Cerebrospinal fluid stasis and its clinical significance.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 May-Jun;15(3):54-60. PMID: 19472865
James M Whedon, Donald Glassey
The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice in Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA.
We hypothesize that stasis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs commonly and is detrimental to health. Physiologic factors affecting the normal circulation of CSF include cardiovascular, respiratory, and vasomotor influences. The CSF maintains the electrolytic environment of the central nervous system (CNS), influences systemic acid-base balance, serves as a medium for the supply of nutrients to neuronal and glial cells, functions as a lymphatic system for the CNS by removing the waste products of cellular metabolism, and transports hormones, neurotransmitters, releasing factors, and other neuropeptides throughout the CNS. Physiologic impedance or cessation of CSF flow may occur commonly in the absence of degenerative changes or pathology and may compromise the normal physiologic functions of the CSF. CSF appears to be particularly prone to stasis within the spinal canal. CSF stasis may be associated with adverse mechanical cord tension, vertebral subluxation syndrome, reduced cranial rhythmic impulse, and restricted respiratory function. Increased sympathetic tone, facilitated spinal segments, dural tension, and decreased CSF flow have been described as closely related aspects of an overall pattern of structural and energetic dysfunction in the axial skeleton and CNS. Therapies directed at affecting CSF flow include osteopathic care (especially cranial manipulation), craniosacral therapy, chiropractic adjustment of the spine and cranium, Network Care (formerly Network Chiropractic), massage therapy (including lymphatic drainage techniques), yoga, therapeutic breath-work, and cerebrospinal fluid technique. Further investigation into the nature and causation of CSF stasis, its potential effects upon human health, and effective therapies for its correction is warranted.
Article Published Date : May 01, 2009
Improving spine surgical access, appropriateness and efficiency in metropolitan, urban and rural settings.
Can J Surg. 2017 10;60(5):342-348
Authors: Zarrabian M, Bidos A, Fanti C, Young B, Drew B, Puskas D, Rampersaud R
BACKGROUND: The Inter-professional Spine Assessment and Education Clinics (ISAEC) were developed to improve primary care assessment, education and management of patients with persistent or recurrent low back pain-related symptoms. This study aims to determine the effect of ISAEC on access for surgical assessment, referral appropriateness and efficiency for patients meeting a priori referral criteria in rural, urban and metropolitan settings.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of prospective data from networked ISAEC clinics in Thunder Bay, Hamilton and Toronto, Ontario. For patients meeting surgical referral criteria, wait times for surgical assessment, surgical referral-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and appropriateness of referral were recorded.
RESULTS: Overall 422 patients, representing 10% of all ISAEC patients in the study period, were referred for surgical assessment. The average wait times for surgical assessment were 5.4, 4.3 and 2.2 weeks at the metropolitan, urban and rural centres, respectively. Referral MRI usage for the group decreased by 31%. Of the patients referred for formal surgical assessment, 80% had leg-dominant pain and 96% were deemed appropriate surgical referrals.
CONCLUSION: Contrary to geographic concentration of health care resources in metropolitan settings, the greatest decrease in wait times was achieved in the rural setting. A networked, shared-cared model of care for patients with low back pain-related symptoms significantly improved access for surgical assessment despite varying geographic practice settings and barriers. The greatest reductions were noted in the rural setting. In addition, significant improvements in referral appropriateness and efficiency were achieved compared with historical reports across all sites.
PMID: 30246685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]