Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Low Fat Diet

Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. 📎

Abstract Title: Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Abstract Source: Oncotarget. 2016 Oct 4 ;7(40):65669-65675. PMID: 27582541 Abstract Author(s): Sneha Sundaram, Lin Yan Article Affiliation: Sneha Sundaram Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine whether a reduction in energy intake ameliorated the high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet with a 5% restriction of the intake. Energy restriction reduced body adiposity and body weight, but maintained growth similar to mice fed the AIN93G diet. The high-fat diet significantly increased the number and size (cross-sectional area and volume) of metastases formed in lungs. Restricted feeding reduced the number of metastases by 23%, metastatic cross-sectional area by 32% and volume by 45% compared to the high-fat diet. The high-fat diet elevated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin), angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) and insulin. Restricted feeding significantly reduced the high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors and insulin. These results demonstrated that a reduction in diet intake by 5% reduced high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis, which may be associated with the mitigation of adiposity and down-regulation of cancer-promoting proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors. Article Published Date : Oct 03, 2016

Effect of diet and exercise intervention on the growth of prostate epithelial cells. 📎

Abstract Title: Effect of diet and exercise intervention on the growth of prostate epithelial cells. Abstract Source: 1: Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11(4):362-6. Epub 2008 Feb 19. PMID: 18283296 Abstract Author(s): R J Barnard, N Kobayashi, W J Aronson Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between nutrient intake, hyperinsulinemia and risk of Benign prostatic hyperplasis (BPH). This study tests the hypothesis that a low-fat, high-fiber diet and daily exercise would lower serum insulin and reduce the growth of serum-stimulated primary prostate epithelial cells in culture. Serum samples were obtained from eight overweight men before and after the Pritikin residential, 2-week diet and exercise intervention and from seven men who were long-term followers of the low-fat, high-fiber diet and regular exercise lifestyle. The serum was used to stimulate primary prostate epithelial cells in culture. Growth was measured after 48 and 96 h and apoptosis after 96 h. At 48 h there was no significant difference in growth within the Pre, 2-week or Long-Term groups. At 96 h growth was significantly reduced in the 2-week (13%) and in the Long-Term (14%) groups compared to the Pre data. At 96 h, apoptosis was not significantly different among the three groups. Fasting insulin was reduced by 30% in the 2-week group and by 52% in the Long-Term group compared to the Pre data. Testosterone was unchanged in the 2-week group. The results of this study indicate that a low-fat, high-fiber diet and daily exercise lowers insulin and reduces growth of prostate primary epithelial cells and suggests that lifestyle may be an important factor in the development or progression of BPH. Future prospective trials should address the effects of this lifestyle modification on BPH symptomatology and progression. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2008

Dietary fat and meat intake and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a case-control study in Japan. 📎

Abstract Title: Dietary fat and meat intake and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a case-control study in Japan. Abstract Source: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Mar;10(3):333-9. PMID: 16562716 Abstract Author(s): Y Miyake, S Sasaki, T Yokoyama, K Chida, A Azuma, T Suda, S Kudoh, N Sakamoto, K Okamoto, G Kobashi, M Washio, Y Inaba, H Tanaka, Abstract: SETTING: There is sparse epidemiologic information regarding the role of dietary factors in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between specific types of fatty acids and selected foods high in fat and IPF in Japan. DESIGN: Included were 104 cases aged>or = 40 years who had been diagnosed in the last 2 years in accordance with the most recent criteria. Controls aged>or = 40 years consisted of 56 hospitalised patients diagnosed as having acute bacterial pneumonia and four out-patients with common cold. RESULTS: Intake of saturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and meat was independently associated with an increased risk of IPF. Specifically, the multivariate OR for comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile of intake of saturated fatty acids was 6.26 (95%CI 1.79-24.96, P for trend = 0.01) and for meat it was 7.19 (95%CI 2.15-27.07, P for trend = 0.02). Intake of cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish, eggs and dairy products was not related to the risk. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that consumption of saturated fatty acids and meat may increase the risk of IPF. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2006

A low-fat diet and/or strenuous exercise alters the IGF axis in vivo and reduces prostate tumor cell growth in vitro.

Abstract Title: A low-fat diet and/or strenuous exercise alters the IGF axis in vivo and reduces prostate tumor cell growth in vitro. Abstract Source: Prostate. 2003 Aug 1;56(3):201-6. PMID: 12772189 Abstract Author(s): R James Barnard, Tung H Ngo, Pak-Shan Leung, William J Aronson, Lawrence A Golding Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common solid-tumor cancer in US males but is rare in Asian males. When Asian men adopt the US lifestyle, clinical prostate cancer increases greatly. Epidemiological data from men in the US indicate that regular activity may reduce the risk for prostate cancer. METHODS: Serum was obtained from three groups of similar-aged men, Control, Diet and Exercise, and Exercise alone were used to stimulate LNCaP cells in culture. Growth and apoptosis of tumor cells were measured. Serum samples were also used to measure insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-1. RESULTS: The Diet and Exercise and the Exercise alone groups had lower serum insulin and IGF-1 but higher IGFBP-1 compared to Controls. LNCaP cell growth was reduced in both groups compared to Control and there was a major increase in apoptosis of tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: A low-fat diet and/or intensive exercise results in change in serum hormones and growth factors in vivo that can reduce growth and induce apoptosis of LNCaP prostate tumor cells in vitro. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2003

Effects of a very low fat, high fiber diet on serum hormones and menstrual function. Implications for breast cancer prevention. 📎

Abstract Title: Effects of a very low fat, high fiber diet on serum hormones and menstrual function. Implications for breast cancer prevention. Abstract Source: Cancer. 1995 Dec 15;76(12):2491-6. PMID: 8625075 Abstract Author(s): D Bagga, J M Ashley, S P Geffrey, H J Wang, R J Barnard, S Korenman, D Heber Abstract: BACKGROUND. Low fat, high fiber dietary interventions that decrease blood estrogen levels may reduce breast cancer risk. Asian women consuming their traditional low fat, high fiber diets have lower blood estrogen levels before and after menopause and lower rates of breast cancer compared with Western women. The current controlled feeding study of premenopausal women was designed to determine the effects of a very low fat (10% of calories) and high fiber (35-45 g/day) diet on blood estrogen levels and menstrual function. METHOD. Twelve healthy premenopausal women with regular ovulatory cycles were followed for 3 months. Subjects consumed a diet providing 30% of their energy from fat and 15-25 g of dietary fiber per day for 1 month, and they consumed a very low fat, high fiber and libitum diet providing 10% of their energy from fat and 25-35 g of dietary fiber per day for 2 months. RESULTS. At the end of the second month of the very low fat, high fiber diet, there was a significant reduction in serum estrone and estradiol levels during the early follicular and late luteal phases. There were no significant changes observed in serum estrone sulfate, sex hormone binding globulin, or progesterone. Despite a significant decrease in serum estradiol and estrone levels after 2 months of a very low fat, high fiber diet, there was no interference with ovulation or the magnitude of the mid-cycle leuteinizing hormone surge. Small changes in menstrual cycle length of up to 3 days were not ruled out due to the small sample size of the study. CONCLUSIONS. A very low fat, high fiber diet in healthy premenopausal women can reduce estradiol and estrone levels without affecting ovulation, thereby providing a rationale for the prevention of breast cancer through a very low fat, high fiber diet. Article Published Date : Dec 15, 1995
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Low Fat Diet

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Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Protects against Myocardial Injury via Attenuation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic ApoE-/- Mice.

Related Articles Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Protects against Myocardial Injury via Attenuation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic ApoE-/- Mice. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:2370617 Authors: Tian J, Liu Y, Liu Y, Chen K, Lyu S Abstract Diabetes was induced in high-fat diet-fed ApoE-/- mice via administration of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) for five days. Mice were then treated with GBE (200 or 400 mg/kg) by gastric gavage daily for 12 weeks. Mice in the untreated diabetic group received saline instead, and nondiabetic C57BL/6J mice served as controls. Collagen І and ІІІ mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA levels, and NF-κB expression were determined to analyze intramyocardial inflammation. Hallmarks of endoplasmic reticulum stress- (ERS-) related apoptosis pathways, including phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), caspase-12, and cleaved caspase-3, were analyzed by Western blotting. Diabetic ApoE-/- myocardial injury was associated with increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis (increased expression of p-JNK, CHOP, caspase-12, and cleaved caspase-3), interstitial fibrosis (increased mRNA levels of collagen І and ІІІ), and inflammation (increased mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, and NF-κB expression). GBE at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day significantly attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis, collagen deposition, and inflammation in diabetic mice via inhibition of the p-JNK, CHOP, and caspase-12 pathways. Serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α), blood glucose, and lipid profiles were also regulated by GBE treatment. GBE might be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic myocardial injury. PMID: 29682154 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Associations of Mediterranean Diet and a Posteriori Derived Dietary Patterns with Breast and Lung Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study.

Related Articles Associations of Mediterranean Diet and a Posteriori Derived Dietary Patterns with Breast and Lung Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients. 2018 Apr 11;10(4): Authors: Krusinska B, Hawrysz I, Wadolowska L, Slowinska MA, Biernacki M, Czerwinska A, Golota JJ Abstract Lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Poland and worldwide. Results of studies involving dietary patterns (DPs) and breast or lung cancer risk in European countries outside the Mediterranean Sea region are limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to develop a 'Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet' ('Polish-aMED') score, and then study the associations between the 'Polish-aMED' score and a posteriori-derived dietary patterns with breast or lung cancer risk in adult Poles. This pooled analysis of two case-control studies involved 560 subjects (280 men, 280 women) aged 40-75 years from Northeastern Poland. Diagnoses of breast cancer in 140 women and lung cancer in 140 men were found. The food frequency consumption of 21 selected food groups was collected using a 62-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)-6. The 'Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet' score which included eight items-vegetables, fruit, whole grain, fish, legumes, nuts and seeds-as well as the ratio of vegetable oils to animal fat and red and processed meat was developed (range: 0-8 points). Three DPs were identified in a Principal Component Analysis: 'Prudent', 'Non-healthy', 'Dressings and sweetened-low-fat dairy'. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, two models were created: crude, and adjusted for age, sex, type of cancer, Body Mass Index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) index, overall physical activity, smoking status and alcohol abuse. The risk of breast or lung cancer was lower in the average (3-5 points) and high (6-8 points) levels of the 'Polish-aMED' score compared to the low (0-2 points) level by 51% (odds ratio (OR): 0.49; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.30-0.80; p < 0.01; adjusted) and 63% (OR: 0.37; 95% Cl: 0.21-0.64; p < 0.001; adjusted), respectively. In the middle and upper tertiles compared to the bottom tertile of the 'Prudent' DP, the risk of cancer was lower by 38-43% (crude) but was not significant after adjustment for confounders. In the upper compared to the bottom tertile of the 'Non-healthy' DP, the risk of cancer was higher by 65% (OR: 1.65; 95% Cl: 1.05-2.59; p < 0.05; adjusted). In conclusion, the Polish adaptation of the Mediterranean diet could be considered for adults living in non-Mediterranean countries for the prevention of the breast or lung cancers. Future studies should explore the role of a traditional Mediterranean diet fitted to local dietary patterns of non-Mediterranean Europeans in cancer prevention. PMID: 29641468 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of Different Dietary Interventions on Calcitriol, Parathyroid Hormone, Calcium, and Phosphorus: Results from the DASH Trial.

Related Articles Effects of Different Dietary Interventions on Calcitriol, Parathyroid Hormone, Calcium, and Phosphorus: Results from the DASH Trial. Nutrients. 2018 Mar 17;10(3): Authors: Hassoon A, Michos ED, Miller ER, Crisp Z, Appel LJ Abstract The "Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension" (DASH) diet, rich in fiber and low-fat dairy, effectively lowers blood pressure. DASH's effect on calcitriol and other markers of bone-mineral metabolism is unknown. This secondary analysis of the DASH trial aimed to determine the effect of dietary patterns on blood concentrations of calcitriol, parathyroid hormone (PTH), ionized calcium, and urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Outcomes were available in 334 participants in the trial. After a 3-week run-in on the control diet, participants were randomized to control, fruits and vegetables (F&V), or DASH diets. Outcomes were assessed at the end of run-in, and during the last week of the intervention period. Mean age of participants was 45.7 ± 10.7 years, 46% female, and 57% African-American. Mean ± Standard Deviation(SD) baseline serum concentrations of calcitriol, PTH, and ionized calcium were 37.8 ± 9.2 pg/mL, 46.1 ± 18.5 pg/mL and 5.2 ± 0.23 mg/dL, respectively. Mean (±SD) urinary calcium and phosphorus excretions were 150.1 ± 77.8 and 708.0 ± 251.8 mg/24 h, respectively. Compared with control, DASH reduced calcitriol -3.32 pg/mL (p = 0.004). Otherwise, there was no significant effect on other biomarkers. DASH lowered serum calcitriol perhaps more among African-Americans. These results raise important questions about the interpretation and clinical significance of low calcitriol concentrations in the setting of recommended diets. PMID: 29562597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Low-Carbohydrate, High-Protein, High-Fat Diets Rich in Livestock, Poultry and Their Products Predict Impending Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Individuals that Exceed Their Calculated Caloric Requirement.

Related Articles Low-Carbohydrate, High-Protein, High-Fat Diets Rich in Livestock, Poultry and Their Products Predict Impending Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Individuals that Exceed Their Calculated Caloric Requirement. Nutrients. 2018 Jan 12;10(1): Authors: Shan R, Duan W, Liu L, Qi J, Gao J, Zhang Y, Du S, Han T, Pang X, Sun C, Wu X Abstract The evidence on the association between long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is controversial. Until now, data is limited for Chinese populations, especially in considering the influence of extra energy intake. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the association of low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in populations consuming extra calories and those with normal caloric intake, We also determined whether the association is mediated by insulin resistance (IR) or β-cell dysfunction. A total of 3644 subjects in the Harbin People's Health Study (Cohort 1, 2008-2012) and 7111 subjects in the Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (Cohort 2, 2010-2015) were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 4.2 and 5.3 years, respectively. Multivariate relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diet and T2D in logistic regression models. The multivariate RRs (95% CIs) were 1.00, 2.24 (1.07, 4.72) and 2.29 (1.07, 4.88) (Ptrend = 0.04), and 1.00, 1.45 (0.91, 2.31) and 1.64 (1.03, 2.61) (Ptrend = 0.04) across tertiles of low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diet scores in the population consuming extra calories in Cohort 1 and Cohort 2, respectively. The association was no longer significant after adjustment for livestock and its products, or poultry and its products. The mediation analysis discovered that this association in the population consuming extra calories was insulin resistance mediated, in both Cohort 1 and Cohort 2. However, the association was not significant among participants overall and participants with normal caloric intake. Our results indicated that long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets were associated with increased T2D risk among the population consuming extra calories, which may be caused by higher intake of animal-origin fat and protein as well as lower intake of vegetables, fruit and fiber. Additionally, the association was mediated by IR. In the population consuming extra calories, reducing the intake of livestock, poultry and their products and increasing the intake of vegetables, fruit and fiber might protect this population from developing T2D. PMID: 29329254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]