Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria).
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010 ;6:17. Epub 2010 Jun 21. PMID: 20565945
Christoph Schunko, Christian R Vogl
BACKGROUND: Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations.
METHODS: Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here.
RESULTS: Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam).
CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons between regions and over time possible. The classification following gathering and use variables can be used to better understand how people classify the elements of their environment. The findings of this study add to discussions about food heritage, popularized by organizations like Slow Food, and bear significant potential for organic farmers.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
The nucleoid-associated protein WHIRLY1 is required for the coordinate assembly of plastid and nucleus-encoded proteins during chloroplast development.
Planta. 2019 Jan 11;:
Authors: Krupinska K, Braun S, Nia MS, Schäfer A, Hensel G, Bilger W
MAIN CONCLUSION: Chloroplasts deficient in the major chloroplast nucleoid-associated protein WHIRLY1 have an enhanced ratio of LHCs to reaction centers, indicating that WHIRLY1 is required for a coordinate assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus during chloroplast development. Chloroplast development was found to be delayed in barley plants with an RNAi-mediated knockdown of WHIRLY1 encoding a major nucleoid-associated protein of chloroplasts. The plastids of WHIRLY1 deficient plants had a reduced ribosome content. Accordingly, plastid-encoded proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus showed delayed accumulation during chloroplast development coinciding with a delayed increase in photosystem II efficiency measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. In contrast, light harvesting complex proteins being encoded in the nucleus had a high abundance as in the wild type. The unbalanced assembly of the proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus in WHIRLY1-deficient plants coincided with the enhanced contents of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls. The lack of coordination was most obvious at the early stages of development. Overaccumulation of LHC proteins in comparison to reaction center proteins at the early stages of chloroplast development did not correlate with enhanced expression levels of the corresponding genes in the nucleus. This work revealed that WHIRLY1 does not influence LHC abundance at the transcriptional level. Rather, WHIRLY1 in association with nucleoids might play a structural role for both the assembly of ribosomes and the complexes of the photosynthetic apparatus.
PMID: 30631956 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]