Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Gum Chewing

Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci.

Abstract Title: Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci. Abstract Source: J Dent Res. 2010 Jan;89(1):56-60. PMID: 19948944 Abstract Author(s): Y Nakai, C Shinga-Ishihara, M Kaji, K Moriya, K Murakami-Yamanaka, M Takimura Article Affiliation: Department of Behavioral Pediatric Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-8525, Japan. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: An important caries prevention strategy for children includes measures to interfere with transmission of mutans streptococci (MS). This study confirmed the effectiveness of maternal early exposure to xylitol chewing gum on mother-child transmission of MS. After screening, 107 pregnant women with high salivary MS were randomized into two groups: xylitol gum (Xylitol; n = 56) and no gum (Control; n = 51) groups. Maternal chewing started at the sixth month of pregnancy and terminated 13 months later in the Xylitol group. Outcome measures were the presence of MS in saliva or plaque of the children until age 24 months. The Xylitol-group children were significantly less likely to show MS colonization than Control-group children aged 9-24 months. The Control-group children acquired MS 8.8 months earlier than those in the Xylitol group, suggesting that maternal xylitol gum chewing in Japan shows beneficial effects similar to those demonstrated in Nordic countries. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010

Gum chewing stimulates early return of bowel motility after caesarean section. 📎

Abstract Title: Gum chewing stimulates early return of bowel motility after caesarean section. Abstract Source: BJOG. 2009 Sep;116(10):1334-9. Epub 2009 Jun 12. PMID: 19523094 Abstract Author(s): K H I Abd-El-Maeboud, M I Ibrahim, D A A Shalaby, M F Fikry Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of postoperative gum chewing on the recovery of bowel motility after caesarean section. DESIGN: A randomised controlled study. SETTING: Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt. POPULATION: A total of 200 pregnant women delivered by elective caesarean section (CS) under general anaesthesia. METHODS: Women were randomised into two groups; group A (93 women) who received one stick of sugarless gum for 15 minutes every 2 hours after surgery, and group B (107 women) had traditional management (oral intake of clear fluids allowed after passage of flatus and regular diet with the passage of bowel movement). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds, time to first flatus, time to first bowel movement and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: The mean duration of surgery was longer in group A (41.3 +/- 7.5 versus 38.4 +/- 8.1 minutes, P < 0.05). The mean postoperative time interval to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds (10.9 +/- 2.7 versus 15.6 +/- 3.7 hours), passage of flatus (17.9 +/- 4.6 versus 24.4 +/- 7.1 hours), defecation (21.1 +/- 4.7 versus 30 +/- 8.2 hours) and discharge from the hospital (40.8 +/- 10.6 versus 50.5 +/- 8.9 hours) were significantly shorter in group A (P < 0.001). Severe ileus occurred only in one woman belonging to group B. All patients in group A tolerated gum chewing beginning on the first postoperative day. CONCLUSION: Gum chewing after CS is safe, well tolerated, and associated with rapid resumption of intestinal motility and shorter hospital stay; with potential impact on reducing the overall healthcare costs in case of routine implementation. Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2009

Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress.

Abstract Title: Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress. Abstract Source: Physiol Behav. 2009 Jun 22;97(3-4):304-12. Epub 2009 Mar 5. PMID: 19268676 Abstract Author(s): Andrew Scholey, Crystal Haskell, Bernadette Robertson, David Kennedy, Anthea Milne, Mark Wetherell Abstract: The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory. Using a randomised crossover design forty participants (mean age 21.98 years) performed on the multi-tasking framework at two intensities (on separate days) both while chewing and not chewing. Order of workload intensity and chewing conditions were counterbalanced. Before and after undergoing the platform participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Bond-Lader visual analogue mood scales, a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale and provided saliva samples for cortisol measurement. Baseline measures showed that both levels of the multi-tasking framework were effective in significantly reducing self-rated alertness, calmness and contentment while increasing self-rated stress and state anxiety. Cortisol levels fell during both levels of the stressor during the morning, reflecting the predominance of a.m. diurnal changes, but this effect was reversed in the afternoon which may reflect a measurable stress response. Pre-post stressor changes (Delta) for each measure at baseline were subtracted from Delta scores under chewing and no chewing conditions. During both levels of stress the chewing gum condition was associated with significantly better alertness and reduced state anxiety, stress and salivary cortisol. Overall performance on the framework was also significantly better in the chewing condition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown but may involve improved cerebral blood flow and/or effects secondary to performance improvement during gum chewing. Article Published Date : Jun 22, 2009

Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

Abstract Title: Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test. Abstract Source: Nutr Neurosci. 2009 Apr;12(2):81-8. PMID: 19356310 Abstract Author(s): Andrew Smith Abstract: RATIONALE: Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. OBJECTIVES: This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). RESULTS: There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that chewing gum increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these situations. Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2009

Gum chewing reduces ileus after elective open sigmoid colectomy. 📎

Abstract Title: Gum chewing reduces ileus after elective open sigmoid colectomy. Abstract Source: Arch Surg. 2006 Feb;141(2):174-6. PMID: 16490895 Abstract Author(s): Rob Schuster, Nina Grewal, Gregory C Greaney, Kenneth Waxman Abstract: HYPOTHESIS: Gum chewing after elective open colon resection may stimulate bowel motility and decrease duration of postoperative ileus. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized study in a community-based teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-four patients undergoing elective open sigmoid resections for recurrent diverticulitis or cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First feelings of hunger, time to first flatus, time to first bowel movement, length of hospital stay, and complications. RESULTS: A total of 34 patients were randomized into 2 groups: a gum-chewing group (n = 17) or a control group (n = 17). The patients in the gum-chewing group chewed sugarless gum 3 times daily for 1 hour each time until discharge. Patient demographics, intraoperative, and postoperative care were equivalent between the 2 groups. All gum-chewing patients tolerated the gum. The first passage of flatus occurred on postoperative hour 65.4 in the gum-chewing group and on hour 80.2 in the control group (P = .05). The first bowel movement occurred on postoperative hour 63.2 in the gum-chewing group and on hour 89.4 in the control group (P = .04). The first feelings of hunger were felt on postoperative hour 63.5 in the gum-chewing group and on hour 72.8 in the control group (P = .27). There were no major complications in either group. The total length of hospital stay was shorter in the gum-chewing group (day 4.3) than in the control group (day 6.8), (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Gum chewing speeds recovery after elective open sigmoid resection by stimulating bowel motility. Gum chewing is an inexpensive and helpful adjunct to postoperative care after colectomy. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2006

Maintaining mutans streptococci suppression with xylitol chewing gum.

Abstract Title: Maintaining mutans streptococci suppression with xylitol chewing gum. Abstract Source: Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):938-41. PMID: 10916329 Abstract Author(s): G H Hildebrandt, B S Sparks Article Affiliation: School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455-0348, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND: One strategy for treating dental caries is to suppress oral mutans streptococci, or MS, with chlorhexidine, or CHX, mouthrinse. Oral MS levels, however, tend to quickly return to baseline values without further intervention. In this clinical study, the authors evaluated the effect of xylitol chewing gum on MS regrowth. METHODS: The authors selected 151 subjects with elevated oral MS levels (>or = 105 colony-forming units per milliliter, or CFU/mL, of paraffin-stimulated saliva). Subjects rinsed with 0.12 percent CHX gluconate mouthrinse twice daily for 14 days. The authors then randomly assigned the subjects to one of three groups. Those in the test group (n = 51) chewed a commercial xylitol gum three times daily for a minimum of five minutes each time for three months. The placebo group subjects (n = 50) used a commercial sorbitol gum, and the control group subjects (n = 50) did not chew gum. The authors estimated MS load on the dentition using paraffin-stimulated saliva samples. The authors serially diluted the samples, plated them on selective media and incubated them anaerobically; they then enumerated the colonies under a stereomicroscope. RESULTS: MS levels were not significantly different between the three groups at baseline (mean log CFU/mL +/- standard deviation: 5.4 +/- 0.7, 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.2 +/- 0.7, respectively) nor after CHX therapy (2.7 +/- 0.8, 3.1 +/- 1.1, 3.0 +/- 1.1, respectively). After three months of gum chewing, the test group subjects had significantly lower salivary MS levels (3.6 +/- 1.2) than did the placebo (4.7 +/- 1.2) or control (4.4 +/- 1.3) group subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Xylitol chewing gum appears to have the ability to prolong the effect of CHX therapy on oral MS. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Maintaining long-term caries-pathogen suppression is feasible with currently available commercial products and can be expected to result in significant caries inhibition. Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2003

Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory.

Abstract Title: Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Abstract Source: Carcinogenesis. 1998 Aug;19(8):1357-60. PMID: 15458807 Abstract Author(s): Jess R Baker, Jessica B Bezance, Ella Zellaby, John P Aggleton Abstract: Two experiments examined whether chewing spearmint gum can affect the initial learning or subsequent recall of a word list. Comparing those participants in Experiment 1 who chewed gum at the learning or the recall phases showed that chewing gum at initial learning was associated with superior recall. In addition, chewing gum led to context-dependent effects as a switch between gum and no gum (or no gum and gum) between learning and recall led to poorer performance. Experiment 2 provided evidence that sucking gum was sufficient to induce some of the same effects as chewing. Article Published Date : Aug 01, 1998
Therapeutic Actions Gum Chewing

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Effects of xylitol-containing chewing gum on the oral microbiota.

Related Articles Effects of xylitol-containing chewing gum on the oral microbiota. J Oral Sci. 2018 Nov 15;: Authors: Takeuchi K, Asakawa M, Hashiba T, Takeshita T, Saeki Y, Yamashita Y Abstract In this interventional study, a randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the short-term effects of xylitol-containing chewing gum on the salivary microbiota. In total, 70 healthy adult men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force participated in the study during a 2-day training at Yamaguchi camp, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The men were randomly divided into two groups: one group chewed two pieces of xylitol-containing chewing gum 7 times/day for 2 days (n = 34) and the other did not (n = 36). Baseline and follow-up stimulated saliva samples were collected and the salivary microbial composition was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing analysis. The total salivary bacterial count was quantified using a quantitative real-time PCR system. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups regarding any parameter analyzed in the baseline samples; however, the follow-up samples of the test group showed significantly lower total salivary bacterial count than those of the control group. Conversely, no significant difference was observed in the overall composition of the salivary microbiota between the baseline and follow-up samples of the two groups. These results indicate that xylitol-containing chewing gum inhibits the increase in total salivary bacteria over a short time during which the salivary microbial composition is not affected. PMID: 30429438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]