Effect of a Grocery Store Intervention on Sales of Nutritious Foods to Youth and Their Families.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Apr 16. Epub 2012 Apr 16. PMID: 22513119
Ashley S Holmes, Paul A Estabrooks, George C Davis, Elena L Serrano
Grocery stores represent a unique opportunity to initiate nutrition interventions. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a 12-week, child-focused intervention at one grocery store. An observational uninterrupted time-series design was implemented from May to September 2009. The Healthy Kids campaign consisted of a point-of-purchase kiosk featuring fruits, vegetables, and healthy snacks as well as a sampling pod comprised of food items from the kiosk. Data collection included changes in sales for featured products; observations of customers at the kiosk/intervention; and brief questionnaires for customers who engaged with the kiosk. Descriptive statistics were computed for questionnaire responses and observational data. Correlational analyses were conducted to identify potential predictors of engagement. Sales data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Results showed an overall increase in the proportion of sales of the featured items to total store sales during the intervention period (P<0.05). Individual items that increased sales during the intervention period included whole-wheat bagels, bananas, radishes, honey, sunflower seeds, baked tortilla chips, and almond butter (P<0.05). Almost two thirds (61.7%) of the patrons interviewed noticed the Healthy Kids kiosk, with about one quarter (28.7%) indicating that they purchased at least one item. Fifty-eight percent reported that the kiosk encouraged them to buy healthier foods.
Article Published Date : Apr 15, 2012
An Application for Skin Macules Characterization Based on a 3-Stage Image-Processing Algorithm for Patients with Diabetes.
J Healthc Eng. 2018;2018:9397105
Authors: Toledo Peral CL, Ramos Becerril FJ, Vega Martínez G, Vera Hernández A, Leija Salas L, Gutiérrez Martínez J
Diabetic skin manifestations, previous to ulcers and wounds, are not highly accounted as part of diagnosis even when they represent the first symptom of vascular damage and are present in up to 70% of patients with diabetes mellitus type II. Here, an application for skin macules characterization based on a three-stage segmentation and characterization algorithm used to classify vascular, petechiae, trophic changes, and trauma macules from digital photographs of the lower limbs is presented. First, in order to find the skin region, a logical multiplication is performed on two skin masks obtained from color space transformations; dynamic thresholds are stabilised to self-adjust to a variety of skin tones. Then, in order to locate the lesion region, illumination enhancement is performed using a chromatic model color space, followed by a principal component analysis gray-scale transformation. Finally, characteristics of each type of macule are considered and classified; morphologic properties (area, axes, perimeter, and solidity), intensity properties, and a set of shade indices (red, green, blue, and brown) are proposed as a measure to obviate skin color differences among subjects. The values calculated show differences between macules with a statistical significance, which agree with the physician's diagnosis. Later, macule properties are fed to an artificial neural network classifier, which proved a 97.5% accuracy, to differentiate between them. Characterization is useful in order to track macule changes and development along time, provides meaningful information to provide early treatments, and offers support in the prevention of amputations due to diabetic feet. A graphical user interface was designed to show the properties of the macules; this application could be the background of a future Diagnosis Assistance Tool for educational (i.e., untrained physicians) and preventive assistance technology purposes.
PMID: 30651950 [PubMed - in process]
The Immune Escape Mechanisms of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jan 15;20(2):
Authors: Zhai W, Wu F, Zhang Y, Fu Y, Liu Z
Epidemiological data from the Center of Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) statistics in 2017 show that 10.0 million people around the world became sick with tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an intracellular parasite that mainly attacks macrophages and inhibits their apoptosis. It can become a long-term infection in humans, causing a series of pathological changes and clinical manifestations. In this review, we summarize innate immunity including the inhibition of antioxidants, the maturation and acidification of phagolysosomes and especially the apoptosis and autophagy of macrophages. Besides, we also elaborate on the adaptive immune response and the formation of granulomas. A thorough understanding of these escape mechanisms is of major importance for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis.
PMID: 30650615 [PubMed - in process]
Integrated Design and Control of Various Hydrogen Production Flowsheet Configurations via Membrane Based Methane Steam Reforming.
Membranes (Basel). 2019 Jan 15;9(1):
Authors: Kyriakides AS, Voutetakis S, Papadopoulou S, Seferlis P
This work focuses on the development and implementation of an integrated process design and control framework for a membrane-based hydrogen production system based on low temperature methane steam reforming. Several alternative flowsheet configurations consisted of either integrated membrane reactor modules or successive reactor and membrane separation modules are designed and assessed by considering economic and controller dynamic performance criteria simultaneously. The design problem is expressed as a non-linear dynamic optimization problem incorporating a nonlinear dynamic model for the process system and a linear model predictive controller aiming to maintain the process targets despite the effect of disturbances. The large dimensionality of the disturbance space is effectively addressed by focusing on disturbances along the direction that causes the maximum process variability revealed by the analysis of local sensitivity information for the process system. Design results from a multi-objective optimization study, where only the annualized equipment and operational costs are minimized, are used as reference case in order to evaluate the proposed design framework. Optimization results demonstrate the controller's ability to track the imposed setpoint changes and alleviate the effects of multiple simultaneous disturbances. Also, significant economic improvements are observed by the implementation of the integrated design and control framework compared to the traditional design methodology, where process and controller design are performed sequentially.
PMID: 30650560 [PubMed]
Ectopic Overexpression of Porcine Myh1 Increased in Slow Muscle Fibers and Enhanced Endurance Exercise in Transgenic Mice.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Sep 28;19(10):
Authors: Ahn JS, Kim DH, Park HB, Han SH, Hwang S, Cho IC, Lee JW
Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms consist of Myh7, Myh2, Myh1, and Myh4, which are expressed in skeletal muscle tissues during postnatal development. These genes influence the contraction⁻relaxation activity in skeletal muscles and are involved in determining muscle composition such as the proportion of fast-to-slow and/or slow-to-fast fiber types. Among them, Myh1 is associated with skeletal muscle contraction and is involved in both slow-to-fast and fast-to-slow transition. However, the muscle transition mechanism is not well understood. For this study, we first produced porcine Myh1 transgenic (TG) mice to study whether the ectopic expressed porcine Myh1 gene had any effects on muscle composition, especially on slow-type muscle components. Our results showed that the factors associated with slow muscles, such as Myh7, Myoglobin, Troponin (slow-type units), and cytochrome C, were highly expressed in the quadriceps muscles of Myh1 transgenic mice. Furthermore, the ectopic porcine MYH1 protein was located only in the slow-type muscle fibers of the quadriceps muscles in Myh1 transgenic mice. In physical endurance tests, Myh1 transgenic mice ran longer and further on a treadmill than wild-type (WT) mice. These data fully supported our hypothesis that Myh1 is associated with slow muscle composition, with overexpression of Myh1 in muscle tissues possibly being a new key in modulating muscle fiber types. Our study provides a better understanding of muscle composition metabolism, physical mobility, and genetic factors in muscle fatigue.
PMID: 30274168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Intestinal obstruction with a twist: a rare case of congenital portal vein aneurysm causing intestinal obstruction.
BMJ Case Rep. 2018 Sep 21;2018:
Authors: Chandran S, Kumar M, Jacob TJK, Mohamed F
Bilious vomiting is often a presenting feature of upper intestinal obstruction in newborn. We present a case of intestinal obstruction in a newborn baby caused by abnormal vascular band arising from portal vein aneurysm in association with a midgut volvulus. Congenital anomalies of portovenous system are very rare, and it usually presents with portal hypertension in late infancy or childhood. In this particular child, the portal vein aneurysm contributed to intestinal obstruction due to both a failure of intestinal rotation and a mechanical band over the transverse colon.
PMID: 30244223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Association between blood eosinophil count and risk of readmission for patients with asthma: Historical cohort study.
PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0201143
Authors: Kerkhof M, Tran TN, van den Berge M, Brusselle GG, Gopalan G, Jones RCM, Kocks JWH, Menzies-Gow A, Nuevo J, Pavord ID, Rastogi S, Price DB
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated an association between high blood eosinophil counts and greater risk of asthma exacerbations. We sought to determine whether patients hospitalized for an asthma exacerbation were at greater risk of readmission if they had a high blood eosinophil count documented before the first hospitalization.
METHODS: This historical cohort study drew on 2 years of medical record data (Clinical Practice Research Datalink with Hospital Episode Statistics linkage) of patients (aged ≥5 years) admitted to hospital in England for asthma, with recorded blood eosinophil count within 1 baseline year before admission. We analyzed the association between high blood eosinophil count (≥0.35x109 cells/L) and readmission risk during 1 year of follow-up after hospital discharge, with adjustment for predefined, relevant confounders using forward selection.
RESULTS: We identified 2,613 eligible patients with asthma-related admission, of median age 51 years (interquartile range, 36-69) and 76% women (1,997/2,613). Overall, 835/2,613 (32.0%) had a preadmission high blood eosinophil count. During the follow-up year, 130/2,613 patients (5.0%) were readmitted for asthma, including 55/835 (6.6%) with vs. 75/1,778 (4.2%) without high blood eosinophil count at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.49; 95% CI 1.04-2.13, p = 0.029). The association was strongest in never-smokers (n = 1,296; HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.27-3.68, p = 0.005) and absent in current smokers (n = 547; HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.49-2.04, p = 0.997).
CONCLUSIONS: A high blood eosinophil count in the year before an asthma-related hospitalization is associated with increased risk of readmission within the following year. These findings suggest that patients with asthma and preadmission high blood eosinophil count require careful follow-up, with treatment optimization, after discharge.
PMID: 30044863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Using animated vehicles with real emotional faces to improve emotion recognition in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorder.
PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200375
Authors: Yan Y, Liu C, Ye L, Liu Y
The objective of the present study was to conduct an intervention study which aimed to improve emotion recognition for Chinese children with ASD by using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. A total of 21 children participated in the current study; participants consisted of 14 children (2 girls) with a formal diagnosis of ASD and 7 typically developing children. Participants were measured on emotional vocabulary and situation-facial expression matching before and after the intervention. Results indicated that the intervention significantly improved ASD children's emotion recognition compared to their pre-intervention scores. Our findings suggest that this emotional recognition intervention using animated vehicles (i.e. The Transporters) is an effective early intervention for Chinese children with ASD.
PMID: 30024898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Narrative comprehension beyond language: Common brain networks activated by a movie and its script.
PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200134
Authors: Tikka P, Kauttonen J, Hlushchuk Y
Narratives surround us in our everyday life in different forms. In the sensory brain areas, the processing of narratives is dependent on the media of presentation, be that in audiovisual or written form. However, little is known of the brain areas that process complex narrative content mediated by various forms. To isolate these regions, we looked for the functional networks reacting in a similar manner to the same narrative content despite different media of presentation. We collected 3-T fMRI whole brain data from 31 healthy human adults during two separate runs when they were either viewing a movie or reading its screenplay text. The independent component analysis (ICA) was used to separate 40 components. By correlating the components' time-courses between the two different media conditions, we could isolate 5 functional networks that particularly related to the same narrative content. These TOP-5 components with the highest correlation covered fronto-temporal, parietal, and occipital areas with no major involvement of primary visual or auditory cortices. Interestingly, the top-ranked network with highest modality-invariance also correlated negatively with the dialogue predictor, thus pinpointing that narrative comprehension entails processes that are not language-reliant. In summary, our novel experiment design provided new insight into narrative comprehension networks across modalities.
PMID: 29969491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Biomechanical Properties of First Maxillary Molars with Different Endodontic Cavities: A Finite Element Analysis.
J Endod. 2018 Aug;44(8):1283-1288
Authors: Jiang Q, Huang Y, Tu X, Li Z, He Y, Yang X
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of first maxillary molars with different endodontic cavities using the finite element method.
METHODS: Three finite element analysis models of a maxillary first molar were designed and constructed with 3 different types of endodontic cavities: a traditional endodontic cavity, a conservative endodontic cavity, and an extended endodontic cavity. An intact tooth model was used for comparison. Each model was subjected to 3 different force loads directed at the occlusal surface. The stress distribution patterns and the maximum von Mises (VM) stresses were calculated and compared.
RESULTS: The peak VM stress on all models was at the site of the force load. The occlusal stresses were spread in an approximate actinomorphic pattern from the force loading point, and the stress was much higher when the force load was close to the access cavity margin. The peak root VM stresses on the root-filled teeth occurred at the apex and were significantly higher than that on the intact tooth, which appeared on the pericervical dentin. The area of pericervical dentin experiencing high VM stress increased as the cavities extended and the stress became concentrated in the area between the filling materials and the dentin.
CONCLUSIONS: The stress distribution on the occlusal surface were similar between the conservative endodontic cavity, the traditional endodontic cavity, and the extended endodontic cavity. With enlargement of the access cavity, the stress on the pericervical dentin increases dramatically.
PMID: 29910031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of a breastfeeding training DVD on improving breastfeeding knowledge and confidence among healthcare professionals in China.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018 03 27;18(1):80
Authors: Ma YY, Wallace LL, Qiu LQ, Kosmala-Anderson J, Bartle N
BACKGROUND: Despite almost all babies being breastfed initially, the exclusive breastfeeding rate at six months is less than 30% in China. Improving professionals' knowledge and practical skill is a key government strategy to increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of a breastfeeding DVD training method for clinicians on improving their knowledge and confidence in the breastfeeding support skills of teaching mothers Positioning and Attachment (P & A) and Hand Expression (HE).
METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was conducted in three hospitals in Zhejiang province, China in 2014. Participants were recruited before their routine breastfeeding training course and randomly allocated to intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The 15 min "Breastfeeding: Essential Support Skills DVD" was the intervention for IG and a vaginal delivery DVD was used for CG. All participants completed questionnaires of job information, knowledge and confidence in the two skills before (baseline) and immediately after viewing the DVD (post DVD).
RESULTS: Out of 210 participants, 191 completed knowledge assessments before and after watching the DVD (IG n = 96, CG n = 95), with the response rate of 91.0%. At baseline, there are no significant differences in job variables, total knowledge scores and confident scores. The total knowledge score significantly increased post-DVD for IG (pre-DVD: M = 5.39, SD = 2.03; post-DVD: M = 7.74, SD = 1.71; t (95) = - 10.95, p < 0.01), but no significant change in total knowledge score for CG between pre- and post-DVD (pre-DVD: M = 5.67, SD = 1.70; post-DVD: M = 5.56, SD = 1.63; t (94) = 0.85). The total confidence scores were significantly higher post-DVD than pre-DVD in IG (pre-DVD: M = 66.49, SD = 11.27; post- DVD: M = 71.81, SD = 9.33; t (68) = - 4.92, p < 0.01), but no significant difference was seen in CG between pre- and post-DVD total confidence scores (pre-DVD: M = 68.33, SD = 11.08; post-DVD: M = 68.35, SD = 11.40; t (65) = - 0.25). Personal and job variables did not mediate these effects.
CONCLUSIONS: The breastfeeding training DVD improved professionals' knowledge and confidence of the two breastfeeding support skills. However, the effect on professionals' practice and on breastfeeding outcomes needs to be examined in the future.
PMID: 29587673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Morphology-based realization of a rapid scoliosis correction simulation system.
Comput Biol Med. 2018 03 01;94:85-98
Authors: Shao K, Wang H, Li B, Tian D, Jing J, Tan J, Huo X
OBJECTIVE: Scoliosis is a complex spinal deformity in 3D space that commonly occurs in teenagers, especially teenage girls, and judging the actual deformed spine situation using only CT images is difficult. However, using 3D finite element models to help doctors analyse the deformed spine is also time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, software that can quickly and easily perform scoliosis correction analysis is needed. To achieve rapid preoperative simulation of scoliosis correction in 3D space and help doctors construct surgical programmes faster, a morphology-based system was developed for simulating scoliosis correction performance.
METHODS: The simulation system first takes advantage of the centre point of each vertebra on the entire spine model to fit a space curve. Then the system obtains information from the models and the space curve, and finally, uses the information to simulate scoliosis correction. The deformed spine model in the system can be corrected to a better state.
RESULTS: During the simulation process, doctors can easily and clearly see how the vertebral models move, and the deformed spine parameters are also updated and shown. Using this system, doctors can easily simulate scoliosis correction according to their experience and quickly construct a surgical programme.
CONCLUSIONS: The experimental results show that this system is capable of simulating scoliosis correction according to a doctor's own experience to speed up the operation and provides a scientific basis for the development of surgical programmes.
PMID: 29408001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Design of complex bone internal structure using topology optimization with perimeter control.
Comput Biol Med. 2018 03 01;94:74-84
Authors: Park J, Sutradhar A, Shah JJ, Paulino GH
Large facial bone loss usually requires patient-specific bone implants to restore the structural integrity and functionality that also affects the appearance of each patient. Titanium alloys (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V) are typically used in the interfacial porous coatings between the implant and the surrounding bone to promote stability. There exists a property mismatch between the two that in general leads to complications such as stress-shielding. This biomechanical discrepancy is a hurdle in the design of bone replacements. To alleviate the mismatch, the internal structure of the bone replacements should match that of the bone. Topology optimization has proven to be a good technique for designing bone replacements. However, the complex internal structure of the bone is difficult to mimic using conventional topology optimization methods without additional restrictions. In this work, the complex bone internal structure is recovered using a perimeter control based topology optimization approach. By restricting the solution space by means of the perimeter, the intricate design complexity of bones can be achieved. Three different bone regions with well-known physiological loadings are selected to illustrate the method. Additionally, we found that the target perimeter value and the pattern of the initial distribution play a vital role in obtaining the natural curvatures in the bone internal structures as well as avoiding excessive island patterns.
PMID: 29408000 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Position Accuracy of Implant Analogs on 3D Printed Polymer versus Conventional Dental Stone Casts Measured Using a Coordinate Measuring Machine.
J Prosthodont. 2018 Jul;27(6):560-567
Authors: Revilla-León M, Gonzalez-Martín Ó, Pérez López J, Sánchez-Rubio JL, Özcan M
PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy of implant analog positions on complete edentulous maxillary casts made of either dental stone or additive manufactured polymers using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A completely edentulous maxillary model of a patient with 7 implant analogs was obtained. From this model, two types of casts were duplicated, namely conventional dental stone (CDS) using a custom tray impression technique after splinting (N = 5) and polymer cast using additive manufacturing based on the STL file generated. Polymer casts (N = 20; n = 5 per group) were fabricated using 4 different additive manufacturing technologies (multijet printing-MJP1, direct light processing-DLP, stereolithography-SLA, multijet printing-MJP2). CMM was used to measure the correct position of each implant, and distortion was calculated for each system at x-, y-, and z-axes. Measurements were repeated 3 times per specimen in each axis yielding a total of 546 measurements. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Sheffé tests, and Bonferroni correction (α = 0.05).
RESULTS: Compared to CMM, the mean distortion (μm) ranged from 22.7 to 74.9, 23.4 to 49.1, and 11.0 to 85.8 in the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. CDS method (x-axis: 37.1; z-axis: 27.62) showed a significant difference compared to DLP on the x-axis (22.7) (p = 0.037) and to MJP1 on the z-axis (11.0) (p = 0.003). Regardless of the cast system, x-axes showed more distortion (42.6) compared to y- (34.6) and z-axes (35.97). Among additive manufacturing technologies, MJP2 presented the highest (64.3 ± 83.6), and MJP1 (21.57 ± 16.3) and DLP (27.07 ± 20.23) the lowest distortion, which was not significantly different from CDS (32.3 ± 22.73) (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: For the fabrication of the definitive casts for implant prostheses, one of the multijet printing systems and direct light processing additive manufacturing technologies showed similar results to conventional dental stone.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Conventional dental stone casts could be accurately duplicated using some of the additive manufacturing technologies tested.
PMID: 29148121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The making of a mushroom: Mitosis, nuclear migration and the actin network.
Fungal Genet Biol. 2018 02;111:85-91
Authors: Jung EM, Kothe E, Raudaskoski M
Basidiomycetes feature a prolonged dikaryotic life stage. A dispute over open versus closed mitosis could be solved using in vivo fluorescence videomicroscopy of histone 2B::EGFP and Lifeact labeled Schizophyllum commune. It revealed nuclei to condense to approximately one fifth in diameter during mitotic prophase. In addition, the specifics of clamp cell formation typical of many basidiomycetes included an actin network at the future site of nuclear division, which allowed for cessation of nuclear movement and re-localization of one nucleus towards the emerging clamp cell, while the other divided along the hyphal axis. Subsequent fusion of the clamp cell to form the clamp connection restored the close association of the two nuclei in a very fast process after clamp fusion. Septation was preceded by actin patches and vesicles involved in formation of the actin ring.
PMID: 29129696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Retentive Properties of O-Ring and Locator Attachments for Implant-Retained Maxillary Overdentures: An In Vitro Study.
J Prosthodont. 2018 Jul;27(6):568-576
Authors: ELsyad MA, Elhaddad AA, Khirallah AS
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare retentive properties of O-ring and Locator attachments for implant-retained maxillary overdentures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four implant analogs were inserted in canine and second premolar areas of an acrylic edentulous maxillary model. A metal-reinforced experimental acrylic overdenture was constructed and connected to the analogs using either O-ring (group I) or Locator (group II) attachments. Locators were divided into 3 subgroups according the degree of retention of the patrix nylon insert: Locator extra-light retention (group IIa), Locator light retention (group IIb), and Locator medium retention (group IIc). Vertical and oblique (lateral, anterior, and posterior) dislodging forces were measured at the beginning of the study (initial retention) and after 540 cycles of denture insertion and removal (final retention).
RESULTS: For vertical, lateral, and anterior dislodging, group IIc recorded the highest initial and final retention, and group I recorded the lowest retention. For posterior dislodging, group I recorded the highest retention, and group IIa recorded the lowest retention. For group II, vertical dislodging recorded the highest initial and final retention, and lateral dislodging recorded the lowest retention. For group I, posterior dislodging recorded the highest initial and final retention, and lateral dislodging recorded the lowest retention. For all dislodging forces (except posterior dislodging), the highest retention loss was recorded in group I, and the lowest retention loss was recorded in group IIa.
CONCLUSION: Locator medium attachment was associated with favorable retention during axial (vertical) and nonaxial (anterior and lateral) dislodging compared to other types of Locator inserts and O-ring attachments after a simulated 6-month period of overdenture use.
PMID: 27589487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]