Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Wild Harvesting

Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria). 📎

Abstract Title: Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria). Abstract Source: J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010 ;6:17. Epub 2010 Jun 21. PMID: 20565945 Abstract Author(s): Christoph Schunko, Christian R Vogl Article Affiliation: Working Group: Knowledge Systems and Innovations, Division of Organic Farming, Department for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Gregor-Mendel Strasse 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. METHODS: Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. RESULTS: Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons between regions and over time possible. The classification following gathering and use variables can be used to better understand how people classify the elements of their environment. The findings of this study add to discussions about food heritage, popularized by organizations like Slow Food, and bear significant potential for organic farmers. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
Therapeutic Actions Wild Harvesting

NCBI pubmed

Stepwise evolution of supercomplex formation with photosystem I is required for stabilization of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex: Lhca5-dependent supercomplex formation in Physcomitrella patens.

Related Articles Stepwise evolution of supercomplex formation with photosystem I is required for stabilization of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex: Lhca5-dependent supercomplex formation in Physcomitrella patens. Plant J. 2018 Sep 03;: Authors: Kato Y, Odahara M, Fukao Y, Shikanai T Abstract In angiosperms, such as Arabidopsis and barley, the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex associates with two copies of photosystem I (PSI) supercomplex to form an NDH-PSI supercomplex for the stabilization of the NDH complex. Two linker proteins, Lhca5 and Lhca6, are members of the light-harvesting complex I (LHCI) family and mediate this supercomplex formation. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has branched from the basal land plant lineage and has neither Lhca5 nor Lhca6. Consequently, NDH complex does not form a supercomplex with PSI in this plant. The Lhca6 gene does not seem to exist also in the moss Physcomitrella patens (Physcomitrella). On the other hand, the Lhca5 gene has been found in Physcomitrella, although experimental evidence is still lacking for its contribution to NDH-PSI supercomplex formation as a linker. Here, we biochemically characterized the Lhca5 knockout mutant (lhca5) in Physcomitrella. The NDH-PSI supercomplex observed in wild-type Physcomitrella was absent in the lhca5 mutant. Lhca5 protein was detected in this NDH-PSI supercomplex. Some PSI and NDH subunits were co-immunoprecipitated with Lhca5-HA. These results indicate that the Physcomitrella gene is the functional ortholog of Lhca5 reported in Arabidopsis. Between Physcomitrella and Arabidopsis, the stromal loop region is highly conserved in Lhca5 proteins but not in other LHCI members. We found that Lhca5 contributed to the stable accumulation of the NDH complex, but part of the NDH complex was still sensitive to high light, even in the wild type. We considered that angiosperms acquired another linker protein, Lhca6, to further stabilize the NDH complex. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 30176081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Diversity and conservation of Chinese wild begonias.

Related Articles Diversity and conservation of Chinese wild begonias. Plant Divers. 2018 Jun;40(3):75-90 Authors: Tian D, Xiao Y, Tong Y, Fu N, Liu Q, Li C Abstract Begonia, one of the most diverse plant taxa and the fifth or sixth largest angiosperm genus, consists of over 1800 accepted species. The number of species recognized within this genus has greatly increased over the past 20 years, rising from 80 to 200 species in China alone. Based on recent field surveys, the number of begonia species in China is predicted to be between 250 and 300. Given the large number of begonia species that still remain to be described, further taxonomical work is urgently required. This is especially true for Chinese Begonia, in which there is a huge diversity of habitat, habit, plant size, leaf type, flower and fruit morphology, and most species are narrowly distributed in isolated habitats that are subject to negative disturbances from climate change, as well as agricultural and industrial activities. Although the conservation status for the majority of species has been evaluated using the standards of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the results don't represent the truth in many species, and also about 11.5% of which are data-absent. In addition, illegal collection and over-harvesting of wild begonias for ornamental or medicinal use has increased due to the rapid development of internet commerce. Far more often than predicted, these species should be categorized as rare and endangered and require immediate protection. Ex situ conservation of Chinese begonias started in 1995 and over 60% of the total species have been so far introduced into cultivation by several major botanical gardens in China. However, only few research institutions, limited funds and human resources have been involved in Begonia conservation; moreover, no project has conducted reintroduction. Therefore, more conservation-based work remains to be done. Improved conservation of Chinese begonias in the future depends on further field survey, an improved understanding of population diversity, and integrative approaches, including in situ and ex situ conservation, seed banking, and plant reintroduction. Species-targeted conservation zones should be established for endangered species excluded from the existing nature reserves. Additionally, laws pertaining to plant protection should be extended to prevent the illegal collection and transaction of wild plants, particularly for those species with unique habitats and small populations. PMID: 30175289 [PubMed]