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Nanoparticles and Methylene Blue for Enhancement Photodynamic Therapy.

Nanoparticles and Methylene Blue for Enhancement Photodynamic Therapy. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2018 Jun 18;: Authors: Jesus VPS, Raniero L, Lemes GM, Bhattacharjee TT, Caetano Júnior PC, Castilho ML Abstract Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death related to cancer among women worldwide. Screening and advancements in treatments have improved survival rate of women suffering from this ailment. Novel therapeutic techniques may further reduce cancer related mortality. One of the several emerging therapeutic options is Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) that uses light activated photosensitizer (PS) inducing cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Nanotechnology has made contribution to improve photosensitizer for PDT, increasing the efficiency of therapy using gold and silver nanoparticles. Efforts have been done to develop better mechanism to improve PS and consequently PDT effects. In this study, we investigate the efficacy of the PDT using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) when mixed to methylene blue (MB) in the treatment of the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468). The MDA-MB-468 was treated in the presence of different MB concentrations with/without AuNPs or AgNPs. The colloidal solution of AgNPs showed a plasmon resonance band at 411 nm in UV-visible range and a bimodal size distribution. The results of viability analysis showed that cells treated with nanoparticles exhibited higher cytotoxicity than cells treated with only MB, improving the efficiency of the treatment in the tumor cells. The cytotoxicity effect of MB associated with AgNPs on MDA-MB-468 cell line could be related to increased reactive oxygen species production due to the release of Ag+ ions from nanoparticles surface, suggesting that the association between FS and AgNPs has potential as a PDT agent. PMID: 29928992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Recent advances in nanoparticle carriers for photodynamic therapy.

Recent advances in nanoparticle carriers for photodynamic therapy. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2018 May;8(4):433-443 Authors: Yi G, Hong SH, Son J, Yoo J, Park C, Choi Y, Koo H Abstract This review summarizes recent advances in the development of nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT), particularly the development and application of various NPs based on organic and inorganic materials. PubMed database was used for literature search with the terms including NP, nanomedicine, PDT, photosensitizer (PSs), and drug delivery. For successful PDT, it is essential to deliver PSs to target disease sites. A number of NPs have been developed and tested as the carriers for both imaging and therapy, an approach termed "nanomedicine". Many studies of NP carriers showed increased water solubility and stability of PSs for in vivo injection, and these NP carriers provided benefits including longer circulation in blood and higher accumulation of PSs at disease sites. This review describes new techniques in PDT such as aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and luminescence-based PDT, and provides insights on NPs and PDT for biomedical researchers working to develop or apply NPs in efficient PDT. PMID: 29928608 [PubMed]

Treatment of acquired reactive perforating dermatosis - a systematic review.

Treatment of acquired reactive perforating dermatosis - a systematic review. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2018 Jun 21;: Authors: Lukács J, Schliemann S, Elsner P Abstract Reactive perforating dermatosis is a rare chronic skin disease defined by the transepidermal elimination of collagen and/or elastin. In the acquired form in adults, it is frequently associated with diseases such as diabetes and chronic renal failure. No systematic reviews of treatment options are available for this disease. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize all reported treatment options for acquired reactive perforating dermatosis (ARPD). This is a systematic review based on a MEDLINE search of articles in English and German from 1990 to 2016. Most medical literature on the treatment of ARPD is limited to individual case reports and small series of patients. Various therapies that have been tried include antihistamines, topical keratolytics, corticosteroids, tretinoin, oral drugs such as allopurinol or antibiotics, and phototherapy or photochemotherapy. While there are no specific criteria for the evidence-based selection of treatment options for ARPD, the first priority in management of these conditions should be treatment of an underlying disease if present. None of the described modalities has been approved for first-line therapy. It is recommended to choose a combination of drugs that reduce itching and assist in the resolution of the skin lesions at the same time. PMID: 29927512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Enhancing the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) via water-soluble pillar[5]arene-based supramolecular complexes.

Enhancing the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) via water-soluble pillar[5]arene-based supramolecular complexes. Chem Commun (Camb). 2018 Jun 21;: Authors: Wu J, Tian J, Rui L, Zhang W Abstract A supramolecular nanovesicle was constructed by complexation between pyrophaeophorbide A (PPhA) and water-soluble pillar[5]arene, and then a biotin-pyridinium targeting agent was introduced to its surface. This nanovesicle exhibited reduced aggregation of PPhA photosensitizers and high targeting ability towards cancer cells, thereby leading to excellent therapeutic efficacy under red light. PMID: 29927446 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Phthalocyanine-Assembled Nanodots as Photosensitizers for Highly Efficient Type I Photoreactions in PDT.

Phthalocyanine-Assembled Nanodots as Photosensitizers for Highly Efficient Type I Photoreactions in PDT. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2018 Jun 21;: Authors: Li X, Lee D, Huang JD, Yoon J Abstract Owing to their unique, nanoscale related optical properties, nanostructures assembled from molecular photosensitizers (PSs) have interesting applications in phototheranostics. However, most nanostructured PS assemblies are super-quenched, thus, preventing their use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although some of these materials undergo stimuli-responsive disassembly, which leads to partial recovery of PDT activity, their therapeutic potentials are unsatisfactory owing to a limited ability to promote generation reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially via type I photoreactions (i.e., not by 1O2 generation). The current investigation demonstrated that a new, nanostructured phthalocyanine assembly, NanoPcA, inherently possesses the ability to promote highly efficient ROS generation via the type I mechanism. The results of antibactrial studies demonstrate that NanoPcA has potentially promising PDT applications. Finally, it is anticipated that the observations made in this effort will serve as the foundation for new strategies for the design of more effective PSs in PDT. PMID: 29927036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Simply Modified Lymphocyte for Systematic Cancer Therapy.

A Simply Modified Lymphocyte for Systematic Cancer Therapy. Adv Mater. 2018 Jun 21;:e1801622 Authors: Zheng DW, Fan JX, Liu XH, Dong X, Pan P, Xu L, Zhang XZ Abstract Cytotherapy has received considerable attention in the field of cancer therapy, and various chemical or genetic methods have been applied to remold natural cells for improved therapeutic outcome of cytotherapy. A simple method to modify lymphocytes for cancer treatment by using a clinically used molecule, δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA), is reported here. After incubation with this molecule, tumor-targeted lymphocytes spontaneously synthesize anti-neoplastic drug protoporphyrin X (PpIX), and specifically accumulate in cancer tissue. Under periodic 630 nm laser irradiation, lymphocytes generate vesicle-like apoptotic body (Ab) containing the above-produced PpIX, and the facilitated delivery of PpIX from Ab makes an excellent therapeutic effect for Ras-mutated cancer cells under a second irradiation. Importantly, a microfluidic device is further fabricated to simplify cell sorting and drug synthesis with a one-step operation, which could promote generalization of this strategy. In vitro and in vivo studies confirm the success of such an easy-operated and global-regulated strategy for cancer therapy. PMID: 29926990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

New Innovations in the Treatment of PJI and Biofilms-Clinical and Preclinical Topics.

Related Articles New Innovations in the Treatment of PJI and Biofilms-Clinical and Preclinical Topics. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2018 Jun 20;: Authors: Taha M, Abdelbary H, Ross FP, Carli AV Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication after total joint replacement. A main source for antibiotic tolerance and treatment failure is bacterial production of biofilm-a resilient barrier against antibiotics, immune system, and mechanical debridement. The purpose of this review is to explore some novel approaches to treat PJI and biofilm-related infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Innovative treatment strategies of bacterial and biofilm infections revolve around (a) augmenting current therapies, such as improving the delivery and efficiency of conventional antibiotics and enhancing the efficacy of antiseptics and (b) administrating completely new therapeutic modalities, such as using immunotherapy, nanoparticles, lytic bacteriophages, photodynamic therapy, novel antibiotics, and antimicrobial peptides. Several promising treatment strategies for PJI are available to be tested further. The next requirement for most of the novel treatments is reproducing their effects in clinically representative animal models of PJI against clinical isolates of relevant bacteria. PMID: 29926287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Comparison of the effects of photodynamic therapy, intravitreal ranibizumab and combination for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy under 1 + PRN regimen.

Related Articles Comparison of the effects of photodynamic therapy, intravitreal ranibizumab and combination for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy under 1 + PRN regimen. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018 Jun 20;18(1):144 Authors: Lai K, Li Y, Zhou L, Zhong X, Huang C, Xu F, Lu L, Ge J, Jin C Abstract BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is still under debate. Little knowledge is known about the treatment effect of "1+pro re nata(PRN)" treatment regimen for PCV. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of photodynamic therapy (PDT), intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVR) and combination therapy under the "1 + PRN" treatment regimen for PCV. METHODS: Fifty-seven eyes of 57 patients completed the 12 months' follow-up in this prospective study. The patients in the PDT arm(n = 23), ranibizumab arm(n = 18), or combination arm(n = 16) underwent a session of PDT, IVR or combination of both at baseline followed by additional IVR as needed. Mean change of logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA), central foveal thickness (CFT) and the regression rate of polyps were evaluated. Cost-benefit analysis was also performed. RESULTS: At Month 12, the mean logMAR VA improved from 0.90 ± 0.52 to 0.75 ± 0.57 in the PDT group (P < 0.05), from 0.96 ± 0.58 to 0.77 ± 0.41 in the IVR group (P < 0.05), and from 0.94 ± 0.55 to 0.72 ± 0.44 in the combination group (P < 0.05), respectively. The CFT decreased from 478.04 ± 156.70 μm, 527.5 ± 195.90 μm, and 522.63 ± 288.40 μm at the baseline to 366.43 ± 148.28 μm, 373.17 ± 134.88 μm and 328.44 ± 103.25 in the PDT group (P < 0.05), IVR group (P < 0.01), and the combination group (P < 0.05), respectively. However, no statistical difference was found between groups (P > 0.05). PDT treatment (60.87%) was superior to the IVR therapy (22.22%) in achieving complete regression of polyps (P < 0.05). Cost-benefit analysis showed that IVR treatment cost the least money for improving per 0.1logMAR units and the combination therapy demanded the least money for reducing per 100 μm of CFT. CONCLUSIONS: PDT, IVR and the combination therapy have similar efficacy in the VA improvement as well as the reduction of CFT under the "1 + PRN" treatment regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials NCT03459144 . Registered retrospectively on March 2, 2018. PMID: 29925341 [PubMed - in process]