Vascular Nitric Oxide-Superoxide Balance and Thrombus Formation after Acute Exercise.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018 Feb 21;:
Authors: Przyborowski K, Proniewski B, Czarny J, Smeda M, Sitek B, Zakrzewska A, Zoladz JA, Chlopicki S
INTRODUCTION: An acute bout of strenuous exercise in humans results in transient impairment of NO-dependent function, but it remains unknown whether this phenomenon is associated with increased risk of post-exercise thrombotic events. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a single bout of exhaustive running in mice on the balance of vascular nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and on thrombogenicity.
METHODS: At different time-points (0h, 2h and 4h) after exercise and in sedentary C57BL/6 mice the production of NO and superoxide (O2) in aorta was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping and by dihydroethidium (DHE)/HPLC-based method, respectively, while collagen-induced thrombus formation was analyzed in a microchip-based flow-chamber system (T-TAS). We also measured pre- and post-exercise plasma concentration of nitrite/nitrate and 6-keto-PGF1α.
RESULTS: An acute bout of exhaustive running in mice resulted in decreased production of NO and increased production of O2 in aorta, with maximum changes 2h after completion of exercise when compared to sedentary mice. However, platelet thrombus formation was not changed by exercise as evidenced by unaltered time to start of thrombus formation (T10) and capillary occlusion (OT), and total thrombogenicity (AUC) as measured in a flow-chamber system. Strenuous exercise increased the plasma concentration of nitrite but did not affect nitrate and 6-keto-PGF1α concentrations.
CONCLUSION: An acute bout of strenuous exercise in mice reduced NO and in parallel increased O2 production in aorta. This response was most pronounced 2h after exercise. Surprisingly, the reduced NO and increased O2 production did not result in increased post-exercise platelet-dependent thrombogenicity. These results show that transient reduction in NO bioavailability, caused by exercise-induced oxidative stress, does not modify post-exercise thromboresistance in healthy mice.
PMID: 29470281 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
An attempt to induce an immunomodulatory effect in rowers with spirulina extract.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15:9
Authors: Juszkiewicz A, Basta P, Petriczko E, Machaliński B, Trzeciak J, Łuczkowska K, Skarpańska-Stejnborn A
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the response of selected components of the immune system in rowers to maximal physical exercise, and to verify if this response can be modulated by supplementation with spirulina (cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis).
Method: The double-blind study included 19 members of the Polish Rowing Team. The subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 10), receiving 1500 mg of spirulina extract for 6 weeks, or to the placebo group (n = 9). The participants performed a 2000-m test on a rowing ergometer at the beginning (1st examination) and at the end of the supplementation period (2nd examination). Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein prior to each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-h recovery period. Subpopulations of T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) [CD4+/CD25+/CD127-], cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) [CD8+/TCRαβ+], natural killer (NK) cells [CD3-/CD16+/CD56+] and TCRδγ-positive (Tδγ) cells were determined by means of flow cytometry.
Results: On the 2nd examination, athletes from the supplemented group showed neither a post-exercise increase in Treg count nor a post-recovery decrease in Tδγ cell count (both observed in the placebo group), and presented with significantly lower values of Treg/CTL prior to and after the exercise. During the same examination, rowers from the placebo group showed a significant post-recovery increase in Treg/(NK + Tδγ + CTL) ratio, which was absent in the supplemented group.
Conclusion: The results of this study imply that supplementation with spirulina extract may protect athletes against a deficit in immune function (especially, anti-infectious function) associated with strenuous exercise, and may cause a beneficial shift in "overtraining threshold" preventing a radical deterioration of immunity.
PMID: 29467598 [PubMed - in process]
Strenuous running exacerbates knee cartilage erosion induced by low amount of mono-iodoacetate in rats.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017 Jan 25;18(1):36
Authors: Saito R, Muneta T, Ozeki N, Nakagawa Y, Udo M, Yanagisawa K, Tsuji K, Tomita M, Koga H, Sekiya I
BACKGROUND: It is still debated whether strenuous running in the inflammatory phase produces beneficial or harmful effect in rat knees. We examined (1) the dropout rate of rats during a 30-km running protocol, (2) influences of strenuous running and/or low amounts of mono-iodoacetate injection on cartilage, and (3) the effect of strenuous running on synovitis.
METHODS: Rats were forced to run 30 km over 6 weeks and the dropout rate was examined. One week after 0.1 mg mono-iodoacetate was injected into the right knee, rats were forced to run either 15 km or not run at all over 3 weeks, after which knee cartilage was evaluated. Synovium at the infrapatellar fat pad was also examined histologically.
RESULTS: Even though all 12 rats run up to 15 km, only 6 rats completed 30 km of running. Macroscopically, 0.1 mg mono-iodoacetate induced erosion at the tibial cartilage irrespective of 15 km of running. Histologically, 0.1 mg mono-iodoacetate induced loss of cartilage matrix in the tibial cartilage, and an additional 15 km of strenuous running significantly exacerbated the loss. Synovitis caused by mono-iodoacetate improved after running.
CONCLUSIONS: Only 50% of rats completed 30 km of running because of foot problems. Strenuous running further exacerbated tibial cartilage erosion but did not influence synovitis induced by mono-iodoacetate.
PMID: 28122526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]