Attenuation of acute and chronic liver injury in rats by iron-deficient diet.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008 Feb;294(2):R311-20. Epub 2007 Nov 21. PMID: 18032466
Kohji Otogawa, Tomohiro Ogawa, Ryoko Shiga, Kazuki Nakatani, Kazuo Ikeda, Yuji Nakajima, Norifumi Kawada
Oxidative stress due to iron deposition in hepatocytes or Kupffer cells contributes to the initiation and perpetuation of liver injury. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between dietary iron and liver injuries in rats. Liver injury was initiated by the administration of thioacetamide or ligation of the common bile duct in rats fed a control diet (CD) or iron-deficient diet (ID). In the acute liver injury model induced by thioacetamide, serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hepatic levels of lipid peroxide and 4-hydroxynonenal, were significantly decreased in the ID group. The expression of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling positivity showed a similar tendency. The expression of interleukin-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA was suppressed in the ID group. In liver fibrosis induced by an 8-wk thioacetamide administration, ID suppressed collagen deposition and smooth muscle alpha-actin expression. The expressions of collagen 1A2, transforming growth factor beta, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta mRNA were all significantly decreased in the ID group. Liver fibrosis was additionally suppressed in the bile-duct ligation model by ID. In culture experiments, deferoxamine attenuated the activation process of rat hepatic stellate cells, a dominant producer of collagen in the liver. In conclusion, reduced dietary iron is considered to be beneficial in improving acute and chronic liver injuries by reducing oxidative stress. The results obtained in this study support the clinical usefulness of an iron-reduced diet for the improvement of liver disorders induced by chronic hepatitis C and alcoholic/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2008
Dietary diversity and poverty as risk factors for leprosy in Indonesia: A case-control study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Mar 13;12(3):e0006317
Authors: Oktaria S, Hurif NS, Naim W, Thio HB, Nijsten TEC, Richardus JH
BACKGROUND: Poverty has long been considered a risk factor for leprosy and is related to nutritional deficiencies. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between poverty-related diet and nutrition with leprosy.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In rural leprosy-endemic areas in Indonesia, we conducted a household-based case-control study using two controls for each case patient (100 recently diagnosed leprosy patients and 200 controls), matched for age and gender. All participants were interviewed to collect information on their demographics, socioeconomic situation, health, and diet. Body mass index, dietary diversity score, as well as anemia and iron micronutrient profiles were also obtained. By means of univariate, block-wise multivariate, and integrated logistic regression analyses, we calculated odds ratios between the variables and the occurrence of leprosy. Unstable income (odds ratio [OR], 5.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54-12.64; p = 0.000), anemia (OR, 4.01; 95% CI, 2.10-7.64; p = 0.000), and higher household food insecurity (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.21; p = 0.000) are significantly associated with an increased risk of having leprosy. Meanwhile, higher education (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.77; p = 0.009) and land ownership (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.86; p = 0.019) have significant protective associations against leprosy. Although lower dietary diversity, lack of food stock, food shortage, low serum iron, and high ferritin were found more commonly in those with leprosy, the occurrence of leprosy was not significantly associated with iron deficiency (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.10-11.37; p = 0.963).
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Food poverty is an important risk factor for leprosy susceptibility, yet the mechanisms underlying this association other than nutrient deficiencies still need to be identified. With a stable incidence rate of leprosy despite the implementation of chemoprophylaxis and multidrug therapy, improving dietary diversity through food-based approaches should be initiated and directed toward high-prevalence villages. The possible underlying factors that link poverty to leprosy other than nutrient deficiencies also need to be identified.
PMID: 29534113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]