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Comparison of intravenous ibuprofen and acetaminophen for postoperative multimodal pain management in bariatric surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

Comparison of intravenous ibuprofen and acetaminophen for postoperative multimodal pain management in bariatric surgery: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Anesth. 2018 Jun 20;50:5-11 Authors: Erdogan Kayhan G, Sanli M, Ozgul U, Kirteke R, Yologlu S Abstract STUDY OBJECTIVE: Multimodal analgesic strategies are recommended to decrease opioid requirements and opioid-induced respiratory complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Recent studies have demonstrated that intravenous ibuprofen decreases opioid consumption compared with placebo. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effect of intravenous ibuprofen and intravenous acetaminophen on opioid consumption. We also aimed to compare postoperative pain levels and side effects of the drugs. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: Eighty patients, aged 18-65 years, (ASA physical status II-III) undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were included in this study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to receive 800 mg ibuprofen or 1 g acetaminophen intravenously every 6 h for the first 24 h following surgery; in addition, patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was administered. MEASUREMENTS: Postoperative morphine consumption in the first 24 h, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores at rest and with movement, and opioid related side effects were assessed. In addition, time to passage of flatus, surgical complications, lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stay, and laboratory parameters were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: The mean morphine consumption was 23.94 ± 13.89 mg in iv ibuprofen group and 30.23 ± 13.76 mg in the acetaminophen group [mean difference: -6.28 (95% CI, -12.70, 0.12); P = 0.055]. The use of intravenous ibuprofen was associated with reduction in pain at rest (AUC, 1- to 24-h, P < 0.001 and 12- to 24-h, P = 0.021) and pain with movement (AUC, 1-24, 6-24, and 12-24 h, P < 0.001). Intravenous ibuprofen was well tolerated with no serious side effects except dizziness. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous ibuprofen did not significantly reduce opioid consumption compared to intravenous acetaminophen; however, it reduced the severity of pain. Intravenous ibuprofen may be a good alternative to intravenous acetaminophen as part of a multimodal postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. PMID: 29935486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Fibrin sealants for the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreatic surgery.

Related Articles Fibrin sealants for the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreatic surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jun 23;6:CD009621 Authors: Gong J, He S, Cheng Y, Cheng N, Gong J, Zeng Z Abstract BACKGROUND: Postoperative pancreatic fistula is one of the most frequent and potentially life-threatening complications following pancreatic resections. Fibrin sealants are introduced to reduce postoperative pancreatic fistula by some surgeons. However, the use of fibrin sealants during pancreatic surgery is controversial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review last published in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety, effectiveness, and potential adverse effects of fibrin sealants for the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreatic surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched trial registers and the following biomedical databases: the Cochrane Library (2018, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1946 to 12 April 2018), Embase (1980 to 12 April 2018), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to 12 April 2018), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to 12 April 2018). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized controlled trials that compared fibrin sealant (fibrin glue or fibrin sealant patch) versus control (no fibrin sealant or placebo) in people undergoing pancreatic surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We performed the meta-analyses using Review Manager 5. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (or a Peto odds ratio (OR) for very rare outcomes), and the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 studies involving 1462 participants in the review.Application of fibrin sealants to pancreatic stump closure reinforcement after distal pancreatectomyWe included seven studies involving 860 participants: 428 were randomized to the fibrin sealant group and 432 to the control group after distal pancreatectomy. Fibrin sealants may lead to little or no difference in postoperative pancreatic fistula (fibrin sealant 19.3%; control 20.1%; RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.35; 755 participants; four studies; low-quality evidence). Fibrin sealants may also lead to little or no difference in postoperative mortality (0.3% versus 0.5%; Peto OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.03; 804 participants; six studies; low-quality evidence), or overall postoperative morbidity (28.5% versus 23.2%; RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.58; 646 participants; three studies; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether fibrin sealants reduce reoperation rate (2.0% versus 3.8%; RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.71; 376 participants; two studies; very low-quality evidence). There is probably little or no difference in length of hospital stay between the groups (12.1 days versus 11.4 days; MD 0.32 days, 95% CI -1.06 to 1.70; 755 participants; four studies; moderate-quality evidence). The studies did not report serious adverse events, quality of life, or cost effectiveness.Application of fibrin sealants to pancreatic anastomosis reinforcement after pancreaticoduodenectomyWe included three studies involving 251 participants: 115 were randomized to the fibrin sealant group and 136 to the control group after pancreaticoduodenectomy. We are uncertain whether fibrin sealants reduce postoperative pancreatic fistula (1.6% versus 6.2%; RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.01 to 5.06; 57 participants; one study; very low-quality evidence). Fibrin sealants may lead to little or no difference in postoperative mortality (0.1% versus 0.7%; Peto OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.00 to 7.76; 251 participants; three studies; low-quality evidence) or length of hospital stay (12.8 days versus 14.8 days; MD -1.58 days, 95% CI -3.96 to 0.81; 181 participants; two studies; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether fibrin sealants reduce overall postoperative morbidity (33.7% versus 34.7%; RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.45; 181 participants; two studies; very low-quality evidence), or reoperation rate (7.6% versus 9.2%; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.11; 181 participants; two studies, very low-quality evidence). The studies did not report serious adverse events, quality of life, or cost effectiveness.Application of fibrin sealants to pancreatic duct occlusion after pancreaticoduodenectomyWe included two studies involving 351 participants: 188 were randomized to the fibrin sealant group and 163 to the control group after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Fibrin sealants may lead to little or no difference in postoperative mortality (8.4% versus 6.1%; Peto OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.63 to 3.13; 351 participants; two studies; low-quality evidence) or length of hospital stay (17.0 days versus 16.5 days; MD 0.58 days, 95% CI -5.74 to 6.89; 351 participants; two studies; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether fibrin sealants reduce overall postoperative morbidity (32.0% versus 27.6%; RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.02; 351 participants; two studies; very low-quality evidence), or reoperation rate (13.6% versus 16.0%; RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.41; 351 participants; two studies; very low-quality evidence). Serious adverse events were reported in one study: more participants developed diabetes mellitus when fibrin sealants were applied to pancreatic duct occlusion, both at three months' follow-up (33.7% fibrin sealant group versus 10.8% control group; 29 participants versus 9 participants) and 12 months' follow-up (33.7% fibrin sealant group versus 14.5% control group; 29 participants versus 12 participants). The studies did not report postoperative pancreatic fistula, quality of life, or cost effectiveness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current available evidence, fibrin sealants may have little or no effect on postoperative pancreatic fistula in people undergoing distal pancreatectomy. The effects of fibrin sealants on the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula are uncertain in people undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID: 29934987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Heart Failure After Ischemic Stroke or TIA in Insulin-Resistant Patients Without Diabetes Treated with Pioglitazone.

Related Articles Heart Failure After Ischemic Stroke or TIA in Insulin-Resistant Patients Without Diabetes Treated with Pioglitazone. Circulation. 2018 Jun 22;: Authors: Young LH, Viscoli CM, Schwartz GG, Inzucchi SE, Curtis JP, Gorman MJ, Furie KL, Conwit R, Spatz E, Lovejoy A, Abbott JD, Jacoby DL, Kolansky DM, Ling FS, Pfau SE, Kernan WN, IRIS Investigators Abstract Background -The Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial demonstrated that pioglitazone reduced risk for both cardiovascular events and diabetes in insulin resistant patients. However, concern remains that pioglitazone may increase risk for heart failure (HF) in susceptible individuals. Methods -In IRIS, patients with insulin resistance but without diabetes were randomized to pioglitazone or placebo (1:1) within 180 days of an ischemic stroke or TIA and followed for up to 5 years. To identify patients at higher HF risk with pioglitazone we performed a secondary analysis of IRIS participants without HF history at entry. HF episodes were adjudicated by an external review and treatment effects were analyzed using time-to-event methods. A baseline HF risk score was constructed from a Cox model estimated using stepwise selection. Baseline patient features (individually and summarized in risk score) and post-randomization events were examined as possible modifiers of the effect of pioglitazone. Net cardiovascular benefit was estimated for the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and hospitalized HF. Results -Among 3851 patients, mean age was 63 years and 65% were male. The 5-year HF risk did not differ by treatment (4.1% pioglitazone; 4.2% placebo). Risk for hospitalized HF was low and not significantly greater in pioglitazone compared to placebo groups (2.9% vs. 2.3%, p=0.36). Older age, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, obesity, edema, high C-reactive protein, and smoking were risk factors for HF. However, the effect of pioglitazone did not differ across levels of baseline HF risk (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for pioglitazone vs. placebo for patients at low, moderate and high risk: 1.03 [0.61, 1.73], 1.10 [0.56, 2.15], 1.08 [0.58, 2.01]; interaction p-value, 0.98). HF risk was increased in patients with vs. those without incident MI in both groups (pioglitazone: 31.4% vs. 2.7%; placebo: 25.7% vs. 2.4%, p<0.0001). Edema, dyspnea and weight gain in the trial did not predict HF hospitalization, but led to more study drug dose reduction with a lower mean dose of pioglitazone vs. placebo (29±17 mg vs. 33±15 mg; p<0.0001). Pioglitazone reduced the composite outcome of stroke, MI or hospitalized HF (HR, 0.78; p=0.007). Conclusions -In IRIS, with surveillance and dose adjustments, pioglitazone did not increase risk of HF, and conferred net cardiovascular benefit in patients with insulin resistance and cerebrovascular disease. The risk of HF with pioglitazone was not modified by baseline HF risk. The IRIS experience may be instructive for maximizing the net benefit of this therapy. Clinical Trial Registration -URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT00091949. PMID: 29934374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Treating auditory hallucinations with transcranial direct current stimulation in a double-blind, randomized trial.

Related Articles Treating auditory hallucinations with transcranial direct current stimulation in a double-blind, randomized trial. Schizophr Res. 2018 Jun 19;: Authors: Koops S, Blom JD, Bouachmir O, Slot MI, Neggers B, Sommer IE Abstract OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could be a treatment option for medication-resistant auditory hallucinations (AH), but so far results have been inconclusive, and large sample trials have been missing. This study used tDCS as a treatment method for these hallucinations in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a relatively large sample size. METHODS: Fifty-four patients of several diagnostic categories with medication-resistant AH were randomized and treated during 10 sessions of 20 min each, with either 2 mA tDCS or placebo, administered on five consecutive days (i.e., two sessions per day). Anodal stimulation was targeted at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, cathodal stimulation at the left temporoparietal junction. AH severity was assessed using the Auditory Hallucination Rating Scale (AHRS). Other outcome measures were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Stroop, and the Trail Making Test. RESULTS: AH frequency and severity decreased significantly over time, as did the scores on the total and general subscales of the PANSS. However, there was no significant interaction effect with the treatment group on any of the main outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that tDCS is more effective for medication-resistant AH than placebo, even though AH frequency and severity decreased in both groups. An alternative strategy may be to offer tDCS at an earlier stage of illness. In the light of recent investigations into the neurophysiological mechanisms behind tDCS, we may also have to consider the possibility that tDCS is not able to induce any long-lasting brain changes. PMID: 29934249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Safety and efficacy of rasagiline as an add-on therapy to riluzole in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

Related Articles Safety and efficacy of rasagiline as an add-on therapy to riluzole in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2018 Jun 18;: Authors: Ludolph AC, Schuster J, Dorst J, Dupuis L, Dreyhaupt J, Weishaupt JH, Kassubek J, Weiland U, Petri S, Meyer T, Grosskreutz J, Schrank B, Boentert M, Emmer A, Hermann A, Zeller D, Prudlo J, Winkler AS, Grehl T, Heneka MT, Wollebæk Johannesen S, Göricke B, RAS-ALS Study Group Abstract BACKGROUND: Rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor with neuroprotective potential in Parkinson's disease, has shown a disease-modifying effect in the SOD1-Gly93Ala low-expressing mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, both alone and in combination with riluzole. We sought to test whether or not rasagiline 1 mg/day can prolong survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also receiving riluzole. METHODS: Patients with possible, probable, or definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were enrolled to our randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind, phase 2 trial from 15 German network for motor neuron diseases (MND-NET) centres (university hospitals or clinics). Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, had onset of progressive weakness within the 36 months before the study, had disease duration of more than 6 months and less than 3 years, and had a best-sitting slow vital capacity of at least 50%. After a 4-week screening period, eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either rasagiline (1 mg/day) or placebo in addition to riluzole (100 mg/day), after stratification for site of onset (bulbar or spinal) and study centre. Patients and all personnel assessing outcome parameters were masked to treatment allocation. Patients were followed up 2, 6, 12, and 18 months after randomisation. The primary endpoint was survival time, defined as the time to death or time to study cutoff date (ie, the last patient's last visit plus 14 days). Analyses of primary outcome and safety measures were done in all patients who received at least one dose of trial treatment (intention-to-treat population). The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01879241. FINDINGS: Between July 2, 2013, and Nov 11, 2014, 273 patients were screened for eligibility, and 252 patients were randomly assigned to receive rasagiline (n=127) or placebo (n=125). 126 patients taking rasagiline and 125 taking placebo were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. For the primary outcome, the survival probability at the end of the study was 0·43 (95% CI 0·25-0·59) in the rasagiline group (n=126) and 0·53 (0·43-0·62) in the placebo group (n=125). The estimated effect size (hazard ratio) was 0·91 (one-sided 97·5% CI -infinity to 1·34; p=0·31). Rasagiline was well tolerated, and most adverse events were due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease progression rather than treatment; the most frequent of these were dysphagia (32 [25%] taking rasagiline vs 24 [19%] taking placebo) and respiratory failure (25 [20%] vs 31 [25%]). Frequency of adverse events were comparable between both groups. INTERPRETATION: Rasagiline was safe in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. There was no difference between groups in the primary outcome of survival, although post-hoc analysis suggested that rasagiline might modify disease progression in patients with an initial slope of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale Revised greater than 0·5 points per month at baseline. This should be confirmed in another clinical trial. FUNDING: Teva Pharmaceutical Industries. PMID: 29934198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of low-dose and high-dose baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Related Articles Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of low-dose and high-dose baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018 Jun 19;: Authors: Pierce M, Sutterland A, Beraha EM, Morley K, van den Brink W Abstract A systematic review of the current literature on the efficacy of baclofen, particularly the effect of dosing, for the treatment of alcohol dependence (AD) is missing. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of currently available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic literature search for RCTs in AD patients comparing baclofen to placebo was performed in September 2017. The effect of baclofen treatment, and the moderating effects of baclofen dosing (low-dose (LDB) 30-60 mg versus high-dose (HDB) targeted as >60 mg/day), and the amount of alcohol consumption before inclusion were studied. Three treatment outcomes were assessed: time to lapse (TTL), percentage days abstinent (PDA), and percentage of patients abstinent at end point (PAE). 13 RCTs from 39 records were included. Baclofen was superior to placebo with significant increases in TTL (8 RCTs, 852 patients; SMD=0.42; 95% CI 0.19-0.64) and PAE (8 RCTs, 1244 patients; OR=1.93; 95% CI 1.17-3.17), and a non-significant increase in PDA (7 RCTs, 457 patients; SMD=0.21; 95% CI -0.24 to 0.66). Overall, studies with LDB showed better efficacy than studies with HDB. Furthermore, tolerability of HDB was low, but serious adverse events were rare. Meta-regression analysis showed that the effects of baclofen were stronger when daily alcohol consumption before inclusion was higher. Baclofen seems to be effective in the treatment of AD, especially among heavy drinkers. HDB is not necessarily more effective than LDB with low tolerability of HDB being an import limitation. PMID: 29934090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effect of dietary supplementation with a highly pure and concentrated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplement on human sperm function.

Related Articles Effect of dietary supplementation with a highly pure and concentrated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplement on human sperm function. Reprod Biol. 2018 Jun 19;: Authors: González-Ravina C, Aguirre-Lipperheide M, Pinto F, Martín-Lozano D, Fernández-Sánchez M, Blasco V, Santamaría-López E, Candenas L Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of diet supplementation with a highly concentrated and purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) formula on human sperm function. We performed a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled intervention study. One-hundred eighty human semen samples from sixty infertile patients recruited in a private assisted reproduction center were included. All samples were examined according to World Health Organization guidelines. We analyzed macroscopic and microscopic sperm parameters, oxidative stress, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation before and after supplementation with different DHA daily doses (0.5, 1 and 2 g) or placebo for 1 and 3 months. No differences were found in traditional sperm parameters except for progressive sperm motility, with a significant increase after DHA ingestion after the first month with 1 or 2 g doses and after 3 months with 0.5 g of DHA. This effect was more evident in asthenozoospermic patients. No differences were found in any molecular semen parameter except oxidative stress, in which a slight benefit was observed after DHA treatment. In conclusion, this study support previous indications that highlight the importance of DHA supplementation as a means of improving sperm quality in asthenozoospermic men. PMID: 29934046 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Comparative study of effect of Withania somnifera as an adjuvant to DOTS in patients of newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

Related Articles Comparative study of effect of Withania somnifera as an adjuvant to DOTS in patients of newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Indian J Tuberc. 2018 Jul;65(3):246-251 Authors: Kumar R, Rai J, Kajal NC, Devi P Abstract BACKGROUND: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn.) a rejuvenative herb has long been used as an immunomodulator in Indian subcontinent. As immunity plays an important role in pathogenesis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB), so role of W. somnifera as an adjuvant has been studied on selected parameter. METHOD: A randomized, double-blind placebo-control study was conducted in two groups of 60 newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients on Directly Observed Treatment - short course (DOTS) regime. W. somnifera root extract or placebo capsules were given as add-on therapy for duration of 12 weeks. Effects on sputum conversion, Hemoglobin (Hb), body weight, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), RBC counts, WBC counts, CD4 and CD8 counts, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), serum uric acid and HRQL (Health Related Quality of Life) Index scores were studied. RESULTS: At the end of 8 weeks, sputum conversion was seen in 86.6% patients in study group and 76.6% in placebo group. At the end of 12 weeks a highly significant increase was seen in both CD4 and CD8 counts in study group. A raised SGOT and SGPT levels (>35IU/L) were observed in 16.6% and 33.3% patients in study group; 43.33% and 53.33% in the placebo group of patients. Elevated serum uric acid levels (>6mg/dl) were observed in 20% and 33.33% in study and placebo group respectively. Average gain in HRQL score was better in patients of study group. CONCLUSION: Use of W. somnifera as an adjuvant in conjunction with anti-TB drugs used as DOTS showed a favorable effect on symptoms and immunological parameters in patients with pulmonary TB. PMID: 29933868 [PubMed - in process]