Long-term effects of calorie or protein restriction on serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentration in humans.
Thromb Res. 2009 Mar;123(5):740-4. Epub 2008 Sep 10. PMID: 18843793
Luigi Fontana, Edward P Weiss, Dennis T Villareal, Samuel Klein, John O Holloszy
Reduced function mutations in the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway increase maximal lifespan and health span in many species. Calorie restriction (CR) decreases serum IGF-1 concentration by ~40%, protects against cancer and slows aging in rodents. However, the long-term effects of CR with adequate nutrition on circulating IGF-1 levels in humans are unknown. Here we report data from two long-term CR studies (1 and 6 years) showing that severe CR without malnutrition did not change IGF-1 and IGF-1 : IGFBP-3 ratio levels in humans. In contrast, total and free IGF-1 concentrations were significantly lower in moderately protein-restricted individuals. Reducing protein intake from an average of 1.67 g kg(-1) of body weight per day to 0.95 g kg(-1) of body weight per day for 3 weeks in six volunteers practicing CR resulted in a reduction in serum IGF-1 from 194 ng mL(-1) to 152 ng mL(-1). These findings demonstrate that, unlike in rodents, long-term severe CR does not reduce serum IGF-1 concentration and IGF-1 : IGFBP-3 ratio in humans. In addition, our data provide evidence that protein intake is a key determinant of circulating IGF-1 levels in humans, and suggest that reduced protein intake may become an important component of anticancer and anti-aging dietary interventions.
Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2009
Treatment of chronic uremic patients with protein-poor diet and oral supply of essential amino acids. I. Nitrogen balance studies.
Clin Nephrol. 1975;3(5):187-94. PMID: 1149343
J Bergström, P Fürst, L O Norée
Twenty-six nitrogen balance studies were performed in 15 patients with severe uremia (Ccr mean value 5.1, range 2.3-8.5 ml/min) treated with an unselected protein-poor (16-20 g protein/day corresponding to 2.6-3.2 g N/day) diet and oral supply of the essential amino acids including histidine (2.6 g N/day). The general condition improved and the concentration of serum urea nitrogen decreased. The nitrogen balance, corrected for changes in total urea pool, was negative on the diet alone,-1.46 plus or minus 1.15 g N/day (mean plus or minus SD), but was positive when the essential amino acids were supplied, plus 0.84 plus or minus 0.68 g N/day. In four patients studied after 3 to 26 months of diet and amino acid therapy, during which time a further deterioriation of the renal function had occurred, the nitrogen balance was around zero in three and negative in one patient (-1.2 g N/day). The results show that it is possible with our new regimen to attain positive nitrogen balance or nitrogen equilibrium in severely uremic patients without excessive accumulation of urea in the body fluids.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 1975
Treatment of chronic uremic patients with protein-poor diet and oral supply of essential amino acids. II. Clinical results of long-term treatment.
Clin Nephrol. 1975;3(5):195-203. PMID: 1149344
L O Norée, J Bergström
Twenty-six uremic patients - serum urea nitrogen (SUN) 110 MG/100 ml plus or minus 22.8 (mean plus or minus SD), serum cretinine (S-Creat) 13.2 mg/100 ml plus or minus 2.27, ratio SUN/S-Creat 8.6 plus or minus 2.26, and endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) 3.86 plus or minus 1.41 ml/min - were treated for three months or longer with an unselected protein-poor (16-20 g protein/day) diet with oral supply of the essential amino acids including histidine in high doses as coated tablets. The amino acids were instituted after an initial diet only period (mean 0.4 months). The average treatment time was 8.4 months (range 2.7-33.6). An improvement of the general condition was obtained, persisting for several months. SUN and SUN/S-Creat decreased on the diet alone, continued to decrease after one month, and increased slightly again after three months of treatment, but did not reach the initial levels for several months in spite of an almost doubled nitrogen intake. S-Creat increased after six months indicating a further deterioration of the renal function. In patients with initially low serum total protein (smaller than 6.5 g/100 ml, 9 patients), albumin (smaller than 3.5 g/100 ml, 10 patients), and total iron-binding capacity (smaller than 260 mug/100 ml, 11 patients) the values increased after one month on amino acids and were thereafter stable. No signs of bleeding tendency, progressive muscle atrophy, or progressive peripheral neuropathy were observed. - Five patients died due to cardiovascular maladies. A further 13 patients were withdrawn for medical reasons (overhydration, 4 patients; hypertension, 1 patient; nausea and vomiting, 7 patients; and pericarditis, 1 patient). - The renal function improved in one patient. Four patients received home dialysis training, three a kidney transplant. - The results indicate that it is possible to keep severely uremic patients free from uremic symptoms, counteract protein depletion, and even improve the nutritional status during long-term treatment with an unselected protein-poor diet supplementd with essential amino acids.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 1975
Effect of an extruded animal protein-free diet on fecal microbiota of dogs with food-responsive enteropathy.
J Vet Intern Med. 2018 Nov;32(6):1903-1910
Authors: Bresciani F, Minamoto Y, Suchodolski JS, Galiazzo G, Vecchiato CG, Pinna C, Biagi G, Pietra M
BACKGROUND: Dietary interventions are thought to modify gut microbial communities in healthy individuals. In dogs with chronic enteropathies, resolution of dysbiosis, along with remission of clinical signs, is expected with treatment.
HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in the fecal microbiota in dogs with food-responsive chronic enteropathy (FRE) and in healthy control (HC) dogs before and after an elimination dietary trial with an animal protein-free diet (APFD).
ANIMALS: Dogs with FRE (n = 10) and HC (n = 14).
METHODS: Dogs were fed the APFD for 60 days. Fecal microbiota was analyzed by Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: A significantly lower bacterial alpha-diversity was observed in dogs with FRE compared with HC dogs at baseline, and compared with FRE dogs after the trial. Distinct microbial communities were observed in dogs with FRE at baseline compared with HC dogs at baseline and compared with dogs with FRE after the trial. Microbial communities still were different in FRE dogs after the trial compared with HC dogs at baseline. In HC dogs, the fecal microbiota did not show a significant modification after administration of the APFD.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Our results suggest that, in FRE dogs, treatment with the APFD led to a partial recovery of the fecal microbiota by significantly increasing microbiota richness, which was significantly closer to a healthy microbiota after the treatment. In contrast, no changes were detected in the fecal microbiota of HC dogs fed the same APFD.
PMID: 30353569 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ketogenic diet-induced extension of longevity in epileptic Kcna1-null mice is influenced by gender and age at treatment onset.
Epilepsy Res. 2018 02;140:53-55
Authors: Chun KC, Ma SC, Oh H, Rho JM, Kim DY
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of premature mortality in patients with epilepsy, and has been linked to multiple risk factors, including gender and early age at seizure onset. Despite the lack of a targeted therapy for SUDEP, it has recently been shown that a high-fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) enhances longevity in the epileptic Kcna1-null (KO) mouse, a validated model of SUDEP. Here, we asked whether the KD-driven prolongation of lifespan in KO mice is dependent on sex and/or age at treatment onset. We found that as KO mice aged, their daily seizure frequency steadily increased, but had early demise by postnatal day (PD) 46.9±0.8. In KO mice started on the KD at PD30, longevity was extended to a mean of PD69.8±1.7, accompanied with improved seizure control. Interestingly, while seizure control on the KD was similar between male and female mice, KD-fed female KO mice survived longer than their male counterparts. Further, epileptic mice initiated on the KD at PD25 had longer lifespans compared to those placed on the KD starting at PD35. Collectively, these data further support the notion that the KD can retard disease progression and sudden death in KO mice, but that this beneficial action is influenced by gender and age at the start of treatment.
PMID: 29245026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]