Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Low Carbohydrate

Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer.

Abstract Title: Prospective Study of Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Biliary Tract Cancer. Abstract Source: Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jun ;111(6):891-6. Epub 2016 Mar 29. PMID: 27021191 Abstract Author(s): Susanna C Larsson, Edward L Giovannucci, Alicja Wolk Article Affiliation: Susanna C Larsson Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Diets that induce a high glycemic response might increase the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC). We evaluated the hypothesis that diets with high glycemic load (GL) and high glycemic index (GI), which are measures of the glycemic effect of foods, are associated with an increased incidence of BTC. METHODS: We used data from a population-based prospective study of 76,014 Swedish adults (age 45-83 years; 57% men) who were free of cancer and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997. Incident cancer cases were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 13.3 years (1,010,777 person-years), we identified 140 extrahepatic BTC cases (including 77 gallbladder cancers) and 23 intrahepatic BTC cases. A high dietary GL was associated with an increased risk of BTC. The multivariable relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartile of dietary GL were 1.63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-2.63) for extrahepatic BTC, 2.14 (95% CI, 1.06-4.33) for gallbladder cancer, and 3.46 (95% CI, 1.22-9.84) for intrahepatic BTC. Dietary GI was statistically significantly positively associated with risk of extrahepatic BTC and gallbladder cancer. We observed no statistically significant association between carbohydrate intake and BTC risk, although all associations were positive. CONCLUSION: Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, they are consistent with the hypothesis that high-GL and high-GI diets are associated with an increased risk of BTC. Article Published Date : May 31, 2016

Metabolic Correction as a tool to improve diabetes type 2 management.

Abstract Title: Metabolic Correction as a tool to improve diabetes type 2 management. Abstract Source: Bol Asoc Med P R. 2015 Apr-Jun;107(2):54-9. PMID: 26434085 Abstract Author(s): Jorge R Miranda-Massari, Michael J Gonzalez, Alvarez-Soto Fernando, Carlos Cidre, Iván M Paz, Jorge Charvel, Viridiana Martínez, Jorge Duconge, Aileen Aponte, Carlos M Ricart Article Affiliation: Jorge R Miranda-Massari Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) is a metabolic disease that develops by a decrease in sensitivity of insulin receptors as an effect of the disruption certain metabolic functions in the processing of glucose. DM2 patients have, uncontrolled glucose levels, and commonly have problems with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Patients are treated with standard diet, insulin, diabetic oral agents and antihypertensive drugs, but this approach does not completely stops tissue deterioration since it does not address the metabolic root of the disease. Metabolic correction is proposed as a suitable adjunct treatment to improve clinical outcomes. Metabolic correction is based on diet modification, proper hydration and scientific supplementation directed to improve cellular biochemistry and metabolic efficiency. In addition, other possible benefits may include reduction in medication use, disease complications and medical costs. To test the results of a metabolic correction program, 25 patients with DM2 participated in an education program about adequate food consumption that promoted control of blood glucose levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood tests were performed during a 13 week program based on a low carbohydrate diet, proper hydration and magnesium supplementation. The metabolic correction program implemented by a proprietary educational system resulted in significant reductions in glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, weight and waist circumference. Improvements in these values could represent an important reduction of coronary heart disease risk factors as well as other chronic degenerative diseases. In addition there was medication dosage reduction in one or more medications in 21 of the 25 participating patients, which suggest that the program has the potential to improve health outcomes and reduce health care costs. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2015

Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1. 📎

Abstract Title: Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1. Abstract Source: Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015 Mar 19. Epub 2015 Mar 19. PMID: 25747515 Abstract Author(s): Jong Doo Lee, Min-Ah Choi, Simon Weonsang Ro, Woo Ick Yang, Arthur E H Cho, Hye-Lim Ju, Sinhwa Baek, Sook In Chung, Won Jun Kang, Mijin Yun, Jeon Han Park Article Affiliation: Jong Doo Lee Abstract: Calorie restriction or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) can increase life span in normal cells while inhibiting carcinogenesis. Various phytochemicals also have calorie restriction-mimetic anticancer properties. We investigated whether an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating phytochemicals induce synergic tumor suppression. We used a mixture of AMPK-activating phytochemical extracts including curcumin, quercetin, catechins, and resveratrol. Survival analysis was carried out in a B16F10 melanoma model fed a control diet (62.14% kcal carbohydrate, 24.65% kcal protein and 13.2% kcal fat), a control diet with multiple phytochemicals (MP), LCD (16.5, 55.2, and 28.3% kcal, respectively), LCD with multiple phytochemicals (LCDmp), a moderate-carbohydrate diet (MCD, 31.9, 62.4, and 5.7% kcal, respectively), or MCD withphytochemicals (MCDmp). Compared with the control group, MP, LCD, or MCD intervention did not produce survival benefit, but LCDmp (22.80±1.58 vs. 28.00±1.64 days, P=0.040) and MCDmp (23.80±1.08 vs. 30.13±2.29 days, P=0.008) increased the median survival time significantly. Suppression of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, activation of the AMPK/SIRT1/LKB1pathway, and NF-κB suppression were the critical tumor-suppression mechanisms. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed proliferation of the B16F10 and A375SM cells under a low-glucose condition. Alterations in histone methylation within Pten and FoxO3a were observed after the MCDmp intervention. In the transgenic liver cancer model developed by hydrodynamic transfection of the HrasG12V and shp53, MCDmp and LCDmp interventions induced significant cancer-prevention effects. Microarray analysis showed that PPARα increased with decreased IL-6 and NF-κB within the hepatocytes after an MCDmp intervention. In conclusion, an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and natural AMPK-activating agents induce synergistic anticancer effects. SIRT1 acts as a tumor suppressor under a low-glucose condition.This is an open-access article distributedunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0. Article Published Date : Mar 18, 2015

Effects of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet on preferential abdominal fat loss and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. 📎

Abstract Title: Effects of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet on preferential abdominal fat loss and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Abstract Source: Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2011 ;4:167-74. Epub 2011 Apr 29. PMID: 21779148 Abstract Author(s): Tae Sasakabe, Hajime Haimoto, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Kenji Wakai Article Affiliation: Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; Abstract: BACKGROUND: Reports have shown that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is more closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We aimed to elucidate preferential abdominal fat loss and the correlations between abdominal fat reductions and changes in CRFs achieved with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two outpatients (28 men and 24 women, mean age± SD: 60.0 ± 10.5 years) with hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(lc)) levels ≥ 6.5% were on an LCD for 6 months. Over a 6-month period, we measured their abdominal fat distribution (using CT) and assessed CRFs, including body mass index (BMI), HbA(1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, high-densitylipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride levels. RESULTS: The patients showed good compliance with the LCD (1812± 375 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 35:40:19 for men; 1706 ± 323 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 41:36:21 for women). Significant decreases (P = 0.05) in BMI and HbA(1c) levels were observed, along with an increase in HDL-C (P = 0.021) in men and a decrease in LDL-C (P = 0.001) inwomen. VAT (-21.6 cm(2), P<0.001 in men; -19.6 cm(2), P<0.001 in women) and SAT (-13.5 cm(2), P = 0.004 in men; -19.1 cm(2), P = 0.003 in women) significantly decreased. The loss of VAT (%ΔVAT) was greater than that of SAT (%ΔSAT) in women (P = 0.022). A similar but not significant predominance of VAT loss was detected in men (P = 0.111). In women, the %ΔSAT significantly correlated with changes in FBG (ΔFBG) (r = 0.417) and HDL-C (ΔHDL) (r = -0.720), as was %ΔVAT with changesin triglyceride (ΔTG) (r = 0.591). CONCLUSION: Six months of a moderate LCD resulted in preferential VAT loss only in women, with significant correlations between %ΔSAT and both ΔHDL and ΔFBG, as well as between %ΔVAT and ΔTG. Our results suggest that an LCD has the potential to reduce abdominal fat in patients with T2DM and deterioration of serum lipid profiles. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2011

Low-carbohydrate diet disrupts the association between insulin resistance and weight gain.

Abstract Title: Low-carbohydrate diet disrupts the association between insulin resistance and weight gain. Abstract Source: Metabolism. 2009 Aug;58(8):1116-22. Epub 2009 Jun 18. PMID: 19439329 Abstract Author(s): Jose O Leite, Ryan DeOgburn, Joseph C Ratliff, Randy Su, Jeff S Volek, Mary M McGrane, Alan Dardik, Maria Luz Fernandez Article Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Abstract: The cornerstone to treat metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance is dietary intervention. Both low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and low-fat diet (LFD) have been reported to induce weight loss and improve these conditions. One of the factors associated with a subject's adherence to the diet is satiety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LCD and LFD on body weight, appetite hormones, and insulin resistance. Twenty guinea pigs were randomly assigned to LCD or LFD (60%:10%:30% or 20%:55%:25% of energy from fat/carbohydrate/protein, respectively) for 12 weeks. Weight and food intake were recorded every week. After this period, animals were killed and plasma was obtained to measure plasma glucose and insulin, appetite hormones, and ketone bodies. Guinea pigs fed LCD gained more weight than those fed LFD. The daily amount of food intake in grams was not different between groups, suggesting that food density and gastric distension played a role in satiety. There was no difference in leptin levels, which excludes the hypothesis of leptin resistance in the LCD group. However, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 was 47.1% lower in animals fed LCD (P<.05). Plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and insulin sensitivity were not different between groups. However, the heavier animals that were fed LFD had impairment in insulin sensitivity, which was not observed in those fed LCD. These findings suggest that satiety was dependent on the amount of food ingested. The weight gain in animals fed LCD may be related to their greater caloric intake, lower levels of glucagon-like peptide-1, and higher protein consumption. The adoption of LCD promotes a unique metabolic state that prevents insulin resistance, even in guinea pigs that gained more weight. The association between weight gain and insulin resistance seems to be dependent on high carbohydrate intake. Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2009
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Low Carbohydrate

NCBI pubmed

Advising Women Undergoing Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Narrative Review.

Related Articles Advising Women Undergoing Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Narrative Review. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Sep/Oct;24(9-10):902-909 Authors: Lemanne D, Maizes V Abstract A majority of women undergoing conventional treatment for breast cancer also undertake complementary and integrative approaches. Practitioners knowledgeable about the evidence base behind common integrative approaches can help patients attain improved quality of life, and at times, improved survival. Evidence-based recommendations include the following: a plant-based diet for general health after diagnosis, and carbohydrate restriction for patients with estrogen receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer may be prudent. Other dietary recommendations include a 13-h daily overnight fast. Carefully selected patients may choose to fast the day before and the day of chemotherapy to decrease side effects. Specific food recommendations include avoidance or limitation of alcohol, and liberal culinary use of cruciferous vegetables, coffee, green tea, soy, and flaxseed. Promising supplements include diindolylmethane and melatonin. Omega 3 fatty acids may help with bone density in patients on aromatase inhibitors, but may increase chemotherapy resistance. Findings regarding the usefulness of multivitamins, vitamin D, vitamin C, and vitamin E are weak and/or mixed different exercise modalities may have different effects and thus play different roles in breast cancer therapy. Aerobic and resistance training combined during breast cancer chemotherapy may confer a survival benefit, while yoga may improve outcome in lymphedema patients. Current evidence suggests that meditation, yoga, breathing, music therapy, guided imagery, and hypnosis may improve mood and quality of life during breast cancer treatment. Acupuncture is useful for treating side effects of breast cancer therapies, including hot flushes, aromatase inhibitor-induced joint pain, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, and vulvodynia. Vaginal moisturizers and vaginal rings supplying low-dose estrogen can be useful in the treatment of symptoms of estrogen-deprivation states caused by breast cancer treatments; such symptoms include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and sexual dysfunction. Carbon dioxide laser technology can rejuvenate atrophied vaginal mucosa and relieve dyspareunia, allowing avoidance of estrogen therapy. Tertiary sexual health centers are available for referral. PMID: 30247957 [PubMed - in process]

Efficacy of a Moderately Low Carbohydrate Diet in a 36-Month Observational Study of Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Related Articles Efficacy of a Moderately Low Carbohydrate Diet in a 36-Month Observational Study of Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients. 2018 Apr 24;10(5): Authors: Sanada M, Kabe C, Hata H, Uchida J, Inoue G, Tsukamoto Y, Yamada Y, Irie J, Tabata S, Tabata M, Yamada S Abstract We previously showed that a non-calorie-restricted, moderately low-carbohydrate diet (mLCD) is more effective than caloric restriction for glycemic and lipid profile control in patients with type 2 diabetes. To determine whether mLCD intervention is sustainable, effective, and safe over a long period, we performed a 36-month observational study. We sequentially enrolled 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and taught them how to follow the mLCD. We compared the following parameters pre- and post-dietary intervention in an outpatient setting: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, lipid profile (total cholesterol, low and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase), and renal function (urea nitrogen, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate). Data from 157 participants were analyzed (43 were lost to follow-up). The following parameters decreased over the period of study: HbA1c (from 8.0 ± 1.5% to 7.5 ± 1.3%, p < 0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase (from 29.9 ± 23.6 to 26.2 ± 18.4 IL/L, p = 0.009). Parameters that increased were high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 58.9 ± 15.9 to 61.2 ± 17.4 mg/dL, p = 0.001) and urea nitrogen (from 15.9 ± 5.2 to 17.0 ± 5.4 mg/dL, p = 0.003). Over 36 months, the mLCD intervention showed sustained effectiveness (without safety concerns) in improving HbA1c, lipid profile, and liver enzymes in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID: 29695055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and High Muscular Fitness Are Associated with a Healthier Cardiometabolic Profile in Collegiate Students.

Related Articles Optimal Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and High Muscular Fitness Are Associated with a Healthier Cardiometabolic Profile in Collegiate Students. Nutrients. 2018 Apr 20;10(4): Authors: Ramírez-Vélez R, Correa-Bautista JE, Ojeda-Pardo ML, Sandoval-Cuellar C, García-Hermoso A, Carrillo HA, González-Ruíz K, Prieto-Benavides DH, Tordecilla-Sanders A, Martinkėnas A, Agostinis-Sobrinho C Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the combined association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiometabolic health in collegiate students. The present cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1248 (714 females) healthy collegiate students (20.1 ± 2.7 years old). Adherence to a MedDiet was assessed by a KIDMED (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index) questionnaire. Standing broad jump, standing vertical jump, and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used as indicators of MF. The cardiometabolic profile was assessed using the following components: triglycerides, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, glucose, and waist circumference. Analysis of covariance shows a significant difference in the cardiometabolic profile of both genders between the high MF/low MedDiet and high MF/optimal MedDiet groups, and the low MF/low MedDiet and low MF/optimal MedDiet groups (p < 0.001). No difference was found on cardiometabolic profile between high MF/optimal MedDiet and high MF/low MedDiet, both in males and females. Additionally, logistic regression shows that both female (odds ratio (OR) = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.8⁻3.7); p = 0.02) and male (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: (1.9⁻5.8); p < 0.001) participants in the optimal MedDiet/high MF group had the highest odds of expressing a healthier cardiometabolic profile as compared to those in the low MF/low MedDiet group. In conclusion, a combination of high MF levels and optimal adherence to a MedDiet is associated with a healthier cardiometabolic profile; however, high MF levels seem to circumvent the deleterious effects of having a low adherence to a MedDiet. PMID: 29677099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pedunculoside, a novel triterpene saponin extracted from Ilex rotunda, ameliorates high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

Related Articles Pedunculoside, a novel triterpene saponin extracted from Ilex rotunda, ameliorates high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 May;101:608-616 Authors: Liu C, Shen YJ, Tu QB, Zhao YR, Guo H, Wang J, Zhang L, Shi HW, Sun Y Abstract Pedunculoside (PE) is a novel triterpene saponin extracted from the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. The present study aims to explore lipid-lowering effects of PE on hyperlipidemia rat induced by high-fat diet. The rats were fed with the high-fat diet and subjected to intragastric administration of PE at doses of 30, 15, or 5 mg/kg daily for 7 weeks. The results demonstrated that treatment with PE for 7-week dramatically decreased serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduced liver TC in hyperlipidemia rat induced by high-fat diet. Furthermore, the results also showed that PE modulated the expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) mRNA in liver. Besides, PE-treated group decreased weights and diameters of epididymal adipose hyperlipidemia rat. Mechanism study demonstrated that PE regulated PPAR-γ, CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Protein α (C/EBPα)、and SREBP-1 expression as well as inhibited phosphorylation of AMPK in MDI (methylisobutylxanthine, dexamethasone, insulin) induced-3T3L1 cells. Molecular Docking confirmed interaction between PE with proteins involving PPAR-γ, C/EBPα and SREBP-1. In summary, these findings may support that PE is a novel lipid-lowering drug candidate. PMID: 29518607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The relationship between carbohydrate quality and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: challenges of glycemic index and glycemic load.

Related Articles The relationship between carbohydrate quality and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: challenges of glycemic index and glycemic load. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Apr;57(3):1197-1205 Authors: de Mello Fontanelli M, Sales CH, Carioca AAF, Marchioni DM, Fisberg RM Abstract PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in adults and older adults residents of São Paulo, the association of MetS with the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and the foods that contribute to dietary GI and GL in this population. METHODS: Data from 591 adults and older adults participants in the Health Survey of São Paulo were used. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with a complex multistage sample design of residents in the urban area of the municipality. Dietary consumption data, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and blood samples were collected. The associations between GI, GL and MetS and its components were tested using logistic regression models, considering the sample design of the study. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS in the adult and older adults residents of São Paulo was 30.3%. There was no association between GI, GL and MetS. GI and GL were positively associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), OR = 1.113 (95% CI 1.007-1.230) and OR = 1.019 (95% CI 1.002-1.037), respectively. GL was inversely associated with high blood pressure and this association differed by age group (OR = 0.981; 95% CI 0.964-0.998). Foods that most contributed to dietary GI and GL were sugar, white rice and French bread. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of low HDL-c in the population of São Paulo, GI and GL may contribute to the nutritional therapy of this dyslipidemia. However, findings should be treated with caution, considering several conflicting results between studies. PMID: 28251342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]