Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Low Carbohydrate

Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer.

Abstract Title: Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer. Abstract Source: Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jun ;111(6):891-6. Epub 2016 Mar 29. PMID: 27021191 Abstract Author(s): Susanna C Larsson, Edward L Giovannucci, Alicja Wolk Article Affiliation: Susanna C Larsson Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Diets that induce a high glycemic response might increase the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC). We evaluated the hypothesis that diets with high glycemic load (GL) and high glycemic index (GI), which are measures of the glycemic effect of foods, are associated with an increased incidence of BTC. METHODS: We used data from a population-based prospective study of 76,014 Swedish adults (age 45-83 years; 57% men) who were free of cancer and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997. Incident cancer cases were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 13.3 years (1,010,777 person-years), we identified 140 extrahepatic BTC cases (including 77 gallbladder cancers) and 23 intrahepatic BTC cases. A high dietary GL was associated with an increased risk of BTC. The multivariable relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartile of dietary GL were 1.63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-2.63) for extrahepatic BTC, 2.14 (95% CI, 1.06-4.33) for gallbladder cancer, and 3.46 (95% CI, 1.22-9.84) for intrahepatic BTC. Dietary GI was statistically significantly positively associated with risk of extrahepatic BTC and gallbladder cancer. We observed no statistically significant association between carbohydrate intake and BTC risk, although all associations were positive. CONCLUSION: Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, they are consistent with the hypothesis that high-GL and high-GI diets are associated with an increased risk of BTC. Article Published Date : May 31, 2016

Metabolic Correction as a tool to improve diabetes type 2 management.

Abstract Title: Metabolic Correction as a tool to improve diabetes type 2 management. Abstract Source: Bol Asoc Med P R. 2015 Apr-Jun;107(2):54-9. PMID: 26434085 Abstract Author(s): Jorge R Miranda-Massari, Michael J Gonzalez, Alvarez-Soto Fernando, Carlos Cidre, Iván M Paz, Jorge Charvel, Viridiana Martínez, Jorge Duconge, Aileen Aponte, Carlos M Ricart Article Affiliation: Jorge R Miranda-Massari Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) is a metabolic disease that develops by a decrease in sensitivity of insulin receptors as an effect of the disruption certain metabolic functions in the processing of glucose. DM2 patients have, uncontrolled glucose levels, and commonly have problems with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Patients are treated with standard diet, insulin, diabetic oral agents and antihypertensive drugs, but this approach does not completely stops tissue deterioration since it does not address the metabolic root of the disease. Metabolic correction is proposed as a suitable adjunct treatment to improve clinical outcomes. Metabolic correction is based on diet modification, proper hydration and scientific supplementation directed to improve cellular biochemistry and metabolic efficiency. In addition, other possible benefits may include reduction in medication use, disease complications and medical costs. To test the results of a metabolic correction program, 25 patients with DM2 participated in an education program about adequate food consumption that promoted control of blood glucose levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood tests were performed during a 13 week program based on a low carbohydrate diet, proper hydration and magnesium supplementation. The metabolic correction program implemented by a proprietary educational system resulted in significant reductions in glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, weight and waist circumference. Improvements in these values could represent an important reduction of coronary heart disease risk factors as well as other chronic degenerative diseases. In addition there was medication dosage reduction in one or more medications in 21 of the 25 participating patients, which suggest that the program has the potential to improve health outcomes and reduce health care costs. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2015

Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1.

Abstract Title: Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1. Abstract Source: Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015 Mar 19. Epub 2015 Mar 19. PMID: 25747515 Abstract Author(s): Jong Doo Lee, Min-Ah Choi, Simon Weonsang Ro, Woo Ick Yang, Arthur E H Cho, Hye-Lim Ju, Sinhwa Baek, Sook In Chung, Won Jun Kang, Mijin Yun, Jeon Han Park Article Affiliation: Jong Doo Lee Abstract: Calorie restriction or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) can increase life span in normal cells while inhibiting carcinogenesis. Various phytochemicals also have calorie restriction-mimetic anticancer properties. We investigated whether an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating phytochemicals induce synergic tumor suppression. We used a mixture of AMPK-activating phytochemical extracts including curcumin, quercetin, catechins, and resveratrol. Survival analysis was carried out in a B16F10 melanoma model fed a control diet (62.14% kcal carbohydrate, 24.65% kcal protein and 13.2% kcal fat), a control diet with multiple phytochemicals (MP), LCD (16.5, 55.2, and 28.3% kcal, respectively), LCD with multiple phytochemicals (LCDmp), a moderate-carbohydrate diet (MCD, 31.9, 62.4, and 5.7% kcal, respectively), or MCD withphytochemicals (MCDmp). Compared with the control group, MP, LCD, or MCD intervention did not produce survival benefit, but LCDmp (22.80±1.58 vs. 28.00±1.64 days, P=0.040) and MCDmp (23.80±1.08 vs. 30.13±2.29 days, P=0.008) increased the median survival time significantly. Suppression of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, activation of the AMPK/SIRT1/LKB1pathway, and NF-κB suppression were the critical tumor-suppression mechanisms. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed proliferation of the B16F10 and A375SM cells under a low-glucose condition. Alterations in histone methylation within Pten and FoxO3a were observed after the MCDmp intervention. In the transgenic liver cancer model developed by hydrodynamic transfection of the HrasG12V and shp53, MCDmp and LCDmp interventions induced significant cancer-prevention effects. Microarray analysis showed that PPARα increased with decreased IL-6 and NF-κB within the hepatocytes after an MCDmp intervention. In conclusion, an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and natural AMPK-activating agents induce synergistic anticancer effects. SIRT1 acts as a tumor suppressor under a low-glucose condition.This is an open-access article distributedunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0. Article Published Date : Mar 18, 2015

Effects of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet on preferential abdominal fat loss and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Abstract Title: Effects of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet on preferential abdominal fat loss and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Abstract Source: Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2011 ;4:167-74. Epub 2011 Apr 29. PMID: 21779148 Abstract Author(s): Tae Sasakabe, Hajime Haimoto, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Kenji Wakai Article Affiliation: Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; Abstract: BACKGROUND: Reports have shown that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is more closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We aimed to elucidate preferential abdominal fat loss and the correlations between abdominal fat reductions and changes in CRFs achieved with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two outpatients (28 men and 24 women, mean age± SD: 60.0 ± 10.5 years) with hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(lc)) levels ≥ 6.5% were on an LCD for 6 months. Over a 6-month period, we measured their abdominal fat distribution (using CT) and assessed CRFs, including body mass index (BMI), HbA(1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, high-densitylipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride levels. RESULTS: The patients showed good compliance with the LCD (1812± 375 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 35:40:19 for men; 1706 ± 323 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 41:36:21 for women). Significant decreases (P = 0.05) in BMI and HbA(1c) levels were observed, along with an increase in HDL-C (P = 0.021) in men and a decrease in LDL-C (P = 0.001) inwomen. VAT (-21.6 cm(2), P<0.001 in men; -19.6 cm(2), P<0.001 in women) and SAT (-13.5 cm(2), P = 0.004 in men; -19.1 cm(2), P = 0.003 in women) significantly decreased. The loss of VAT (%ΔVAT) was greater than that of SAT (%ΔSAT) in women (P = 0.022). A similar but not significant predominance of VAT loss was detected in men (P = 0.111). In women, the %ΔSAT significantly correlated with changes in FBG (ΔFBG) (r = 0.417) and HDL-C (ΔHDL) (r = -0.720), as was %ΔVAT with changesin triglyceride (ΔTG) (r = 0.591). CONCLUSION: Six months of a moderate LCD resulted in preferential VAT loss only in women, with significant correlations between %ΔSAT and both ΔHDL and ΔFBG, as well as between %ΔVAT and ΔTG. Our results suggest that an LCD has the potential to reduce abdominal fat in patients with T2DM and deterioration of serum lipid profiles. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2011

Low-carbohydrate diet disrupts the association between insulin resistance and weight gain.

Abstract Title: Low-carbohydrate diet disrupts the association between insulin resistance and weight gain. Abstract Source: Metabolism. 2009 Aug;58(8):1116-22. Epub 2009 Jun 18. PMID: 19439329 Abstract Author(s): Jose O Leite, Ryan DeOgburn, Joseph C Ratliff, Randy Su, Jeff S Volek, Mary M McGrane, Alan Dardik, Maria Luz Fernandez Article Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Abstract: The cornerstone to treat metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance is dietary intervention. Both low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and low-fat diet (LFD) have been reported to induce weight loss and improve these conditions. One of the factors associated with a subject's adherence to the diet is satiety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LCD and LFD on body weight, appetite hormones, and insulin resistance. Twenty guinea pigs were randomly assigned to LCD or LFD (60%:10%:30% or 20%:55%:25% of energy from fat/carbohydrate/protein, respectively) for 12 weeks. Weight and food intake were recorded every week. After this period, animals were killed and plasma was obtained to measure plasma glucose and insulin, appetite hormones, and ketone bodies. Guinea pigs fed LCD gained more weight than those fed LFD. The daily amount of food intake in grams was not different between groups, suggesting that food density and gastric distension played a role in satiety. There was no difference in leptin levels, which excludes the hypothesis of leptin resistance in the LCD group. However, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 was 47.1% lower in animals fed LCD (P<.05). Plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and insulin sensitivity were not different between groups. However, the heavier animals that were fed LFD had impairment in insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in those fed LCD. These findings suggest that satiety was dependent on the amount of food ingested. The weight gain in animals fed LCD may be related to their greater caloric intake, lower levels of glucagon-like peptide-1, and higher protein consumption. The adoption of LCD promotes a unique metabolic state that prevents insulin resistance, even in guinea pigs that gained more weight. The association between weight gain and insulin resistance seems to be dependent on high carbohydrate intake. Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2009
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Low Carbohydrate

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Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review).

Related Articles Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2017 Sep;40(3):607-613 Authors: El-Salhy M, Ystad SO, Mazzawi T, Gundersen D Abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management. PMID: 28731144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Low-Carbohydrate-Diet Score and its Association with the Risk of Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

Related Articles Low-Carbohydrate-Diet Score and its Association with the Risk of Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. Horm Metab Res. 2017 Aug;49(8):565-571 Authors: Namazi N, Larijani B, Azadbakht L Abstract The association between a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) is contradictory. This study is a systemic review of cohort studies that have focused on the association between the LCD score and DM. We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar for papers published through January 2017 with no language restrictions. Cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for DM were included. Finally, 4 studies were considered for our meta-analysis. The total number of participants ranged from 479 to 85 059. Among 4 cohort studies, 8 081 cases with DM were observed over follow-up durations ranging from 3.6 to 20 years. A marginal significant association was observed between the highest LCD score and the risk of DM (RR=1.17; 95% CI: 0.9, 1.51). Moreover, the RRs for studies with energy adjustments showed a significant association (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.49; I2: 0%). Based on our findings, study qualities score of less or equal to 7 had a significant influence on the pooled effect size (RR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.15, 1.49; I2: 0%), whereas the overall RR in the studies with quality score more than 7 was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.63). In conclusion, we have found that the highest LCD score was marginally associated with the risk of DM. However, more prospective cohort studies are needed to clarify the effects of the LCD score on the risk of DM. PMID: 28679144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gut Microbiota as a Target for Preventive and Therapeutic Intervention against Food Allergy.

Related Articles Gut Microbiota as a Target for Preventive and Therapeutic Intervention against Food Allergy. Nutrients. 2017 Jun 28;9(7): Authors: Aitoro R, Paparo L, Amoroso A, Di Costanzo M, Cosenza L, Granata V, Di Scala C, Nocerino R, Trinchese G, Montella M, Ercolini D, Berni Canani R Abstract The gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in immune system development and function. Modification in the gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) early in life is a critical factor affecting the development of food allergy. Many environmental factors including caesarean delivery, lack of breast milk, drugs, antiseptic agents, and a low-fiber/high-fat diet can induce gut microbiota dysbiosis, and have been associated with the occurrence of food allergy. New technologies and experimental tools have provided information regarding the importance of select bacteria on immune tolerance mechanisms. Short-chain fatty acids are crucial metabolic products of gut microbiota responsible for many protective effects against food allergy. These compounds are involved in epigenetic regulation of the immune system. These evidences provide a foundation for developing innovative strategies to prevent and treat food allergy. Here, we present an overview on the potential role of gut microbiota as the target of intervention against food allergy. PMID: 28657607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

Related Articles Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Nutrients. 2017 Jun 03;9(6): Authors: Jacobo-Cejudo MG, Valdés-Ramos R, Guadarrama-López AL, Pardo-Morales RV, Martínez-Carrillo BE, Harbige LS Abstract BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on adipokines, metabolic control, and lipid profile in T2DM Mexican adults. METHODS: In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 54 patients with T2DM received 520 mg of DHA + EPA-enriched fish-oil (FOG) or a placebo (PG) daily. Baseline and 24-week anthropometric and biochemical measurements included glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac), leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile; n-3 PUFA intake was calculated in g/day. RESULTS: Waist circumference and blood glucose showed significant reductions in the FOG group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Hb1Ac (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004), leptin (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000) decreased significantly in both groups after 24 weeks (FOG and PG respectively). Serum resistin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p = 0.001), insulin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p < 0.000), and HOMA-IR (FOG p = 0.000 and PG p < 0.000) increased significantly in both groups. FOG had an overall improvement in the lipid profile with a significant decrease in triacylgycerols (p = 0.002) and atherogenic index (p = 0.031); in contrast, the PG group had increased total cholesterol (p < 0.000), non-HDL cholesterol (p < 0.000), and atherogenic index (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: We found a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on waist circumference, glucose, Hb1Ac, leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and lipid profile, without significant changes in adiponectin, and increases in resistin, insulin, and HOMA-IR in both groups. PMID: 28587203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of the sub-chronic toxicity profile of the corm of Xanthosoma sagittifolium on hematology and biochemistry of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

Related Articles Evaluation of the sub-chronic toxicity profile of the corm of Xanthosoma sagittifolium on hematology and biochemistry of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. J Complement Integr Med. 2017 Mar 10;14(2): Authors: Oridupa OA, Folasire OF, Owolabi AJ Abstract Background Hematological and biochemical changes associated with diabetes mellitus and probable reversal were assessed in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats fed with varied percentages of Xanthosoma sagittifolium corm feed (Xs). The changes were compared to normoglycemic rats and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide. Methods The study had eight groups in all with group 8 (control) consisting of five normoglycemic rats fed with normal rat pellets (Nrp). Diabetes was experimentally induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan to normoglycemic rats. Diabetic rats (serum glucose >200 mg/dL) at 48 h postinjection were randomly divided into the seven groups, each diabetic group consisting of five rats. One group was untreated and fed with Nrp, four groups were fed with 25 %, 50 %, 75 % or 100 % Xs, one group was fed with 100 % Xs and administered with glibenclamide, while a 7th group was fed with Nrp and administered with glibenclamide. Results This study shows that treatment of diabetes with corm of X. sagittifolium increases cellular response to inflammation which is required for body defense against assaulting agents. Decreased serum protein levels observed in untreated diabetic rats were restored in diabetic rats fed with X. sagittifolium corm with particular increase in serum albumin levels but depression of globulin fraction, except in rats fed with X. sagittifolium feed and administered with glibenclamide. X. sagittifolium showed a potent antihyperglycemic effect and corrected the dyslipidemia in a manner comparable to that observed for glibenclamide. Although HDL levels were still low, significant (p<0.05) decrease of LDL levels was a positive indicator of reduced risk for development of cardiovascular and/or coronary heart disease. Conclusions X. sagittifolium corm can be recommended for inclusion in diets of diabetics without causing further deterioration of health of the diabetic patients. PMID: 28306532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The efficacy of protein supplementation during recovery from muscle-damaging concurrent exercise.

Related Articles The efficacy of protein supplementation during recovery from muscle-damaging concurrent exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Jul;42(7):716-724 Authors: Eddens L, Browne S, Stevenson EJ, Sanderson B, van Someren K, Howatson G Abstract This study investigated the effect of protein supplementation on recovery following muscle-damaging exercise, which was induced with a concurrent exercise design. Twenty-four well-trained male cyclists were randomised to 3 independent groups receiving 20 g protein hydrolysate, iso-caloric carbohydrate, or low-calorific placebo supplementation, per serve. Supplement serves were provided twice daily, from the onset of the muscle-damaging exercise, for a total of 4 days and in addition to a controlled diet (6 g·kg-1·day-1 carbohydrate, 1.2 g·kg-1·day-1 protein, remainder from fat). Following the concurrent exercise session at time-point 0 h, comprising a simulated high-intensity road cycling trial and 100 drop-jumps, recovery of outcome measures was assessed at 24, 48, and 72 h. The concurrent exercise protocol was deemed to have caused exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), owing to time effects (p < 0.001), confirming decrements in maximal voluntary contraction (peaking at 15% ± 10%) and countermovement jump performance (peaking at 8% ± 7%), along with increased muscle soreness, creatine kinase, and C-reactive protein concentrations. No group or interaction effects (p > 0.05) were observed for any of the outcome measures. The present results indicate that protein supplementation does not attenuate any of the indirect indices of EIMD imposed by concurrent exercise, when employing great rigour around the provision of a quality habitual diet and the provision of appropriate supplemental controls. PMID: 28199799 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dietary fat may modulate adipose tissue homeostasis through the processes of autophagy and apoptosis.

Related Articles Dietary fat may modulate adipose tissue homeostasis through the processes of autophagy and apoptosis. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Jun;56(4):1621-1628 Authors: Camargo A, Rangel-Zúñiga OA, Alcalá-Díaz J, Gomez-Delgado F, Delgado-Lista J, García-Carpintero S, Marín C, Almadén Y, Yubero-Serrano EM, López-Moreno J, Tinahones FJ, Pérez-Martínez P, Roche HM, López-Miranda J Abstract PURPOSE: Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer development. Autophagy and apoptosis are critical processes for development and homeostasis in multicellular organisms and have been linked to a variety of disorders. We aimed to investigate whether the quantity and quality of dietary fat can influence these processes in the adipose tissue of obese people. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial within the LIPGENE study assigned 39 obese people with metabolic syndrome to 1 of 4 diets: (a) a high-saturated fatty acid diet, (b) a high-monounsaturated fatty acid (HMUFA) diet, and (c, d) two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets supplemented with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LFHCC n-3) or placebo (LFHCC), for 12 weeks each. RESULTS: We found an increase in the expression of autophagy-related BECN1 and ATG7 genes after the long-term consumption of the HMUFA diet (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively) and an increase in the expression of the apoptosis-related CASP3 gene after the long-term consumption of the LFHCC and LFHCC n-3 diets (p = 0.001 and p = 0.029, respectively). CASP3 and CASP7 gene expression changes correlated with HOMA index. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the processes of autophagy and apoptosis in adipose tissue may be modified by diet and that the consumption of a diet rich in monounsaturated fat may contribute to adipose tissue homeostasis by increasing autophagy. They also reinforce the notion that apoptosis in adipose tissue is linked to insulin resistance. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00429195. PMID: 27029919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]