Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Low-Protein Diet

Long-term effects of calorie or protein restriction on serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentration in humans. 📎

Abstract Title: Long-term effects of calorie or protein restriction on serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentration in humans. Abstract Source: Thromb Res. 2009 Mar;123(5):740-4. Epub 2008 Sep 10. PMID: 18843793 Abstract Author(s): Luigi Fontana, Edward P Weiss, Dennis T Villareal, Samuel Klein, John O Holloszy Article Affiliation: Division of Geriatrics&Nutritional Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Reduced function mutations in the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway increase maximal lifespan and health span in many species. Calorie restriction (CR) decreases serum IGF-1 concentration by ~40%, protects against cancer and slows aging in rodents. However, the long-term effects of CR with adequate nutrition on circulating IGF-1 levels in humans are unknown. Here we report data from two long-term CR studies (1 and 6 years) showing that severe CR without malnutrition did not change IGF-1 and IGF-1 : IGFBP-3 ratio levels in humans. In contrast, total and free IGF-1 concentrations were significantly lower in moderately protein-restricted individuals. Reducing protein intake from an average of 1.67 g kg(-1) of body weight per day to 0.95 g kg(-1) of body weight per day for 3 weeks in six volunteers practicing CR resulted in a reduction in serum IGF-1 from 194 ng mL(-1) to 152 ng mL(-1). These findings demonstrate that, unlike in rodents, long-term severe CR does not reduce serum IGF-1 concentration and IGF-1 : IGFBP-3 ratio in humans. In addition, our data provide evidence that protein intake is a key determinant of circulating IGF-1 levels in humans, and suggest that reduced protein intake may become an important component of anticancer and anti-aging dietary interventions. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 2009

Treatment of chronic uremic patients with protein-poor diet and oral supply of essential amino acids. I. Nitrogen balance studies. 1

Abstract Title: Treatment of chronic uremic patients with protein-poor diet and oral supply of essential amino acids. I. Nitrogen balance studies. Abstract Source: Clin Nephrol. 1975;3(5):187-94. PMID: 1149343 Abstract Author(s): J Bergström, P Fürst, L O Norée Abstract: Twenty-six nitrogen balance studies were performed in 15 patients with severe uremia (Ccr mean value 5.1, range 2.3-8.5 ml/min) treated with an unselected protein-poor (16-20 g protein/day corresponding to 2.6-3.2 g N/day) diet and oral supply of the essential amino acids including histidine (2.6 g N/day). The general condition improved and the concentration of serum urea nitrogen decreased. The nitrogen balance, corrected for changes in total urea pool, was negative on the diet alone,-1.46 plus or minus 1.15 g N/day (mean plus or minus SD), but was positive when the essential amino acids were supplied, plus 0.84 plus or minus 0.68 g N/day. In four patients studied after 3 to 26 months of diet and amino acid therapy, during which time a further deterioriation of the renal function had occurred, the nitrogen balance was around zero in three and negative in one patient (-1.2 g N/day). The results show that it is possible with our new regimen to attain positive nitrogen balance or nitrogen equilibrium in severely uremic patients without excessive accumulation of urea in the body fluids.   Article Published Date : Jan 01, 1975

Treatment of chronic uremic patients with protein-poor diet and oral supply of essential amino acids. II. Clinical results of long-term treatment.

Abstract Title: Treatment of chronic uremic patients with protein-poor diet and oral supply of essential amino acids. II. Clinical results of long-term treatment. Abstract Source: Clin Nephrol. 1975;3(5):195-203. PMID: 1149344 Abstract Author(s): L O Norée, J Bergström Abstract: Twenty-six uremic patients - serum urea nitrogen (SUN) 110 MG/100 ml plus or minus 22.8 (mean plus or minus SD), serum cretinine (S-Creat) 13.2 mg/100 ml plus or minus 2.27, ratio SUN/S-Creat 8.6 plus or minus 2.26, and endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) 3.86 plus or minus 1.41 ml/min - were treated for three months or longer with an unselected protein-poor (16-20 g protein/day) diet with oral supply of the essential amino acids including histidine in high doses as coated tablets. The amino acids were instituted after an initial diet only period (mean 0.4 months). The average treatment time was 8.4 months (range 2.7-33.6). An improvement of the general condition was obtained, persisting for several months. SUN and SUN/S-Creat decreased on the diet alone, continued to decrease after one month, and increased slightly again after three months of treatment, but did not reach the initial levels for several months in spite of an almost doubled nitrogen intake. S-Creat increased after six months indicating a further deterioration of the renal function. In patients with initially low serum total protein (smaller than 6.5 g/100 ml, 9 patients), albumin (smaller than 3.5 g/100 ml, 10 patients), and total iron-binding capacity (smaller than 260 mug/100 ml, 11 patients) the values increased after one month on amino acids and were thereafter stable. No signs of bleeding tendency, progressive muscle atrophy, or progressive peripheral neuropathy were observed. - Five patients died due to cardiovascular maladies. A further 13 patients were withdrawn for medical reasons (overhydration, 4 patients; hypertension, 1 patient; nausea and vomiting, 7 patients; and pericarditis, 1 patient). - The renal function improved in one patient. Four patients received home dialysis training, three a kidney transplant. - The results indicate that it is possible to keep severely uremic patients free from uremic symptoms, counteract protein depletion, and even improve the nutritional status during long-term treatment with an unselected protein-poor diet supplementd with essential amino acids.   Article Published Date : Jan 01, 1975
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Low-Protein Diet

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Improved adherence to Mediterranean Diet in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Related Articles Improved adherence to Mediterranean Diet in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Jul 17;: Authors: Granado-Casas M, Alcubierre N, Martín M, Real J, Ramírez-Morros AM, Cuadrado M, Alonso N, Falguera M, Hernández M, Aguilera E, Lecube A, Castelblanco E, Puig-Domingo M, Mauricio D Abstract PURPOSE: We aimed to assess food intake and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in patients with T1D compared with nondiabetic individuals. METHODS: This was an observational, multicenter study in 262 T1D subjects and 254 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic subjects. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was administered. The alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED) and alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) were assessed. The clinical variables were also collected. The analysis of data included comparisons between groups and multivariate models. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, the patients with T1D had a higher intake of dairy products (p < 0.001), processed meat (p = 0.001), fatty fish (p = 0.009), fruits and vegetables (p < 0.001), nuts (p = 0.011), legumes (p < 0.001), potatoes (p = 0.045), and bread (p = 0.045), and a lower intake of seafood (p = 0.011), sweets (p < 0.001), and alcohol drinks (p = 0.025). This intake pattern resulted in a higher consumption of complex carbohydrates (p = 0.049), fiber (p < 0.001), protein (p < 0.001), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (p = 0.007), antioxidants (p < 0.001), vitamins (p < 0.001), and minerals (p < 0.001). The frequency of patients with T1D and low aMED score (23.2%) was lower than that of the controls (35.4%; p = 0.019). The overall multivariate analysis showed that, among other factors, being a T1D subject was associated with improved aMED and aHEI scores (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001). In patients with T1D, residing in a nonurban area was associated with improved aMED and aHEI scores (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients with T1D showed healthier dietary habits and a higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet than nondiabetic subjects. Residing in a nonurban area is associated with an improved dietary pattern. PMID: 30019088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Chylous complications of various severity and manifestations within diverse compartments in reconstructive vascular surgery #) #) The manuscript is dedicated to Prof. Dr. Z. Halloul.

Related Articles Chylous complications of various severity and manifestations within diverse compartments in reconstructive vascular surgery #) #) The manuscript is dedicated to Prof. Dr. Z. Halloul. Pol Przegl Chir. 2018 May 16;90(3):43-48 Authors: Wasseroth K, Barth U, Albrecht R, Rahms V, Meyer F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chylous complications, which occur also in the profile of vascularsurgical interventions with considerable frequency, are challenging with regard to their adequate management. Aim & method: Compact short overview on epidemiological, classifying, symptomatic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of chylous complications in vascular surgery, based on i) own clinical experiences, ii) a current selection of relevant scientific references and iii) representative case reports from clinical practice. Results (complex patient- & clinical finding-associated aspects): - Basic treatment of lymphedema / postreconstructive edema comprises the complex physical therapy to improve edematous swelling, which need to be usually performed over years. - In case of lymphocele, wait-and-see strategy can be initially pursued to observe spontaneous clinical course. If the lymphocele and its clinical complaints persist, puncture, placement of a drainage or temporary instillation of doxycyclin or ethanol can be attempted. - In case of lymphatic fistula, vacuum-assisted closure dressing, radiation and selective ligation of lymphatic vessels after previous application of methylen blue dye can be used. - Chylascites and chylothorax should be primarily treated - as have been widely established in the mean time - with a consequently conservative approach comprising initially paracentesis / thoracocentesis, protein-enriched and low-fat diet containing middle chain triglycerides (MCT) or total parenteral nutrition combined with the application of a somatostatin analogue (surgical approach as ultima ratio only aiming at ligation of the lesioned lymphatic vessel - if necessary, including preoperative consumption of cream). SUMMARY: Chylous complications can be primarily treated with conservatice measures, which should be exploited using a step-wise approach prior to surgical intervention as ultima ratio. CONCLUSION: The experienced vascular surgeon should be aquainted with a sufficient, finding-adapted management of chylous complications. This requires a well-experienced clinician and surgeon with great expertise regarding the interdisciplinary setting comprising of interventional radiology, vascular (abdominal) surgery and partially surgical intensive care. PMID: 30015326 [PubMed - in process]

Phosphate-control adherence in hemodialysis patients: current perspectives.

Related Articles Phosphate-control adherence in hemodialysis patients: current perspectives. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2018;12:1175-1191 Authors: Umeukeje EM, Mixon AS, Cavanaugh KL Abstract Objectives: This review summarizes factors relevant for adherence to phosphate-control strategies in dialysis patients, and discusses interventions to overcome related challenges. Methods: A literature search including the terms "phosphorus", "phosphorus control", "hemo-dialysis", "phosphate binder medications", "phosphorus diet", "adherence", and "nonadherence" was undertaken using PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Embase. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in dialysis patients. Management of hyperphosphatemia depends on phosphate binder medication therapy, a low-phosphorus diet, and dialysis. Phosphate binder therapy is associated with a survival benefit. Dietary restriction is complex because of the need to maintain adequate protein intake and, alone, is insufficient for phosphorus control. Similarly, conventional hemodialysis alone is insufficient for phosphorus control due to the kinetics of dialytic phosphorus removal. Thus, all three treatment approaches are important contributors, with dietary restriction and dialysis as adjuncts to the requisite phosphate binder therapy. Phosphate-control adherence rates are suboptimal and are influenced directly by patient, provider, and phosphorus-control strategy-related factors. Psychosocial factors have been implicated as influential "drivers" of adherence behaviors in dialysis patients, and factors based on self-motivation associate directly with adherence behavior. Higher-risk subgroups of nonadherent patients include younger dialysis patients and non-whites. Provider attitudes may be important - yet unaddressed - determinants of adherence behaviors of dialysis patients. Conclusion: Adherence to phosphate binders, low-phosphorus diet, and dialysis prescription is suboptimal. Multicomponent strategies that concurrently address therapy-related factors such as side effects, patient factors targeting self-motivation, and provider factors to improve attitudes and delivery of culturally sensitive care show the most promise for long-term control of phosphorus levels. Moreover, it will be important to identify patients at highest risk for lack of control, and for programs to be ready to deliver flexible person-centered strategies through training and dedicated resources to align with the needs of all patients. PMID: 30013329 [PubMed]

Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans.

Related Articles Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans. Nutrients. 2018 Jan 20;10(1): Authors: G Engel M, J Kern H, Brenna JT, H Mitmesser S Abstract Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI) in B₁, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID: 29361684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Changes in urinary risk profile after short-term low sodium and low calcium diet in recurrent Swiss kidney stone formers.

Related Articles Changes in urinary risk profile after short-term low sodium and low calcium diet in recurrent Swiss kidney stone formers. BMC Nephrol. 2017 Dec 04;18(1):349 Authors: Seeger H, Kaelin A, Ferraro PM, Weber D, Jaeger P, Ambuehl P, Robertson WG, Unwin R, Wagner CA, Mohebbi N Abstract BACKGROUND: Kidney stone disease is common in industrialized countries. Recently, it has attracted growing attention, because of its significant association with adverse renal outcomes, including end stage renal disease. Calcium-containing kidney stones are frequent with high recurrence rates. While hypercalciuria is a well-known risk factor, restricted intake of animal protein and sodium, combined with normal dietary calcium, has been shown to be more effective in stone prevention compared with a low-calcium diet. Notably, the average sodium intake in Switzerland is twice as high as the WHO recommendation, while the intake of milk and dairy products is low. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed Swiss recurrent kidney stone formers (rKSF) to test the impact of a low-sodium in combination with a low-calcium diet on the urinary risk profile. In patients with recurrent calcium oxalate containing stones, we investigated both, the consequence of a low-sodium diet on urinary volume and calcium excretion, and the influence of a low-sodium low-calcium diet on urinary oxalate excretion. RESULTS: Of the 169 patients with CaOx stones, 49 presented with hypercalciuria at baseline. The diet resulted in a highly significant reduction in 24-h urinary sodium and calcium excretion: from 201 ± 89 at baseline to 128 ± 88 mmol/d for sodium (p < 0.0001), and from 5.67 ± 3.01 to 4.06 ± 2.46 mmol/d (p < 0.0001) for calcium, respectively. Urine volume remained unchanged. Notably, no increase in oxalate excretion occurred on the restricted diet (0.39 ± 0.26 vs 0.39 ± 0.19 mmol/d, p = 0.277). Calculated Psf (probability of stone formation) values were only predictive for the risk of calcium phosphate stones. CONCLUSION: A diet low in sodium and calcium in recurrent calcium oxalate stone formers resulted in a significant reduction of urinary calcium excretion, but no change in urine volume. In this population with apparently low intake of dairy products, calcium restriction does not necessarily result in increased urinary oxalate excretion. However, based on previous studies, we recommend a normal dietary calcium intake to avoid a potential increase in urinary oxalate excretion and unfavorable effects on bone metabolism in hypercalciuric KSFs. PMID: 29202723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Effect of "Spleen-Stomach Harmonizing" Needling on Insulin Resistance and Expression of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1, -2, and Glucose Transporter-4 in Insulin Resistance Type 2 Diabetes Rats].

Related Articles [Effect of "Spleen-Stomach Harmonizing" Needling on Insulin Resistance and Expression of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1, -2, and Glucose Transporter-4 in Insulin Resistance Type 2 Diabetes Rats]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2017 Jun 25;42(3):197-201 Authors: Chen H, Zhang ZL, Wang X, Yang YQ Abstract OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of manual acupuncture stimulation of "Quchi" (LI 11), "Hegu" (LI 4), "Zusanli" (ST 36), etc. with "spleen-stomach harmonizing" technique on insulin resistance index (ISI) and the expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2 (two upstream key proteins) and glucose transporter-4 (GluT-4, downstream key protein) of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3 K)/Akt signaling pathway in insulin resistance type 2 diabetes (IRT 2 D) rats, so as to explore its mechanism underling improvement of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 35 male Wistar rats were used in the present study. The IRT 2 D model was established by feeding the animal with high-fat and high-sugar diet for 8 weeks, and subsequent intraperitoneal injection (i.p.i.) of a low dose of streptozotocin (25 mg/kg). Using the stratified random sampling method, 20 successful IRT 2 D rats were equally divided into model and acupuncture groups. Ten normal rats were used as the control group. The bilateral acupoints of LI 11, LI 4, ST 36, "Xuehai" (SP 10), "Fenglong" (ST 40), "Yinlingquan" (SP 9), "Diji" (SP 8), "San-yinjiao" (SP 6) and "Taichong" (LR 3) were punctured with filiform needles, followed by manipulating the needles with "spleen-stomach harmonizing" technique. The treatment was given once daily for 4 weeks except the weekends. Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels were measured using ELISA. The quadriceps muscle of thigh of each rat was sampled to test the expression levels of IRS-1, IRS-2, and GluT-4 proteins and genes with Western blot and quantitative Real-time PCR, respectively. RESULTS: Following 4 weeks' acupuncture intervention, the modeling-induced remarkable increase of ISI, and considerable down-regulation of expression levels of IRS-1, IRS-2 and GluT-4 proteins and genes in the quadriceps femoris were significantly reversed relevant to the model group (P<0.01), suggesting a possible activation of PI 3 K/Akt signaling after acupuncture administration. CONCLUSIONS: Spleen-stomach regulation needling can improve insulin resistance and up-regulate the expression of IRS-1, IRS-2 and GluT-4 in the quadriceps femoris in type 2 diabetes rats. PMID: 29071974 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Consumption of Whey in Combination with Dairy Medium-Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs) may Reduce Lipid Storage due to Urinary Loss of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates and Increased Rates of MCFAs Oxidation.

Related Articles Consumption of Whey in Combination with Dairy Medium-Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs) may Reduce Lipid Storage due to Urinary Loss of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates and Increased Rates of MCFAs Oxidation. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Dec;61(12): Authors: Amer B, Clausen MR, Bertram HC, Bohl M, Nebel C, Zheng H, Skov T, Larsen MK, Gregersen S, Hermansen K, Dalsgaard TK Abstract SCOPE: The aim of the paper is to investigate whether changes in the metabolome could explain observed changes in body composition in overweight adults after consumption of butter with high level of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) in combination with casein or whey. METHODS AND RESULTS: With GC-TOF and LC-Q/MS, metabolites in plasma and urine from a 12-week randomized double-blinded human intervention including 52-abdominally overweight adults were analyzed. The participants consumed 63 g per day of milk fat (high or low in MCFAs) and 60 g per day of protein (whey or casein). Urinary loss of the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and a concomitantly increase of glycerol in blood were observed in the whey + high-MCFAs group, indicating potential lower anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, by draining substrates. High intake of MCFAs resulted in elevated level of urinary adipic (independently of protein type) and plasma sebacic acid (with whey), indicating a potential increase in oxidation of MCFAs, which might lead to energy loss. CONCLUSION: The type of protein showed highest effect on the overall metabolic profiles, but ω-oxidation of MCFAs in the liver seemed to be the main reason for the observed reduction in body fat mass after consumption of high MCFAs, independent of type of protein. PMID: 28949074 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Intrarenal Mas and AT1 receptors play a role in mediating the excretory actions of renal interstitial angiotensin-(1-7) infusion in anaesthetized rats.

Related Articles Intrarenal Mas and AT1 receptors play a role in mediating the excretory actions of renal interstitial angiotensin-(1-7) infusion in anaesthetized rats. Exp Physiol. 2017 Dec 01;102(12):1700-1715 Authors: O'Neill J, Healy V, Johns EJ Abstract NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Dietary sodium manipulation alters the magnitude of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]-induced natriuresis. The present study sought to determine whether this was related to relative changes in the activity of intrarenal Mas and/or AT1 receptors. What is the main finding and its importance? Angiotensin-(1-7)-induced diuresis and natriuresis is mediated by intrarenal Mas receptors. However, intrarenal AT1 receptor blockade also had an inhibitory effect on Ang-(1-7)-induced natriuresis and diuresis. Thus, Ang-(1-7)-induced increases in sodium and water excretion are dependent upon functional Mas and AT1 receptors. We investigated whether angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]-induced renal haemodynamic and excretory actions were solely dependent upon intrarenal Mas receptor activation or required functional angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 ) receptors. The renin-angiotensin system was enhanced in anaesthetized rats by prior manipulation of dietary sodium intake. Angiotensin-(1-7) and AT1 and Mas receptor antagonists were infused into the kidney at the corticomedullary border. Mas receptor expression was measured in the kidney. Mean arterial pressure, urine flow and fractional sodium excretion were 93 ± 4 mmHg, 46.1 ± 15.7 μl min-1  kg-1 and 1.4 ± 0.3%, respectively, in the normal-sodium group and 91 ± 2 mmHg, 19.1 ± 3.3 μl min-1  kg-1 and 0.7 ± 0.2%, respectively, in the low-sodium group. Angiotensin-(1-7) infusion had no effect on mean arterial pressure in rats receiving a normal-sodium diet but decreased it by 4 ± 5% in rats receiving a low-sodium diet (P < 0.05). Interstitial Ang-(1-7) infusion increased urine flow twofold and fractional sodium excretion threefold (P < 0.05) in rats receiving a normal-sodium diet and to a greater extent, approximately three- and fourfold, respectively, in rats receiving the low-sodium diet (both P < 0.05). Angiotensin-(1-7)-induced increases in urine flow and fractional sodium excretion were absent in both dietary groups during intrarenal AT1 or Mas receptor inhibition after either losartan or A-779, respectively. Thus, AT1 receptor activation, as well as Mas receptor activation, plays an essential role in mediating Ang-(1-7)-induced natriuresis and diuresis. Whether this is because Ang-(1-7) partly antagonizes AT1 receptors or whether Ang-(1-7)-induced natriuresis is mediated through AT1 -Mas receptor dimerization remains unclear. PMID: 28940861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Modulation of Starch Digestibility in Breakfast Cereals Consumed by Subjects with Metabolic Risk: Impact on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation during Fasting and the Postprandial Period.

Related Articles Modulation of Starch Digestibility in Breakfast Cereals Consumed by Subjects with Metabolic Risk: Impact on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation during Fasting and the Postprandial Period. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Dec;61(12): Authors: Lambert-Porcheron S, Normand S, Blond E, Sothier M, Roth H, Meynier A, Vinoy S, Laville M, Nazare JA Abstract SCOPE: Decreasing postprandial glycaemic excursions may have a beneficial effect on inflammatory and oxidative stress profiles. In this study, we investigated the impact of carbohydrate digestibility modulation per se, as a means of reducing the glycaemic response, on metabolic and inflammatory responses in subjects with metabolic risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty healthy subjects with metabolic risk consumed a cereal product either high in Slowly Digestible Starch (HSDS) or low in SDS (LSDS) at breakfast daily for 3 weeks, in a cross-over design. Following each 3-week session, postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia, the lipid profile, inflammation and oxidative stress markers were assessed and compared to those induced by ingestion of a glucose solution (as a reference). The 2-h glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were significantly lower following the HSDS breakfast compared with the LSDS breakfast or glucose. No significant differences between the products were observed in terms of the lipid profile, C-reactive protein, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha. We observed a slight increase in fasting lipid peroxidation markers, including an increase in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in whole blood glutathione (GSH), without significant alteration of urinary F2-isoprostanes or plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. CONCLUSION: Consumption of HSDS products for 3 weeks significantly altered both postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia, but was not sufficient to modify the inflammatory profile. Consumption of both cereal products was associated with a slightly higher fasting oxidative stress profile. PMID: 28853210 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Products of chickpea processing as texture improvers in gluten-free bread.

Related Articles Products of chickpea processing as texture improvers in gluten-free bread. Food Sci Technol Int. 2017 Dec;23(8):690-698 Authors: Bird LG, Pilkington CL, Saputra A, Serventi L Abstract Recent market developments raised the need for alternatives to hydrocolloids as texture improver in gluten-free bread. Chickpea exerts several physicochemical properties (water- and oil-binding, emulsifying and foaming) that might address this need. Therefore, the effect of processing on chickpea functionality was tested on low ingredient dose, comparably to that of common hydrocolloids. Control bread was small, hard and with low gas retention ability as shown by microscopy, depicting holes inside crumb pores. Addition of chickpea flour in low dose (2% w/w) enhanced loaf volume by 20% and reduced crumb hardness by 40%, due to increased gas retention (no holes within pores) and superior homogeneity of the starch-protein network. On the contrary, chickpea paste deleteriously affected bread quality due to loss of solubility upon cooking. Interestingly, both soaking and cooking water significantly reduced crumb hardness, although to a lower extent than the flour. More homogeneous crumb structure and gas retention were observed in the micrographs, possibly due to the emulsifying activity of flavonoids and saponins (soaking) and insoluble fibre (cooking). Chickpea ingredients are promising substitute of hydrocolloids such as xanthan gum for texture improvement of gluten-free bread, although acting with different mechanisms. PMID: 28658964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Improvement in erectile function in a rat model of high cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis by atorvastatin in a manner that is independent of its lipid-lowering property.

Related Articles Improvement in erectile function in a rat model of high cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis by atorvastatin in a manner that is independent of its lipid-lowering property. Andrologia. 2017 Nov;49(9): Authors: Zhang Z, Tang L, Yu W, Chen Y, Dai YT Abstract The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of a lipid-lowering drug atorvastatin, a three-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in a rat model of atherosclerosis (AS) and the possible mechanisms underneath. A high-cholesterol diet was administrated to Sprague-Dawley rats in an attempt to induce an ASED model, which was later confirmed by abdominal aorta histopathology and erectile function evaluation. ASED rats were further assigned to non-treatment group, atorvastatin low-dose treatment group (5 mg kg-1  day-1 ), high-dose group (10 mg kg-1  day-1 ) and sildenafil (1.5 mg kg-1  day-1 ) treatment group. Lipid profile, erectile function, oxidative stress biochemical markers, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SODEX ) mRNA expression were evaluated after 8-week treatment duration. Erectile function was impaired in AS rat model, which was preserved in atorvastatin and sildenafil intervention groups. The oxidative stress biochemical markers were attenuated, while eNOS and SODEX mRNA expression were restored in atorvastatin and sildenafil groups, which were found to be involved in ED pathogenesis. However, the lipid profile remained unaltered in the treatment group, and it was elevated in ASED rats. This kind of lipid-lowering agent, or atorvastatin, has the utilisation potential in ASED treatment, even before lipid profiles altered. This effect on erectile function preservation of atorvastatin was attributed to its preservation of endothelial function, possibly through amelioration of oxidative stress and improvement in eNOS expression. PMID: 28295458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of acute dietary weight loss on postprandial plasma bile acid responses in obese insulin resistant subjects.

Related Articles Effects of acute dietary weight loss on postprandial plasma bile acid responses in obese insulin resistant subjects. Clin Nutr. 2017 12;36(6):1615-1620 Authors: van Nierop FS, Kulik W, Endert E, Schaap FG, Olde Damink SW, Romijn JA, Soeters MR Abstract BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bile acids (BA) are pleiotropic hormones affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. The physiochemical properties of different BA species affect their enterohepatic dynamics and their affinity for bile acid receptors. The BA pool composition is altered in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this study we used a 2-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) to investigate the effects of weight loss on BA pool composition and postprandial dynamics. METHODS: We performed mixed meal tests in obese, insulin resistant subjects before and after the VLCD. We measured postprandial plasma levels of glucose, insulin, BA and the BA-induced enterokine fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). RESULTS: The VLCD decreased weight by 4.5 ± 2.3 kg (p < 0.0001) within 14 days. Weight loss increased peak postprandial deoxycholate (DCA) levels (median [IQR]: 0.90 [0.90] vs. 1.25 [1.35] μmol/L; p = 0.045*). Other BA species, glucose, insulin and FGF19 levels and prandial excursions were not significantly affected. The VLCD decreased resting and postprandial energy expenditure by 7 and 11% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: VLCD induced weight loss increased postprandial DCA peak levels and decreased resting energy expenditure in obese insulin resistant subjects. PMID: 27773549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]