Glia and hemichannels: key mediators of perinatal encephalopathy.
Neural Regen Res. 2018 Feb;13(2):181-189
Authors: Galinsky R, Davidson JO, Dean JM, Green CR, Bennet L, Gunn AJ
Perinatal encephalopathy remains a major cause of disability, such as cerebral palsy. Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established to partially reduce risk of disability in late preterm/term infants. However, new and complementary therapeutic targets are needed to further improve outcomes. There is increasing evidence that glia play a key role in neural damage after hypoxia-ischemia and infection/inflammation. In this review, we discuss the role of astrocytic gap junction (connexin) hemichannels in the spread of neural injury after hypoxia-ischemia and/or infection/inflammation. Potential mechanisms of hemichannel mediated injury likely involve impaired intracellular calcium handling, loss of blood-brain barrier integrity and release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) resulting in over-activation of purinergic receptors. We propose the hypothesis that inflammation-induced opening of connexin hemichannels is a key regulating event that initiates a vicious cycle of excessive ATP release, which in turn propagates activation of purinergic receptors on microglia and astrocytes. This suggests that developing new neuroprotective strategies for preterm infants will benefit from a detailed understanding of glial and connexin hemichannel responses.
PMID: 29557357 [PubMed]
Profits and prophets: Derrida on linguistic bereavement and (Im)possibility in nursing.
Nurs Philos. 2018 Jan;19(1):
Authors: Pesut B
The work of Jacques Derrida has received relatively little attention within nursing philosophy. Perhaps this is because Derrida is known best for deconstructing philosophy itself, a task he performed by making language unintelligible to make a point. This in itself makes his work daunting for nurses who do applied philosophy. Despite these difficulties, Derrida's focus on holding open a space for ideas, particularly those ideas that are invisible or unpopular, holds potential for enhancing the diversity of ideas within nursing. His work, liberally scattered with religious references, and focused on deconstructing language that served the profits of a few, earned him the characterization of a prophet without religion. This idea was further supported in the way his deconstruction attempted to keep spaces open for the un-representable and its generativity in opening new possibilities in life. A deconstruction for generative purposes is particularly helpful within palliative care where language quickly takes on dogma in the face of mystery and where new possibilities support life amidst the irrevocable nature of death. In this article, I discuss Derrida's deconstructive approach of differance and then apply that approach to language common in palliative care.
PMID: 28799292 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]