavioural observation, a higher percentage of cows in the water supplemented than the Control herd were observed in the grazing area (p=0.012).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This preliminary study demonstrated that provision of water to dairy cows within the grazing plot was beneficial for milk production and composition, and may be associated with longer periods spent within the grazing area, during hot weather in the Pampa region of Argentina.
PMID: 28866962 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Supplementation of glycerol or fructose via drinking water to grazing lambs on tissue glycogen level and lipogenesis.
J Anim Sci. 2017 Jun;95(6):2558-2575
Authors: Volpi-Lagreca G, Duckett SK
Lambs ( = 18; 40.1 ± 7.4 kg BW) were used to assess supplementation of glycerol or fructose via drinking water on growth, tissue glycogen levels, postmortem glycolysis, and lipogenesis. Lambs were blocked by BW and allocated to alfalfa paddocks (2 lambs/paddock and 3 paddocks/treatment). Each paddock within a block was assigned randomly to drinking water treatments for 30 d: 1) control (CON), 2) 120 g fructose/L of drinking water (FRU), or 3) 120 g glycerol/L of drinking water (GLY). Lambs grazed alfalfa with free access to water treatments for 28 d and then were fasted in indoor pens for a final 2 d with access to only water treatments. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with water treatment and time (when appropriate) in the model. During the 28-d grazing period, ADG was greater ( < 0.05) for GLY than for CON or FRU. During the 2-d fasting period, BW shrink was lower ( < 0.05) for GLY compared with CON or FRU. Hot carcass weight was greater ( < 0.05) for GLY than for FRU. The interaction for glycogen content × postmortem time was significant ( = 0.003) in LM and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Glycogen content in the LM was greater ( < 0.05) for GLY at 2 and 3 h and for FRU at 1 h postmortem compared with CON. Glycogen content in ST did not differ between treatments ( > 0.05). Liver glycogen content was over 14-fold greater ( < 0.05) for GLY compared with FRU or CON. Liver free glucose was greater ( < 0.05) for GLY than for CON, whereas liver lipid content was higher ( < 0.05) for CON than for GLY. Supplementation with GLY increased ( < 0.05) odd-chain fatty acids in LM, subcutaneous fat (SQ), and the liver. Stearic acid (C18:0) concentrations were reduced in LM ( = 0.064) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SQ; = 0.018), whereas oleic acid (C18:1 -9) concentration tended to be increased ( = 0.066) in SQ with FRU and GLY. Linolenic acid (C18:3 -3) was reduced ( = 0.031) and all long-chain -3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) concentrations were increased ( < 0.05) with FRU and GLY compared with CON. Glycerol supplementation upregulated ( < 0.05) stearoyl-CoA desaturate () and fatty acid synthase () mRNA by over 40-fold in the SQ and 5-fold in the liver. Glycerol supplementation also upregulated ( < 0.05) glucose transporters and glycogen branching enzyme in the liver. Overall, glycerol supplementation improved growth, reduced BW shrink during fasting, increased glycogen content in muscle and the liver, and stimulated de novo lipogenesis.
PMID: 28727036 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Black or white coffee before anaesthesia?: A randomised crossover trial.
Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2016 06;33(6):457-62
Authors: Larsen B, Larsen LP, Sivesgaard K, Juul S
BACKGROUND: In current preoperative fasting guidelines, coffee with milk is still regarded by many as solid food. Evidence on the consequences for gastric volume of adding milk to coffee 2 h before anaesthesia is still weak.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the gastric volume by MRI in healthy volunteers after drinking coffee with and without added milk.
DESIGN: A randomised crossover trial where all participants were exposed to three coffee and milk mixtures performed as a noninferiority study with a predefined noninferiority limit of 12 ml.
SETTING: Department of Day Surgery and Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. The study was conducted between August 2013 and February 2014.
PARTICIPANTS: Total 32 healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 71 years.
INTERVENTIONS: The participants fasted for 6 h for solid food, and 2 h before the MRI examination of gastric volume, each participant ingested one of three coffee mixtures: 175 ml coffee, including either 0 or 20 or 50% full fat milk. Each participant was studied by MRI three times separated by a minimum time interval of 2 days. The order of coffee mixture ingested was determined by random allocation.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Gastric volume as measured by MRI.
RESULTS: The mean gastric volume for black coffee was 27.8 ml, for coffee with 20% milk 17.9 ml and for coffee with 50% milk 20.6 ml. Compared to black coffee, the gastric volume for 20% milk was significantly decreased with a difference of -10.0 ml (95% confidence interval, -18.2, -1.8), and for 50% milk it was insignificantly decreased, -7.2 ml (95% confidence interval, -17.4, +2.9). The upper confidence interval for the difference in gastric volume between the 'no milk added' group and each 'milk added' group did not reach the noninferiority limit of 12 ml.
CONCLUSION: The study provides evidence that adding up to 50% full fat milk to coffee leads to no or only a minimal increase of the gastric volume 2 h later. The results support a liberalisation of policy on the addition of milk to hot drinks before planned anaesthesia.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02361632.
PMID: 27035595 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]