Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Gum Chewing

Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci.

Abstract Title: Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci. Abstract Source: J Dent Res. 2010 Jan;89(1):56-60. PMID: 19948944 Abstract Author(s): Y Nakai, C Shinga-Ishihara, M Kaji, K Moriya, K Murakami-Yamanaka, M Takimura Article Affiliation: Department of Behavioral Pediatric Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-8525, Japan. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: An important caries prevention strategy for children includes measures to interfere with transmission of mutans streptococci (MS). This study confirmed the effectiveness of maternal early exposure to xylitol chewing gum on mother-child transmission of MS. After screening, 107 pregnant women with high salivary MS were randomized into two groups: xylitol gum (Xylitol; n = 56) and no gum (Control; n = 51) groups. Maternal chewing started at the sixth month of pregnancy and terminated 13 months later in the Xylitol group. Outcome measures were the presence of MS in saliva or plaque of the children until age 24 months. The Xylitol-group children were significantly less likely to show MS colonization than Control-group children aged 9-24 months. The Control-group children acquired MS 8.8 months earlier than those in the Xylitol group, suggesting that maternal xylitol gum chewing in Japan shows beneficial effects similar to those demonstrated in Nordic countries. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010

Gum chewing stimulates early return of bowel motility after caesarean section. 📎

Abstract Title: Gum chewing stimulates early return of bowel motility after caesarean section. Abstract Source: BJOG. 2009 Sep;116(10):1334-9. Epub 2009 Jun 12. PMID: 19523094 Abstract Author(s): K H I Abd-El-Maeboud, M I Ibrahim, D A A Shalaby, M F Fikry Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of postoperative gum chewing on the recovery of bowel motility after caesarean section. DESIGN: A randomised controlled study. SETTING: Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt. POPULATION: A total of 200 pregnant women delivered by elective caesarean section (CS) under general anaesthesia. METHODS: Women were randomised into two groups; group A (93 women) who received one stick of sugarless gum for 15 minutes every 2 hours after surgery, and group B (107 women) had traditional management (oral intake of clear fluids allowed after passage of flatus and regular diet with the passage of bowel movement). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds, time to first flatus, time to first bowel movement and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: The mean duration of surgery was longer in group A (41.3 +/- 7.5 versus 38.4 +/- 8.1 minutes, P < 0.05). The mean postoperative time interval to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds (10.9 +/- 2.7 versus 15.6 +/- 3.7 hours), passage of flatus (17.9 +/- 4.6 versus 24.4 +/- 7.1 hours), defecation (21.1 +/- 4.7 versus 30 +/- 8.2 hours) and discharge from the hospital (40.8 +/- 10.6 versus 50.5 +/- 8.9 hours) were significantly shorter in group A (P < 0.001). Severe ileus occurred only in one woman belonging to group B. All patients in group A tolerated gum chewing beginning on the first postoperative day. CONCLUSION: Gum chewing after CS is safe, well tolerated, and associated with rapid resumption of intestinal motility and shorter hospital stay; with potential impact on reducing the overall healthcare costs in case of routine implementation. Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2009

Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress.

Abstract Title: Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress. Abstract Source: Physiol Behav. 2009 Jun 22;97(3-4):304-12. Epub 2009 Mar 5. PMID: 19268676 Abstract Author(s): Andrew Scholey, Crystal Haskell, Bernadette Robertson, David Kennedy, Anthea Milne, Mark Wetherell Abstract: The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory. Using a randomised crossover design forty participants (mean age 21.98 years) performed on the multi-tasking framework at two intensities (on separate days) both while chewing and not chewing. Order of workload intensity and chewing conditions were counterbalanced. Before and after undergoing the platform participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Bond-Lader visual analogue mood scales, a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale and provided saliva samples for cortisol measurement. Baseline measures showed that both levels of the multi-tasking framework were effective in significantly reducing self-rated alertness, calmness and contentment while increasing self-rated stress and state anxiety. Cortisol levels fell during both levels of the stressor during the morning, reflecting the predominance of a.m. diurnal changes, but this effect was reversed in the afternoon which may reflect a measurable stress response. Pre-post stressor changes (Delta) for each measure at baseline were subtracted from Delta scores under chewing and no chewing conditions. During both levels of stress the chewing gum condition was associated with significantly better alertness and reduced state anxiety, stress and salivary cortisol. Overall performance on the framework was also significantly better in the chewing condition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown but may involve improved cerebral blood flow and/or effects secondary to performance improvement during gum chewing. Article Published Date : Jun 22, 2009

Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

Abstract Title: Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test. Abstract Source: Nutr Neurosci. 2009 Apr;12(2):81-8. PMID: 19356310 Abstract Author(s): Andrew Smith Abstract: RATIONALE: Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. OBJECTIVES: This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). RESULTS: There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that chewing gum increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these situations. Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2009

Gum chewing reduces ileus after elective open sigmoid colectomy. 📎

Abstract Title: Gum chewing reduces ileus after elective open sigmoid colectomy. Abstract Source: Arch Surg. 2006 Feb;141(2):174-6. PMID: 16490895 Abstract Author(s): Rob Schuster, Nina Grewal, Gregory C Greaney, Kenneth Waxman Abstract: HYPOTHESIS: Gum chewing after elective open colon resection may stimulate bowel motility and decrease duration of postoperative ileus. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized study in a community-based teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-four patients undergoing elective open sigmoid resections for recurrent diverticulitis or cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First feelings of hunger, time to first flatus, time to first bowel movement, length of hospital stay, and complications. RESULTS: A total of 34 patients were randomized into 2 groups: a gum-chewing group (n = 17) or a control group (n = 17). The patients in the gum-chewing group chewed sugarless gum 3 times daily for 1 hour each time until discharge. Patient demographics, intraoperative, and postoperative care were equivalent between the 2 groups. All gum-chewing patients tolerated the gum. The first passage of flatus occurred on postoperative hour 65.4 in the gum-chewing group and on hour 80.2 in the control group (P = .05). The first bowel movement occurred on postoperative hour 63.2 in the gum-chewing group and on hour 89.4 in the control group (P = .04). The first feelings of hunger were felt on postoperative hour 63.5 in the gum-chewing group and on hour 72.8 in the control group (P = .27). There were no major complications in either group. The total length of hospital stay was shorter in the gum-chewing group (day 4.3) than in the control group (day 6.8), (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Gum chewing speeds recovery after elective open sigmoid resection by stimulating bowel motility. Gum chewing is an inexpensive and helpful adjunct to postoperative care after colectomy. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2006

Maintaining mutans streptococci suppression with xylitol chewing gum.

Abstract Title: Maintaining mutans streptococci suppression with xylitol chewing gum. Abstract Source: Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):938-41. PMID: 10916329 Abstract Author(s): G H Hildebrandt, B S Sparks Article Affiliation: School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455-0348, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND: One strategy for treating dental caries is to suppress oral mutans streptococci, or MS, with chlorhexidine, or CHX, mouthrinse. Oral MS levels, however, tend to quickly return to baseline values without further intervention. In this clinical study, the authors evaluated the effect of xylitol chewing gum on MS regrowth. METHODS: The authors selected 151 subjects with elevated oral MS levels (>or = 105 colony-forming units per milliliter, or CFU/mL, of paraffin-stimulated saliva). Subjects rinsed with 0.12 percent CHX gluconate mouthrinse twice daily for 14 days. The authors then randomly assigned the subjects to one of three groups. Those in the test group (n = 51) chewed a commercial xylitol gum three times daily for a minimum of five minutes each time for three months. The placebo group subjects (n = 50) used a commercial sorbitol gum, and the control group subjects (n = 50) did not chew gum. The authors estimated MS load on the dentition using paraffin-stimulated saliva samples. The authors serially diluted the samples, plated them on selective media and incubated them anaerobically; they then enumerated the colonies under a stereomicroscope. RESULTS: MS levels were not significantly different between the three groups at baseline (mean log CFU/mL +/- standard deviation: 5.4 +/- 0.7, 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.2 +/- 0.7, respectively) nor after CHX therapy (2.7 +/- 0.8, 3.1 +/- 1.1, 3.0 +/- 1.1, respectively). After three months of gum chewing, the test group subjects had significantly lower salivary MS levels (3.6 +/- 1.2) than did the placebo (4.7 +/- 1.2) or control (4.4 +/- 1.3) group subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Xylitol chewing gum appears to have the ability to prolong the effect of CHX therapy on oral MS. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Maintaining long-term caries-pathogen suppression is feasible with currently available commercial products and can be expected to result in significant caries inhibition. Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2003

Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory.

Abstract Title: Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Abstract Source: Carcinogenesis. 1998 Aug;19(8):1357-60. PMID: 15458807 Abstract Author(s): Jess R Baker, Jessica B Bezance, Ella Zellaby, John P Aggleton Abstract: Two experiments examined whether chewing spearmint gum can affect the initial learning or subsequent recall of a word list. Comparing those participants in Experiment 1 who chewed gum at the learning or the recall phases showed that chewing gum at initial learning was associated with superior recall. In addition, chewing gum led to context-dependent effects as a switch between gum and no gum (or no gum and gum) between learning and recall led to poorer performance. Experiment 2 provided evidence that sucking gum was sufficient to induce some of the same effects as chewing. Article Published Date : Aug 01, 1998
Therapeutic Actions Gum Chewing

NCBI pubmed

Guidelines for Antenatal and Pre-operative care in Cesarean Delivery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) Society Recommendations (Part 1).

Related Articles Guidelines for Antenatal and Pre-operative care in Cesarean Delivery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) Society Recommendations (Part 1). Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep 18;: Authors: Wilson RD, Caughey AB, Wood SL, Macones GA, Wrench IJ, Huang J, Norman M, Pettersson K, Fawcett WJ, Shalabi MM, Metcalfe A, Gramlich L, Nelson G Abstract OBJECTIVE: This ERAS Guideline for perioperative care in Cesarean Delivery (CD) will provide best practice, evidenced-based, recommendations for pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative phases with primarily, a maternal focus. The 'focused' pathway process for scheduled and unscheduled CD, for this ERAS CD guideline will consider, from 'decision to operate (starting with the 30 - 60 minutes prior to skin incision) to hospital discharge'. METHODS: The literature search (1966-2017) used Embase and PubMed to search medical subject headings including "Cesarean Section", "Cesarean Section", "Cesarean Section Delivery" and all pre- and intra-operative ERAS® items. Study selection allowed titles and abstracts to be screened by individual reviewers to identify potentially relevant articles. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled studies, nonrandomized controlled studies, reviews, and case series were considered for each individual topic. Quality assessment and data analyses evaluated the quality of evidence and recommendations were evaluated according to the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) as used and described in previous ERAS® Guidelines. RESULTS: The ERAS Cesarean Delivery guideline / pathway has created a maternal FOCUSED Pathway (for scheduled and unscheduled surgery starting from 30-60 minutes prior to skin incision to maternal discharge) with ERAS CD consensus recommendations pre-operative elements (anesthetic medications, fasting, carbohydrate supplementation, prophylactic antibiotics /skin preparation, ); intra-operative elements (anesthetic management, maternal hypothermia prevention, surgical technique (hysterotomy creation and closure, management of peritoneum, subcutaneous space, and skin closure), peri-operative fluid management) and post-operative elements (chewing gum, management of nausea and vomiting, analgesia, timing of food intake, glucose management, antithrombotic prophylaxis, timing of ambulation, urinary management, timing of maternal and neonate discharge). Limited topics for optimized care are discussed for antenatal education and counselling and the immediate neonatal needs at delivery. Strong recommendations for element use were given for pre-operative (antenatal education and counselling, use of antacids and histamine H2 receptor antagonists, 2 hour fasting and small meal within 6 hours surgery ; antimicrobial prophylaxis and skin preparation / chlorhexidine-alcohol); intra-operative (regional anesthesia, prevention of maternal hypothermia (forced warm air, warmed IV fluids, room temperature), peri-operative fluid management for euvolemia, neonatal immediate care needs including delayed cord clamping), and post-operative (fluid management to prevent nausea and vomiting, antiemetic use, analgesia with NSAIDs/ Paracetamol, regular diet within 2 hours, tight capillary glucose control, pneumatic compression stocking for VTE prophylaxis, immediate removal of urinary catheter). Recommendations against the element use was made for pre-operative (maternal sedation, bowel preparation), intra-operative (neonatal oral suctioning or increased inspired oxygen), and post-operative (heparin should not be used routinely VTE prophylaxis). CONCLUSION: As these ERAS Cesarean Delivery pathway recommendations (elements / processes) are studied, implemented, audited, evaluated, and optimized by the maternity care teams, this will create an opportunity for the focused and optimized areas of care research with further enhanced care and recommendation. PMID: 30240657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Characterization of Oral Tactile Sensitivity and Masticatory Performance Across Adulthood.

Related Articles Characterization of Oral Tactile Sensitivity and Masticatory Performance Across Adulthood. J Texture Stud. 2018 Sep 20;: Authors: Shupe GE, Resmondo ZN, Luckett CR Abstract Texture perception is one of the most important factors in food acceptance, yet population-wide differences in texture sensations are not well understood. The variation in texture perception across populations is thought to depend on oral tactile sensitivity and masticatory performance. To address this hypothesis, we aimed to measure tactile acuity with a battery of tests and quantitate the relationship to masticatory performance. The study was performed on 98 participants, in 3 age groups (20-25, 35-45, or over 62). Two main measures of oral sensitivity were performed: to assess bite force, subjects were asked to discriminate between foam samples of varying hardness. Secondly, to assess lingual sensitivity the subjects were asked to identify 3D printed shapes using their tongue, as well as identify confectionary letters. Additionally, masticatory performance was measured through assessing each participants ability to mix two-colored chewing gum. In general, we found that sensitivity and masticatory performance in the younger age groups was superior to that of older adults. We also found a positive linear trend between bite force sensitivity and masticatory performance with younger participants, a trend not found in older participants. We found no significant relationship between age groups for bite force sensitivity and masticatory performance, suggesting that age-related declines in bite force sensitivity are not a significant cause of altered masticatory performance. This study represents a valuable first step in showing that bite force sensitivity does not depend on age, and the minimal influence of factors such as oral sensitivity on masticatory performance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30238470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]