Therapeutic Actions Hydrotherapy

NCBI pubmed

[Topical ozone therapy: An innovative solution to patients with herpes zoster].

[Topical ozone therapy: An innovative solution to patients with herpes zoster]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2018 Feb 28;43(2):168-172 Authors: Huang J, Huang J, Xiang Y, Gao L, Pan Y, Lu J Abstract OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of topical ozone therapy for patients with herpes zoster by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM).
 Methods: A total of 60 patients with herpes zoster were divided into a control group and an ozone treatment group (n=30). In the control group, patients took oral valacyclovir tablets or granules (0.3 g per day, three times a day) and they were subjected to local weak laser irradiation treatment plus topical 2% mupirocin ointment twice a day. In the ozone group, the treatment is same as the control group except mupirocin ointment was replaced with topical ozone treatment (hydrotherapy every day plus ozonated oil twice a day). The clinical symptoms, discoid cell and adverse reactions were observed and taken records at day 0, 3, 7 and 14. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the clinical efficacy between the 2 groups. 
 Results: On the seventh day of treatment, the discoid cells of the ozone group disappeared, and the difference between the control group and the ozone group was statistically significant (P<0.05). The difference of decreased percentage of pain scores at each time point between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). The clinical efficacy was 100% in the ozone group and 86.7% in the control group, with significant difference between the 2 groups (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Topical ozone therapy in patients with herpes zoster is helpful in relieving pain, shortening the course as well as improving the clinical efficacy without obvious adverse reactions. It is worth to be popularized. PMID: 29559601 [PubMed - in process]

[Curative effect of ozone hydrotherapy for pemphigus].

[Curative effect of ozone hydrotherapy for pemphigus]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2018 Feb 28;43(2):152-156 Authors: Jiang F, Deng D, Li X, Wang W, Xie H, Wu Y, Luan C, Yang B Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical curative effects of ozone therapy for pemphigus vulgaris.
 Methods: Ozone hydrotherapy was used as an aid treatment for 32 patients with pemphigus vulgaris. The hydropathic compression of potassium permanganate solution for 34 patients with pemphigus vulgaris served as a control. The main treatment for both groups were glucocorticoids and immune inhibitors. The lesions of patients, bacterial infection, usage of antibiotics, patient's satisfaction, and clinical curative effect were evaluated in the 2 groups.
 Results: There was no significant difference in the curative effect and the average length of staying at hospital between the 2 groups (P>0.05). But rate for the usage of antibiotics was significantly reduced in the group of ozone hydrotherapy (P=0.039). The patients were more satisfied in using ozone hydrotherapy than the potassium permanganate solution after 7-day therapy (P>0.05).
 Conclusion: Ozone hydrotherapy is a safe and effective aid method for pemphigus vulgaris. It can reduce the usage of antibiotics. PMID: 29559598 [PubMed - in process]

Water exercise in coronary artery disease patients, effects on heart rate variability, and body composition: A randomized controlled trial.

Related Articles Water exercise in coronary artery disease patients, effects on heart rate variability, and body composition: A randomized controlled trial. Physiother Res Int. 2018 Mar 14;: Authors: Fiogbé E, Ferreira R, Sindorf MAG, Tavares SA, de Souza KP, de Castro Cesar M, Lopes CR, Moreno MA Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is important to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of water-based training programs in order to prescribe it as an alternative in cardiac rehabilitation for patients who have coronary artery disease (CAD). In these patients, autonomic dysfunction is an important physiological change strongly associated with adverse outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Given that the beneficial effects of physical training in CAD patients have been traditionally evidenced with programs involving land-based aerobic exercises, this study aims to evaluate the effects of water aerobic exercise training (WAET) on the autonomic modulation of heart rate (HR) and body composition, in the rehabilitation of CAD patients. METHODS: Twenty-six male subjects with CAD were randomly divided into a training group (n = 14), submitted to the WAET, and a control group (n = 12). The WAET consisted of 3 weekly sessions on alternate days, totalling 48 sessions. The analysis of HR variability was used to evaluate the autonomic modulation of HR, from the recording of R-R intervals for 15 min, at rest in the supine position, and the body composition was evaluated through the bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: Only the training group participants had improvement in the HR variability indices; patterns without variation decreased (0V, p = .005) and an increase of patterns of two different variations (p < .001), Shannon entropy (p = .02), and normalized conditional entropy (p = .03), whereas the control group had an increase of 0V (p = .04) and a decrease of normalized conditional entropy (p = .01). All body composition variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The WAET protocol improved the cardiac autonomic modulation of patients with CAD and can be considered as exercise training strategy in cardiac rehabilitation programs. PMID: 29542251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Poor Outcomes of Irrigation and Debridement in Acute Periprosthetic Joint Infection With Antibiotic-Impregnated Calcium Sulfate Beads.

Related Articles Poor Outcomes of Irrigation and Debridement in Acute Periprosthetic Joint Infection With Antibiotic-Impregnated Calcium Sulfate Beads. J Arthroplasty. 2017 Aug;32(8):2505-2507 Authors: Flierl MA, Culp BM, Okroj KT, Springer BD, Levine BR, Della Valle CJ Abstract BACKGROUND: One proposed strategy to increase the success of irrigation and debridement with implant retention for the treatment of acute periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the use of dissolvable antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulfate beads to provide a local depot of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of such an approach. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with acute hematogenous (18 patients; 1 bilateral) or acute postoperative (14 patients) PJIs who underwent irrigation and debridement with implant retention and addition of antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulfate beads were retrospectively reviewed. PJI followed 27 total knee arthroplasties and 6 total hip arthroplasties. The most common infecting organisms were methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (13 of 33) and Streptococcus (9 of 33). The primary outcome parameter was recurrence of infection according to the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 3 months or until failure. RESULTS: At a mean of 12.7 months (range, 3-30 months), 16 of the 33 patients failed (48%). Acute hematogenous and acute postoperative PJI had similar failure rates at 47% and 50%, respectively (P = .88). Seven failures required a 2-stage exchange, while 8 patients were treated with chronic antibiotic suppression, being unwilling or unable to undergo further surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: The addition of antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulfate beads does not appear to improve outcomes of irrigation and debridement with implant retention in the setting of acute hematogenous or acute postoperative PJI. Given the short follow-up in this report, this represents a best-case scenario and the overall failure rate may be higher with further follow-up. PMID: 28434697 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Influence of a Failed Irrigation and Debridement on the Outcomes of a Subsequent 2-Stage Revision Knee Arthroplasty.

Related Articles The Influence of a Failed Irrigation and Debridement on the Outcomes of a Subsequent 2-Stage Revision Knee Arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2017 Aug;32(8):2508-2512 Authors: Nodzo SR, Boyle KK, Nocon AA, Henry MW, Mayman DJ, Westrich GH Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested a failed irrigation and debridement (I&D) before a 2-stage exchange negatively impacts the outcome of the subsequent 2-stage revision. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 132 patients who underwent a 2-stage exchange without prior I&D (2-Stage), and 45 patients had a failed I&D before their 2-stage exchange (I&D+2Stage) between April 2009 and April 2015. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics, presenting inflammatory laboratory values, type of antibiotic spacer used, surgical details, microbiology data, length of postoperative antibiotic treatment, and reoperation. A logistic regression was used to assess the association between I&D and reoperation. RESULTS: The I&D+2Stage group had an 82.2% success rate, and the 2-Stage group had an 82.5% success rate (P = .95). The odds of reoperation for infection with the use of greater than 2 grams of vancomycin was 0.33 (P = .01, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.79) as compared with having less than 2 grams of vancomycin in the construct. Spacer type, having a prior I&D to the 2-stage procedure, being infected with an antibiotic resistant organism, total grams of aminoglycoside were not associated with a risk of failure. CONCLUSION: Success rates between the I&D+2Stage group and the 2-Stage group were similar. The use of greater than 2 grams of vancomycin in the spacer construct decreased the odds of reoperation. I&D before a 2-stage exchange may not negatively influence the outcomes of a subsequent 2-stage revision procedure and requires further investigation. PMID: 28434695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Effect of Irrigation Solutions on Recurrence of Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Consecutive Cohort Study of 234 Patients.

Related Articles The Effect of Irrigation Solutions on Recurrence of Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Consecutive Cohort Study of 234 Patients. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2017 May 15;57(5):210-216 Authors: Kuwabara M, Sadatomo T, Yuki K, Migita K, Imada Y, Shimizu K, Hara T, Oba H, Kurisu K Abstract Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) occur often in elderly persons and can occur with mild head trauma. With burr-hole irrigation as standard treatment, symptoms usually improve and can be cured, and outcomes are good, but postoperative recurrences are a common problem. This study investigated the effectiveness and recurrence rates when using artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACF) instead of normal saline (NS) as an irrigation solution for burr-hole irrigation in patients with CSDH. This prospective study included 234 consecutive patients who underwent initial surgical treatment by burr-hole irrigation for a CSDH between April 2008 and June 2015. The irrigation solution used was changed from NS to ACF in June 2011. Factors examined with regard to recurrence included age, sex, unilateral or bilateral surgery, computed tomography (CT) findings, antiplatelet or anticoagulant drug use, past history, and irrigation solution (NS or ACF). These were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariate analyses (chi-square test) with a significance level <5% showed that recurrence rates were significantly lower in the ACF group than in the NS group (P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis (multiple logistic regression analysis) showed that the risk of recurrence was reduced 3.14-fold in the ACF group compared to the NS group (odds ratio, 3.143; 95% confidence interval, 0.1504-0.6733; P = 0.0028). None of the other factors were significantly different. In burr-hole irrigation for CSDH, the use of ACF instead of NS as an irrigation solution significantly reduces recurrence rates. PMID: 28367840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Low-volume versus high-volume initiated trans-anal irrigation therapy in adults with chronic constipation: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Related Articles Low-volume versus high-volume initiated trans-anal irrigation therapy in adults with chronic constipation: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2017 Mar 31;18(1):151 Authors: Emmett C, Close H, Mason J, Taheri S, Stevens N, Eldridge S, Norton C, Knowles C, Yiannakou Y Abstract BACKGROUND: Constipation is common in adults and up to 20% of the population report this symptom. Chronic constipation (CC), usually defined as more than 6 months of symptoms, is less common but results in 0.5 million UK GP consultations per annum. The effect of symptoms on measured quality of life (QOL) is significant, and CC consumes significant health care resources. In the UK, it is estimated that 10% of district nursing time is spent on constipation. Trans-anal irrigation therapy has become a widely used treatment despite a lack of robust efficacy data to support its use. The long-term outcome of treatment is also unclear. A randomised comparison of two different methods of irrigation (high- and low-volume) will provide valuable evidence of superiority of one system over the other, as well as providing efficacy data for the treatment as a whole. METHODS: Participants will be recruited based on predetermined eligibility criteria. Following informed consent, they will be randomised to either high-volume (HV) or low-volume (LV) irrigation and undergo standardised radiological and physiological investigations. Following training, they will commence home irrigation with the allocated device. Data will be collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months according to a standardised outcomes framework. The primary outcome is PAC-QOL, measured at 3 months. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in outcome between systems at 3 months; this means that 300 patients will need to be recruited. DISCUSSION: This study will be the first randomised comparison of two different methods of trans-anal irrigation. It will also be the largest prospective study of CC patients treated with irrigation. It will provide evidence for the effectiveness of irrigation in the treatment of CC, as well as the comparative effectiveness of the two methods. This will enable more cost-effective and evidence-based use of irrigation. Also, the results will be combined with the other studies in the CapaCiTY programme to generate an evidence-based treatment algorithm for CC in adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, identifier: ISRCTN11093872 . Registered on 11 November 2015. Trial not retrospectively registered. Protocol version 3 (22 January 2016). PMID: 28359279 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pyocystis: a systematic review.

Related Articles Pyocystis: a systematic review. Int Urol Nephrol. 2017 Jun;49(6):917-926 Authors: Kamel MH, Gardner R, Tourchi A, Tart K, Raheem O, Houston B, Bissada N, Davis R Abstract Pyocystis, empyema cystis, vesical empyema are all terms that describe the purulent filled bladder that may develop in patients with defunctionalized bladders such as after supravesical urinary diversion without cystectomy or in patients with end-stage renal disease with anuria. It is a severe form of lower urinary tract infection. In addition to the local symptoms of suprapubic pain and malodorous discharge, the condition can be more serious with bacterial dissemination into the blood stream and ensuing sepsis and even mortality. The current review will discuss the pathogenesis, risk factors and management of this commonly forgotten complication of urinary diversion. PMID: 28265966 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Thrombolytic removal of intraventricular haemorrhage in treatment of severe stroke: results of the randomised, multicentre, multiregion, placebo-controlled CLEAR III trial.

Related Articles Thrombolytic removal of intraventricular haemorrhage in treatment of severe stroke: results of the randomised, multicentre, multiregion, placebo-controlled CLEAR III trial. Lancet. 2017 02 11;389(10069):603-611 Authors: Hanley DF, Lane K, McBee N, Ziai W, Tuhrim S, Lees KR, Dawson J, Gandhi D, Ullman N, Mould WA, Mayo SW, Mendelow AD, Gregson B, Butcher K, Vespa P, Wright DW, Kase CS, Carhuapoma JR, Keyl PM, Diener-West M, Muschelli J, Betz JF, Thompson CB, Sugar EA, Yenokyan G, Janis S, John S, Harnof S, Lopez GA, Aldrich EF, Harrigan MR, Ansari S, Jallo J, Caron JL, LeDoux D, Adeoye O, Zuccarello M, Adams HP, Rosenblum M, Thompson RE, Awad IA, CLEAR III Investigators Abstract BACKGROUND: Intraventricular haemorrhage is a subtype of intracerebral haemorrhage, with 50% mortality and serious disability for survivors. We aimed to test whether attempting to remove intraventricular haemorrhage with alteplase versus saline irrigation improved functional outcome. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multiregional trial (CLEAR III), participants with a routinely placed extraventricular drain, in the intensive care unit with stable, non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage volume less than 30 mL, intraventricular haemorrhage obstructing the 3rd or 4th ventricles, and no underlying pathology were adaptively randomly assigned (1:1), via a web-based system to receive up to 12 doses, 8 h apart of 1 mg of alteplase or 0·9% saline via the extraventricular drain. The treating physician, clinical research staff, and participants were masked to treatment assignment. CT scans were obtained every 24 h throughout dosing. The primary efficacy outcome was good functional outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) of 3 or less at 180 days per central adjudication by blinded evaluators. This study is registered with, NCT00784134. FINDINGS: Between Sept 18, 2009, and Jan 13, 2015, 500 patients were randomised: 249 to the alteplase group and 251 to the saline group. 180-day follow-up data were available for analysis from 246 of 249 participants in the alteplase group and 245 of 251 participants in the placebo group. The primary efficacy outcome was similar in each group (good outcome in alteplase group 48% vs saline 45%; risk ratio [RR] 1·06 [95% CI 0·88-1·28; p=0·554]). A difference of 3·5% (RR 1·08 [95% CI 0·90-1·29], p=0·420) was found after adjustment for intraventricular haemorrhage size and thalamic intracerebral haemorrhage. At 180 days, the treatment group had lower case fatality (46 [18%] vs saline 73 [29%], hazard ratio 0·60 [95% CI 0·41-0·86], p=0·006), but a greater proportion with mRS 5 (42 [17%] vs 21 [9%]; RR 1·99 [95% CI 1·22-3·26], p=0·007). Ventriculitis (17 [7%] alteplase vs 31 [12%] saline; RR 0·55 [95% CI 0·31-0·97], p=0·048) and serious adverse events (114 [46%] alteplase vs 151 [60%] saline; RR 0·76 [95% CI 0·64-0·90], p=0·002) were less frequent with alteplase treatment. Symptomatic bleeding (six [2%] in the alteplase group vs five [2%] in the saline group; RR 1·21 [95% CI 0·37-3·91], p=0·771) was similar. INTERPRETATION: In patients with intraventricular haemorrhage and a routine extraventricular drain, irrigation with alteplase did not substantially improve functional outcomes at the mRS 3 cutoff compared with irrigation with saline. Protocol-based use of alteplase with extraventricular drain seems safe. Future investigation is needed to determine whether a greater frequency of complete intraventricular haemorrhage removal via alteplase produces gains in functional status. FUNDING: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. PMID: 28081952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cold Thermal Irrigation Decreases the Ipsilateral Gain of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex.

Related Articles Cold Thermal Irrigation Decreases the Ipsilateral Gain of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex. Ear Hear. 2017 May/Jun;38(3):e193-e199 Authors: Tamás LT, Weber KP, Bockisch CJ, Straumann D, Lasker DM, Büki B, Tarnutzer AA Abstract OBJECTIVES: During head rotations, neuronal firing rates increase in ipsilateral and decrease in contralateral vestibular afferents. At low accelerations, this "push-pull mechanism" is linear. At high accelerations, however, the change of firing rates is nonlinear in that the ipsilateral increase of firing rate is larger than the contralateral decrease. This mechanism of stronger ipsilateral excitation than contralateral inhibition during high-acceleration head rotation, known as Ewald's second law, is implemented within the nonlinear pathways. The authors asked whether caloric stimulation could provide an acceleration signal high enough to influence the contribution of the nonlinear pathway to the rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (rVOR gain) during head impulses. DESIGN: Caloric warm (44°C) and cold (24, 27, and 30°C) water irrigations of the left ear were performed in 7 healthy human subjects with the lateral semicircular canals oriented approximately earth-vertical (head inclined 30° from supine) and earth-horizontal (head inclined 30° from upright). RESULTS: With the lateral semicircular canal oriented earth-vertical, the strongest cold caloric stimulus (24°C) significantly decreased the rVOR gain during ipsilateral head impulses, while all other irrigations, irrespective of head position, had no significant effect on rVOR gains during head impulses to either side. CONCLUSIONS: Strong caloric irrigation, which can only be achieved with cold water, reduces the rVOR gain during ipsilateral head impulses and thus demonstrates Ewald's second law in healthy subjects. This unilateral gain reduction suggests that cold-water caloric irritation shifts the set point of the nonlinear relation between head acceleration and the vestibular firing rate toward a less acceleration-sensitive zone. PMID: 28045785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Systemic air embolism during pleural lavage for empyema.

Related Articles Systemic air embolism during pleural lavage for empyema. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 Oct;65(10):602-604 Authors: Ohuchi M, Inoue S, Ozaki Y, Ueda K Abstract Pleural lavage has been considered a convenient and safe method that is often performed for empyema. We report a case of systemic air embolism that developed during pleural lavage. A 53-year-old man with empyema in the organizing phase suddenly developed paralysis of the left side of the body and altered level of consciousness during pleural lavage, which was performed in a sitting position without negative pressure suction. Systemic air embolism was diagnosed based on computed tomography. In this case, use of fibrinolytic agents, positioning during pleural lavage, and pressure in an empyema cavity may have predisposed to development of systemic air embolism. Conversion from thoracoscopic therapy to open decortication or fenestration should be considered to prevent this type of complication. PMID: 27987101 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring HIV-1 and HSV-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding.

Related Articles Self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring HIV-1 and HSV-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding. Int J STD AIDS. 2017 03;28(4):372-379 Authors: McNicholl JM, Leelawiwat W, Whitehead S, Hanson DL, Evans-Strickfaden T, Cheng CY, Chonwattana W, Mueanpai F, Kittinunvorakoon C, Markowitz L, Dunne EF Abstract HIV-1 and HSV-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women. To determine how self-collected genital swabs compare to provider-collected cervicovaginal lavage, paired self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage from women co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated. Women were in an acyclovir clinical trial and their samples were tested for HIV-1 RNA (361 samples) and HSV-2 DNA (378 samples). Virus shedding, quantity and acyclovir effect were compared. HIV-1 and HSV-2 were more frequently detected in self-collected genital swabs: 74.5% of self-collected genital swabs and 63.6% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HIV-1 (p ≤ 0.001, Fisher's exact test) and 29.7% of self-collected genital swabs and 19.3% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HSV-2 (p ≤ 0.001) in the placebo month. Cervicovaginal lavage and self-collected genital swabs virus levels were correlated (Spearman's rho, 0.68 for HIV; 0.61 for HSV-2) and self-collected genital swabs levels were generally higher. In multivariate modeling, self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage could equally detect the virus-suppressive effect of acyclovir: for HIV-1, proportional odds ratios were 0.42 and 0.47 and for HSV-2, they were 0.10 and 0.03 for self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage, respectively. Self-collected genital swabs should be considered for detection and measurement of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in clinical trials and other studies as they are a sensitive method to detect virus and can be collected in the home with frequent sampling. PMID: 27179350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clinician Panel Recommendations for Use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation.

Related Articles Clinician Panel Recommendations for Use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2016 Apr;62(4):S1-S14 Authors: McKanna M, Geraci J, Hall K, Hauan B, Howell M, Huey T, Lucius A, Mendez-Eastman S, Purcell K, Raizman R, Shepherd D, Gabriel A Abstract Addition of an instilled topical wound solution to negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is designed to facilitate regular wound cleansing to help improve outcomes of some complex wounds, but the addition of instillation to NPWT adds a level of complexity to the wound care process. The paucity of knowledge and experience with instillation may affect optimal use of this treatment modality. In an effort to address this knowledge gap, a 2-day panel meeting of nurses (N = 11) with experience using negative pressure wound therapy with instillation and dwell time (NPWTi-d) was convened to discuss their usage recommendations for managing wounds with this treatment modality in the acute care setting. Panelists reviewed available evidence and presented recommendations for managing wounds treated with NPWTi-d. Panelists agreed NPWTi-d is primarily suited to prepare surgical or nonsurgical wounds for delayed primary closure and preparing/protecting periwound skin improves maintenance of a tight seal. Educating a team of nurses on basic NPWTi-d troubleshooting, providing a short checklist of tasks to perform every shift, and organizing needed supplies and resources may help continuity of care and prevent problems. Panelists also emphasized the im- portance of wound assessment and documentation and recommend educating the patient, family members, and other members of the patient-care team. Research to compare the safety, ef cacy, and effectiveness of NPWTi-d and other irrigation techniques on patient outcomes and research to validate these recommendations is needed. PMID: 28657895 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]